[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors contribute to two crucial biological processes: apoptotic clearance and entry of many enveloped viruses. In both cases, they recognize PS exposed on the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is also a ligand for PS receptors and that this phospholipid mediates phagocytosis and viral entry. We show that a subset of PS receptors, including T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) mucin domain protein 1 (TIM1), efficiently bind PE. We further show that PE is present in the virions of flaviviruses and filoviruses, and that the PE-specific cyclic peptide lantibiotic agent Duramycin efficiently inhibits the entry of West Nile, dengue, and Ebola viruses. The inhibitory effect of Duramycin is specific: it inhibits TIM1-mediated, but not L-SIGN-mediated, virus infection, and it does so by blocking virus attachment to TIM1. We further demonstrate that PE is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, and promotes their phagocytic uptake by TIM1-expressing cells. Together, our data show that PE plays a key role in TIM1-mediated virus entry, suggest that disrupting PE association with PS receptors is a promising broad-spectrum antiviral strategy, and deepen our understanding of the process by which apoptotic cells are cleared.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the retina, rod and cone photoreceptors form distinct connections with different classes of downstream bipolar cells. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for their selective connectivity are unknown. Here we identify a cell-adhesion protein, ELFN1, to be essential for the formation of synapses between rods and rod ON-bipolar cells in the primary rod pathway. ELFN1 is expressed selectively in rods where it is targeted to the axonal terminals by the synaptic release machinery. At the synapse, ELFN1 binds in trans to mGluR6, the postsynaptic receptor on rod ON-bipolar cells. Elimination of ELFN1 in mice prevents the formation of synaptic contacts involving rods, but not cones, allowing a dissection of the contributions of primary and secondary rod pathways to retinal circuit function and vision. We conclude that ELFN1 is necessary for the selective wiring of rods into the primary rod pathway and is required for high sensitivity of vision.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an Ig-like V-type receptor expressed by populations of myeloid cells in the central nervous system and periphery. Loss-of-function mutations in TREM2 cause a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder called Nasu-Hakola disease. In addition, a TREM2 R47H coding variant was recently identified as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 binds various polyanionic molecules but no specific protein ligands have been identified. Here we show that TREM2 specifically binds apolipoprotein E, a well-established participant in AD. TREM2-Ig fusions efficiently precipitate ApoE from cerebrospinal fluid and serum. TREM2 also binds recombinant ApoE in solution and immobilized ApoE as detected by ELISA. Furthermore, the Alzheimer's disease-associated R47H mutation, and other artificial mutations introduced in the same location, markedly reduced the affinity of TREM2 for ApoE. These findings reveal a link between two AD risk factors and may provide important clues to the pathogenesis of Nasu-Hakola disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n=11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n=1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n_10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n=5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n=5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n=3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n=6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized>90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4_ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term in vivo expression of a broad and potent entry inhibitor could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine for HIV-1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can stably express HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). However, even the best bNAbs neutralize 10-50% of HIV-1 isolates inefficiently (80% inhibitory concentration (IC80) > 5 μg ml(-1)), suggesting that high concentrations of these antibodies would be necessary to achieve general protection. Here we show that eCD4-Ig, a fusion of CD4-Ig with a small CCR5-mimetic sulfopeptide, binds avidly and cooperatively to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and is more potent than the best bNAbs (geometric mean half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 0.05 μg ml(-1)). Because eCD4-Ig binds only conserved regions of Env, it is also much broader than any bNAb. For example, eCD4-Ig efficiently neutralized 100% of a diverse panel of neutralization-resistant HIV-1, HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates, including a comprehensive set of isolates resistant to the CD4-binding site bNAbs VRC01, NIH45-46 and 3BNC117. Rhesus macaques inoculated with an AAV vector stably expressed 17-77 μg ml(-1) of fully functional rhesus eCD4-Ig for more than 40 weeks, and these macaques were protected from several infectious challenges with SHIV-AD8. Rhesus eCD4-Ig was also markedly less immunogenic than rhesus forms of four well-characterized bNAbs. Our data suggest that AAV-delivered eCD4-Ig can function like an effective HIV-1 vaccine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal cells use a wide variety of mechanisms to slow or prevent replication of viruses. These mechanisms are usually mediated by antiviral proteins whose expression and activities can be constitutive but are frequently amplified by interferon induction. Among these interferon-stimulated proteins, members of the IFITM (interferon-induced transmembrane) family are unique because they prevent infection before a virus can traverse the lipid bilayer of the cell. At least three human IFITM proteins-IFITM1, IFITM2, and IFITM3-have antiviral activities. These activities limit infection in cultured cells by many viruses, including dengue virus, Ebola virus, influenza A virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and West Nile virus. Murine Ifitm3 controls influenza A virus infection in vivo, and polymorphisms in human IFITM3 correlate with the severity of both seasonal and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Here we review the discovery and characterization of the IFITM proteins, describe the spectrum of their antiviral activities, and discuss potential mechanisms underlying these effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The IFITM3 polymorphism rs12252-C, which encodes an IFITM3 isoform (Δ21 IFITM3) lacking 21 amino acids at the amino terminus, has been controversially associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) infections. In vitro studies have shown that Δ21 IFITM3 loses its ability to restrict H1N1 IAV. Subsequent research has also revealed that tyrosine 20 is the key determinant for IFITM3 endocytic trafficking, which is essential for the efficient anti-viral activity of IFITM3. In contrast to previous studies, we demonstrated that both Δ21 IFITM3 and an IFITM3 variant (Y20A IFITM3), in which tyrosine 20 is substituted with alanine, strongly restricted entry mediated by IAV H1, H3, H5, and H7 proteins. Δ21 IFITM3 also efficiently suppressed replication of H1N1 and, to a lesser extent, H3N2 IAV. Δ21 IFITM3 and Y20A IFITM3 had broader subcellular distributions than full-length IFITM3 but an abundant amount of both IFITM3 variants still localized to late endosomes and lysosomes. Our data indicate that tyrosine 20 partially regulates the subcellular localization of IFITM3 but is not functionally essential for IFITM3-mediated IAV restriction. They also suggested that mechanisms, other than viral entry restriction, might contribute to variations in clinical outcomes of H1N1 influenza associated with rs12252-C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferons (IFN-α and β) induce dynamic host defense mechanisms to inhibit viral infections. It has been recently recognized that the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITM) 1, 2 and 3 can block entry of a broad spectrum of RNA viruses. However, no study to date has focused on the role of IFITM proteins in DNA virus restriction. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-α or -β treatment of keratinocytes substantially decreases human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) infection while robustly inducing IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression. However, IFITM1, 2 and 3 overexpression did not inhibit HPV16 infection; rather, IFITM1 and IFITM3 modestly enhanced HPV16 infection in various cell types including primary keratinocytes. Moreover, IFITM1, 2 and 3 did not inhibit infection by two other DNA viruses, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Taken together, we reveal that the entry of several DNA viruses, including HPV, HCMV, and Ad5 is not affected by IFITM1, 2 and 3 expression. These results imply that HPV, and other DNA viruses, may bypass IFITM restriction during intracellular trafficking.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enveloped viruses exploit the endomembrane system to enter host cells. Through a cascade of membrane-trafficking events, virus-bearing vesicles fuse with acidic endosomes and/or lysosomes mediated by SNAREs triggering viral fusion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain elusive. Here, we found that UV-radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagic tumor suppressor, is required for the entry of the prototypic negative-strand RNA virus, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, by a mechanism independent of IFN and autophagy. UVRAG mediates viral endocytic transport and membrane penetration through interactions with the class C vacuolar protein sorting (C-Vps) tethering complex and endosomal glutamine-containing SNAREs [syntaxin 7 (STX7), STX8, and vesicle transport through t-SNARE homolog 1B (Vti1b)], leading to the assembly of a fusogenic trans-SNARE complex involving vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP8), but not VAMP7. Indeed, UVRAG stimulates VAMP8 translocation to virus-bearing endosomes. Inhibition of VAMP8, but not VAMP7, significantly reduces viral entry. Our data indicate that UVRAG, in concert with C-Vps, regulates viral entry by assembling a specific fusogenic SNARE complex. Thus, UVRAG governs downstream viral entry, highlighting an important pathway capable of potential antiviral therapeutics.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein binds cooperatively to its cellular receptor CD4 and a coreceptor, principally CXCR4 or CCR5. We have previously improved a natural amino-acid form of a scorpion toxin-derived CD4-mimetic peptide and in parallel generated sulfopeptide mimetics of the CCR5 amino terminus. Here we show that some fusions of these CCR5- and CD4-mimetic peptides, expressed as immunoadhesins, neutralize HIV-1 more efficiently than CD4-Fc or equimolar mixtures of immunoadhesin forms of each peptide. Specifically, double-mimetic peptides with linkers of 11 amino acids or greater, and with the CCR5-mimetic component preceding the CD4-mimetic component, were more efficient than constructs with shorter linkers or in a reverse orientation. The potency of these constructs derives from (i) their ability to simultaneously and cooperatively bind the CD4- and CCR5-binding sites of a single gp120 monomer of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer and (ii) the ability of the CCR5-mimetic component to prevent the CD4-mimetic peptide from promoting infection when cellular CD4 is limiting. Thus, there is a significant advantage to simultaneously targeting both conserved regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.
This report describes a novel class of peptides that potently inhibit HIV-1 entry. These peptides simultaneously target the receptor- and coreceptor-binding sites of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Peptides of this class overcome key limitations of inhibitors that target only one gp120 binding region and illustrate the utility of binding the sulfotyrosine-binding pockets of gp120.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are a family of small membrane proteins that inhibit the cellular entry of several genera of viruses. These proteins had been predicted to adopt a two pass, type III transmembrane topology with an intracellular loop, two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2), and extracellular N- and C- termini. Recent work, however, supports an intramembrane topology for the helices with cytosolic orientation of both termini. Here we determined the topology of murine Ifitm3. We found that the N-terminus of Ifitm3 could be stained by antibodies at the cell surface but that this conformation was cell type-dependent and represented a minority of the total plasma membrane pool. In contrast, the C-terminus was readily accessible to antibodies at the cell surface and extracellular C-termini comprised most or all of those present at the plasma membrane. The addition of a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum retention motif to Ifitm3 resulted in sequestration of Ifitm3 in the ER, demonstrating an ER-luminal orientation of the C-terminus. C-terminal, but not N-terminal, epitope tags were also degraded within lysosomes, consistent with their luminal orientation. Furthermore, epitope-tagged Ifitm3 TM2 functioned as a signal anchor sequence when expressed in isolation. Collectively, our results demonstrate a type II transmembrane topology for Ifitm3 and will provide insight into its interaction with potential targets and cofactors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-associated protein A (VAPA) and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) are key molecules to regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, necessary for the ordered cytosolic release of infectious virions. Thus, perturbation of VAPA-OSBP function can lead to dramatic effects on viral replication, especially at the entry step. Interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are intrinsic antiviral effectors that restrict the replication of numerous pathogenic viruses. Here we report that IFITM3 antagonizes VAPA-OSBP function to disturb intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, resulting in the inhibition of viral entry. IFITM3 interaction with VAPA promoted a marked accumulation of cholesterol in multivesicular bodies and late endosomes, suppressing the fusion of intraluminal virion-containing vesicles with the endosomal limiting membrane, and thereby blocking the cytosolic release of virions. Consequently, ectopic expression or depletion of the VAPA gene profoundly affected IFITM3-mediated inhibition of viral entry. These data demonstrate a novel anti-viral strategy that IFITM3 disturbs intracellular cholesterol homeostasis to block viral entry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show that interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM-1), IFITM-2, and IFITM-3 exhibit a broad spectrum of antiviral
activity against several members of the Bunyaviridae family, including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), La Crosse virus, Andes virus, and Hantaan virus, all of which can cause
severe disease in humans and animals. We found that RVFV was restricted by IFITM-2 and -3 but not by IFITM-1, whereas the
remaining viruses were equally restricted by all IFITMs. Indeed, at low doses of alpha interferon (IFN-α), IFITM-2 and -3
mediated more than half of the antiviral activity of IFN-α against RVFV. IFITM-2 and -3 restricted RVFV infection mostly by
preventing virus membrane fusion with endosomes, while they had no effect on virion attachment to cells, endocytosis, or viral
replication kinetics. We found that large fractions of IFITM-2 and IFITM-3 occupy vesicular compartments that are distinct
from the vesicles coated by IFITM-1. In addition, although overexpression of all IFITMs expanded vesicular and acidified compartments
within cells, there were marked phenotypic differences among the vesicular compartments occupied by IFITMs. Collectively,
our data provide new insights into the possible mechanisms by which the IFITM family members restrict distinct viruses.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phage display is a key technology for the identification and maturation of high affinity peptides, antibodies, and other proteins.
However, limitations of bacterial expression restrict the range and sensitivity of assays that can be used to evaluate phage-selected
variants. To address this problem, selected genes are typically transferred to mammalian expression vectors, a major rate-limiting
step in the iterative improvement of peptides and proteins. Here we describe a system that combines phage display and efficient
mammalian expression in a single vector, pDQ1. This system permits immediate expression of phage-selected genes as IgG1-Fc
fusions in mammalian cells, facilitating the rapid, sensitive characterization of a large number of library outputs for their
biochemical and functional properties. We demonstrate the utility of this system by improving the ability of a CD4-mimetic
peptide to bind the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and neutralize HIV-1 entry. We further improved the potency of the resulting
peptide, CD4mim6, by limiting its ability to induce the CD4-bound conformation of the envelope glycoprotein. Thus, CD4mim6
and its variants can be used to investigate the properties of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and pDQ1 can accelerate the
discovery of new peptides and proteins through phage display.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Genetic differences between mammalian species dictate the patterns of viral infection observed in nature. They also define how viruses must evolve in order to infect new mammalian hosts, giving rise to new and sometimes pandemic diseases. Because viruses must enter cells before they can replicate, new diseases often emerge when existing viruses evolve the ability to bind to the cell-surface receptor of a new species. At the same time, host cell receptors also evolve to counteract virus attacks. This back-and-forth evolution between virus and host can lead to an arms race that shapes the sequences of the proteins involved. In wild rodent populations, the retrovirus MMTV and New World arenaviruses both exploit Transferrin Receptor 1 (TfR1) to enter the cells of their hosts. Here we show that the physical interactions between these viruses and TfR1 have triggered evolutionary arms race dynamics that have directly modified the sequence of TfR1 and at least one of the viruses involved. Computational evolutionary analysis allowed us to identify specific residues in TfR1 that define patterns of viral infection in nature. The approach presented here can theoretically be applied to the study of any virus, through analysis of host genes known to be key to controlling viral infection. As such, this approach can expand our understanding of how viruses emerge from wildlife reservoirs, and how they drive the evolution of host genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vesicle-membrane-protein-associated protein A (VAPA) and oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) regulate intracellular cholesterol homeostasis, which is required for many virus infections. During entry, viruses or virus-containing vesicles can fuse with endosomal membranes to mediate the cytosolic release of virions, and alterations in endosomal cholesterol can inhibit this invasion step. We show that the antiviral effector protein interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) interacts with VAPA and prevents its association with OSBP, thereby disrupting intracellular cholesterol homeostasis and inhibiting viral entry. By altering VAPA-OSBP function, IFITM3 induces a marked accumulation of cholesterol in multivesicular bodies and late endosomes, which inhibits the fusion of intraluminal virion-containing vesicles with endosomal membranes and thereby blocks virus release into the cytosol. Consequently, ectopic expression or depletion of the VAPA gene profoundly affects IFITM3-mediated inhibition of viral entry. Thus, IFITM3 disrupts intracellular cholesterol homeostasis to block viral entry, further underscoring the importance of cholesterol in virus infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a key soluble effector of the innate immune system that recognizes pathogen-specific surface glycans. Surprisingly, low-producing MBL genetic variants that may predispose children and immunocompromised individuals to infectious diseases are more common than would be expected in human populations. Since certain immune defense molecules, such as immunoglobulins, can be exploited by invasive pathogens, we hypothesized that MBL might also enhance infections in some circumstances. Consequently, the low and intermediate MBL levels commonly found in human populations might be the result of balancing selection. Using model infection systems with pseudotyped and authentic glycosylated viruses, we demonstrated that MBL indeed enhances infection of Ebola, Hendra, Nipah and West Nile viruses in low complement conditions. Mechanistic studies with Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviruses confirmed that MBL binds to N-linked glycan epitopes on viral surfaces in a specific manner via the MBL carbohydrate recognition domain, which is necessary for enhanced infection. MBL mediates lipid-raft-dependent macropinocytosis of EBOV via a pathway that appears to require less actin or early endosomal processing compared with the filovirus canonical endocytic pathway. Using a validated RNA interference screen, we identified C1QBP (gC1qR) as a candidate surface receptor that mediates MBL-dependent enhancement of EBOV infection. We also identified dectin-2 (CLEC6A) as a potentially novel candidate attachment factor for EBOV. Our findings support the concept of an innate immune haplotype that represents critical interactions between MBL and complement component C4 genes and that may modify susceptibility or resistance to certain glycosylated pathogens. Therefore, higher levels of native or exogenous MBL could be deleterious in the setting of relative hypocomplementemia which can occur genetically or because of immunodepletion during active infections. Our findings confirm our hypothesis that the pressure of infectious diseases may have contributed in part to evolutionary selection of MBL mutant haplotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4) specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS). TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past few years, several groups have identified new genes that are transcriptionally induced downstream of type I interferon (IFN) signalling and that inhibit infection by individual or multiple families of viruses. Among these IFN-stimulated genes with antiviral activity are two genetically and functionally distinct families - the IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT) family and the IFN-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) family. This Review focuses on recent advances in identifying the unique mechanisms of action of IFIT and IFITM proteins, which explain their broad-spectrum activity against the replication, spread and pathogenesis of a range of human viruses.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Nature Reviews Immunology