Masahiro Yamamoto

Asahikawa Medical University, Асахикава, Hokkaidō, Japan

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Publications (282)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Processed Aconiti tuber (PAT) is used to treat pain associated with various disorders. Although it has been demonstrated that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) signaling pathway is a mediator of the analgesic effect of PAT, active components affecting opioid signaling have not yet been identified. In this study, we explored candidate components of PAT by pharmacokinetic analysis and identified ignavine, which is a different structure from aconitine alkaloids. A receptor binding assay of opioid receptors showed that ignavine specifically binds the μ opioid receptor (MOR), not the KOR. Receptor internalization assay in MOR-expressing cell lines revealed that ignavine augmented the responses produced by D-Ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly-ol(5)-enkephalin (DAMGO), a representative MOR agonist, at a low concentration and inhibited it at a higher concentration. Ignavine also exerted positive modulatory activity for DAMGO, endomorphin-1 and morphine in cAMP assay. Additionally, ignavine alone showed an analgesic effect in vivo. In silico simulation analysis suggested that ignavine would induce a unique structural change distinguished from those induced by a representative MOR agonist and antagonist. These data collectively suggest the possibility that ignavine could be a novel allosteric modulator of the MOR. The present results may open the way for the development of a novel pain management strategy.
    Article · Aug 2016 · Scientific Reports
  • Hiroki Tanaka · Masahiro Yamamoto · Kosuke Yamazaki · [...] · Katsuhiro Ogawa
    Article · Jul 2016 · Cancer Research
  • Masahiro Yamamoto · Hiroki Tanaka · Bing Xin · [...] · Katsuhiro Ogawa
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BrafV637E mutation is frequently reported in mouse hepatic tumors, depending on the mouse strain, and corresponds to the human BrafV600E mutation. In this study, we detected the BrafV637E mutation by whole-exome analysis in 4/4 hepatic tumors induced by neonatal treatment with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in male B6C3F1 mice. We also detected the BrafV637E mutation in 54/63 (85.7%) hepatic lesions, including microscopic foci and grossly visible tumors, by PCR-direct sequencing. Although the mutation was detected in 5/7 (71.4%) hepatic tumors induced by neonatal DEN treatment followed by repeated CCl4 administration, it was not detected in 24 tumors induced by CCl4 treatment without DEN or in 8 spontaneous lesions in B6C3F1 mice, suggesting that the mutation is induced by the genotoxic action of DEN. The DEN-induced tumors exhibited hyperphosphorylation of ERK1 and Akt, suggesting that the BrafV637E mutation might activate the MAPK and Akt pathways. Moreover, the DEN-induced tumors overexpressed mRNAs for the oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) markers such as p15(Ink4b) and p19(Arf) as well as pro-survival/pro-proliferative cytokines/chemokines such as complement C5/C5a, ICAM-1, IL-1 receptor antagonist and CXCL9, suggesting that the BrafV637E mutation influences the expression of genes involved in either OIS or cellular growth/survival. Liver-specific expression of mutated Braf under control of the albumin enhancer/promoter resulted in an enlarged liver that consisted entirely of small basophilic hepatocytes resembling DEN-induced preneoplastic hepatocytes with ERK1/Akt hyperphosphorylation and C5/C5a overexpression. These results indicate that the BrafV637E mutation induces hepatocytic changes in DEN-induced hepatic tumors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jun 2016 · Molecular Carcinogenesis
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), a procedure consisting of transient ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, provides ischemic tolerance against prolonged ischemia in the brain. Although the blood flow changes mediated by IPC are primarily perceived by vascular endothelial cells, the role of these cells in ischemic tolerance has not been fully clarified. In this study, we found that the P2X4 receptor, which is abundantly expressed in vascular endothelial cells, is required for ischemic tolerance following middle artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice. Mechanistically, the P2X4 receptor was stimulated by fluid shear stress, which mimics reperfusion, thus promoting the increased expression of osteopontin, a neuroprotective molecule. Furthermore, we found that the intracerebroventricular administration of osteopontin was sufficient to exert a neuroprotective effect mediated by preconditioning-stimulated P2X4 receptor activation. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism whereby vascular endothelial cells are involved in ischemic tolerance.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) is an intramembrane protease that participates in the production of the mature core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here we show that SPP inhibition reduces the production of infectious HCV particles and pathogenesis. The immature core protein produced in SPP-knockout cells or by treatment with an SPP inhibitor is quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Oral administration of the SPP inhibitor to transgenic mice expressing HCV core protein (CoreTg) reduces the expression of core protein and ameliorates insulin resistance and liver steatosis. Moreover, the haploinsufficiency of SPP in CoreTg has similar effects. TRC8, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is required for the degradation of the immature core protein. The expression of the HCV core protein alters endoplasmic reticulum (ER) distribution and induces ER stress in SPP/TRC8 double-knockout cells. These data suggest that HCV utilizes SPP cleavage to circumvent the induction of ER stress in host cells.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · Nature Communications
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonic epithelial cells are covered by thick inner and outer mucus layers. The inner mucus layer is free of commensal microbiota, which contributes to the maintenance of gut homeostasis. In the small intestine, molecules critical for prevention of bacterial invasion into epithelia such as Paneth-cell-derived anti-microbial peptides and regenerating islet-derived 3 (RegIII) family proteins have been identified. Although there are mucus layers providing physical barriers against the large number of microbiota present in the large intestine, the mechanisms that separate bacteria and colonic epithelia are not fully elucidated. Here we show that Ly6/PLAUR domain containing 8 (Lypd8) protein prevents flagellated microbiota invading the colonic epithelia in mice. Lypd8, selectively expressed in epithelial cells at the uppermost layer of the large intestinal gland, was secreted into the lumen and bound flagellated bacteria including Proteus mirabilis. In the absence of Lypd8, bacteria were present in the inner mucus layer and many flagellated bacteria invaded epithelia. Lypd8-/- mice were highly sensitive to intestinal inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Antibiotic elimination of Gram-negative flagellated bacteria restored the bacterial-free state of the inner mucus layer and ameliorated DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Lypd8-/- mice. Lypd8 bound to flagella and suppressed motility of flagellated bacteria. Thus, Lypd8 mediates segregation of intestinal bacteria and epithelial cells in the colon to preserve intestinal homeostasis.
    Article · Apr 2016 · Nature
  • Article · Apr 2016 · Gastroenterology
  • Hirotada Akiho · Haruei Ogino · Mitsuru Esaki · [...] · Masahiro Yamamoto
    Article · Apr 2016 · Gastroenterology
  • Article · Apr 2016 · Gastroenterology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many pharmaceutical agents not only require microbial metabolism for increased bioavailability and bioactivity, but also have direct effects on gut microbial assemblage and function. We examined the possibility that these actions are not mutually exclusive and may be mutually reinforcing in ways that enhance long-term of these agents. Daikenchuto, TU-100, is a traditional Japanese medicine containing ginseng. Conversion of the ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) to bioactive compound K (CK) requires bacterial metabolism. Diet-incorporated TU-100 was administered to mice over a period of several weeks. T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing were performed to analyze the time-dependent effects on fecal microbial membership. Fecal microbial capacity to metabolize Rb1 to CK was measured by adding TU-100 or ginseng to stool samples to assess the generation of bioactive metabolites. Levels of metabolized TU-100 components in plasma and in stool samples were measured by LC-MS/MS. Cecal and stool short-chain fatty acids were measured by GC-MS. Dietary administration of TU-100 for 28 days altered the gut microbiota, increasing several bacteria genera including members of Clostridia and Lactococcus lactis. Progressive capacity of microbiota to convert Rb1 to CK was observed over the 28 days administration of dietary TU-100. Concomitantly with these changes, increases in all SCFA were observed in cecal contents and in acetate and butyrate content of the stool. Chronic consumption of dietary TU-100 promotes changes in gut microbiota enhancing metabolic capacity of TU-100 and increased bioavailability. We believe these findings have broad implications in optimizing the efficacy of natural compounds that depend on microbial bioconversion in general.
    Article · Feb 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aging-induced decrease in axonal myelination/remyelination is due to impaired recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Our previous studies have shown that a monoclonal antibody to DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 54 (Ddx54), a member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases, (1) specifically labels oligodendrocyte lineages, (2) binds to mRNA and protein isoforms of myelin basic proteins (MBP), and (3) regulates migration of OPCs from ventricular zone to corpus callosum in mice. It has also been demonstrated that specific loss of a 21.5 kDa MBP isoform (MBP21.5) reflects demyelination status, and oral administration of an extract of Chinpi, citrus unshiu peel, reversed the aging-induced demyelination. Here, we report that Chinpi treatment induced a specific increase in the MBP21.5, led to the reappearance of Ddx54-expressing cells in ventricular-subventricular zone and corpus callosum of aged mice, and promoted remyelination. Treatment of in vitro OPC cultures with Chinpi constituents, hesperidin plus narirutin, led to an increase in 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation in Ddx54-expressing OPCs, but not in NG2- or Olig2-expressing cell populations. The present study suggests that Ddx54 plays crucial role in remyelination. Furthermore, Chinpi and Chinpi-containing herbal medicines may be a therapeutic option for the aging-induced demyelination diseases.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2016 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary The opportunistic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii infects a large range of nucleated cells where it replicates intracellularly within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) surrounded by a membrane (PVM). Parasites constitutively secrete dense-granule proteins (GRAs) both into and beyond the PV which participate in remodelling of the PVM, recruitment of host organelles, neutralization of the host cellular defences, and subversion of host cell functioning. In addition, the GRAs critically contribute to cyst wall formation, a process that critically ensures parasite persistence and transmission. To act as effector molecules, some of the GRAs must be translocated across the PVM. Within the related apicomplexan parasite P. falciparum, a repertoire of proteins exported beyond the PVM contain a motif cleaved by a specific protease, Plasmepsin V. Examination of the repertoire of GRAs in T. gondii revealed that some proteins exhibit such export-like motifs suggestive of protease involvement. In this study, we have functionally characterized the related aspartyl protease 5 (TgASP5) in both virulent and persistent T. gondii strains, and have investigated the phenotypic consequences of its deletion in the context of overall parasite biology, its intracellular niche, the infected host cells and the murine model. Our findings revealed fundamental roles of TgASP5 at the host-parasite interface.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS Pathogens
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer cachexia, which is characterized by decreased food intake, weight loss and systemic inflammation, increases patient's morbidity and mortality. We previously showed that rikkunshito (RKT), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo), ameliorated the symptoms of cancer cachexia through ghrelin signaling-dependent and independent pathways. To investigate other mechanisms of RKT action in cancer cachexia, we performed metabolome analysis of plasma in a rat model bearing the Yoshida AH-130 hepatoma. A total of 110 metabolites were detected in plasma and RKT treatment significantly altered levels of 23 of those metabolites in cachexia model rats. Among them, glucarate, which is known to have anticarcinogenic activity through detoxification of carcinogens via inhibition of β-glucuronidase, was increased in plasma following administration of RKT. In our AH-130 ascites-induced cachexia rat model, administration of glucarate delayed onset of weight loss, improved muscle atrophy, and reduced ascites content. Additionally, glucarate reduced levels of plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in tumor-bearing rats and was also found to suppress LPS-induced IFN-γ expression in splenocytes in vitro. These results suggest that glucarate has anti-inflammatory activity via a direct effect on immune host cells and suggest that RKT may also ameliorate inflammation partly through the elevation of glucarate in plasma.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    Youngae Lee · Miwa Sasai · Ji Su Ma · [...] · Masahiro Yamamoto
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Also known as Sqstm1, p62 is a selective autophagy adaptor with a ubiquitin-binding domain. However, the role of p62 in the host defense against Toxoplasma gondii infection is unclear. Here, we show that interferon γ (IFN-γ) stimulates ubiquitin and p62 recruitment to T. gondii parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs). Some essential autophagy-related proteins, but not all, are required for this recruitment. Regardless of normal IFN-γ-induced T. gondii clearance activity and ubiquitination, p62 deficiency in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and mice diminishes the robust IFN-γ-primed activation of CD8(+) T cells that recognize the T. gondii-derived antigen secreted into PVs. Because the expression of Atg3 and Irgm1/m3 in APCs is essential for PV disruption, ubiquitin and p62 recruitment, and vacuolar-antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell activation, IFN-γ-mediated ubiquitination and the subsequent recruitment of p62 to T. gondii are specifically required for the acquired immune response after PV disruption by IFN-γ-inducible GTPases.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015 · Cell Reports
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    Tomohiro Torii · Yuki Miyamoto · Masahiro Yamamoto · [...] · Junji Yamauchi
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The data is related to the research article entitled “Arf6 mediates Schwann cell differentiation and myelination” [1]. To further investigate the role of Arf6 in promoting myelination by Schwann cells in vivo, we have characterized an another line (#2) of small-hairpin (sh)RNA transgenic mice targeting Arf6. The number of transgenes per one allele in this line was very low (2 transgenes), comparing with high copies in the previous line (#1, 20 transgenes) [1]. In 4 days of neonatal age, transgenic mice exhibited decreased myelin thickness; however, decreased levels were not as much as those in the line #1, likely depending on transgene copy number. In 60-day-old mice, the difference became smaller. On the other hand, transgene׳s effect was not related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. These data support the key role of Arf6 in Schwann cell myelination, especially in the initiation.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015 · Data in Brief
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A pharmaceutical grade Japanese traditional medicine, daikenchuto (TU-100), consisting of Japanese pepper, processed ginger, and ginseng, has been widely used for various intestinal disorders in Japan and now under development as a new therapeutic drug in the US. It is suggested that TU-100 ingredients exert pharmacological effects on intestines via two routes, from the luminal side before absorption and the peripheral blood stream after absorption. Therefore, in order to fully understand the pharmacological actions of TU-100, it is critically important to know the intraluminal amounts and forms of ingested TU-100 ingredients. In the present study, after administrating TU-100 to rats, the concentrations of TU-100 ingredients and their conjugates in the peripheral and portal blood and ileal contents were determined by LC-MS/MS. Next, TU-100 was administered to patients with ileostomy bags, but whose small intestines are diagnosed as healthy, and the ingredients/conjugates in the ileal effluent were analyzed. The results suggest that: (1) Pepper ingredients hydroxysanshools are rapidly absorbed and enter systemic circulation, (2) Ginseng ingredients ginsenosides are transported to the colon with the least absorption, (3) Ginger ingredients gingerols are absorbed and some conjugated in the small intestine and transported via the portal vein. While only a small amount of gingerols/gingerol conjugates enter systemic circulation, considerable amounts reappear in the small intestine. Thus, the effect of TU-100 on the intestines is believed to be a composite of multiple actions by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes.
    Full-text Article · Oct 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon (IFN)-inducible Guanylate Binding Proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Amongst canonical inflammasomes we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis not only activate NLRP3, as previously reported, but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times post-infection. Because IFNγ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFNγ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior TLR stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2015 · Infection and Immunity
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Supplementary Table 1: Plasma metabolites detected in this study.
    Full-text Dataset · Sep 2015
  • Hisako Kayama · Vladimir R. Ramirez-Carrozzi · Masahiro Yamamoto · [...] · Kiyoshi Takeda
    Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Toru Kono · Mitsuo Shimada · Masahiro Yamamoto · [...] · Yasuhito Uezono
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herbal medicines have been used in Japan for more than 1500 years and traditional Japanese medicines (Kampo medicines) are now fully integrated into the modern healthcare system. In total, 148 Kampo formulae are officially approved as prescription drugs and covered by the national health insurance system in Japan. However, despite their long track record of clinical use, the multi-targeted, multi-component properties of Kampo medicines, which are fundamentally different from Western medicines, have made it difficult to create a suitable framework for conducting well-designed, large-scale clinical trials. In turn, this has led to misconceptions among western trained physicians concerning the paucity of scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of Kampo medicines. Fortunately, there has been a recent surge in scientifically robust data from basic and clinical studies for some of the Kampo medicines, e.g., daikenchuto (TU-100). Numerous basic and clinical studies on TU-100, including placebo-controlled double-blind studies for various gastrointestinal disorders, and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies, have been conducted or are in the process of being conducted in both Japan and the USA. Clinical studies suggest that TU-100 is beneficial for postoperative complications, especially ileus and abdominal bloating. ADME and basic studies indicate that the effect of TU-100 is a composite of numerous actions mediated by multiple compounds supplied via multiple routes. In addition to known mechanisms of action via enteric/sensory nerve stimulation, novel mechanisms via the TRPA1 channel and two pore domain potassium channels have recently been elucidated. TU-100 compounds target these channels with and without absorption, both before and after metabolic activation by enteric flora, with different timings and possibly with synergism.
    Full-text Article · Aug 2015 · Frontiers in Pharmacology

Publication Stats

19k Citations


  • 2013
    • Asahikawa Medical University
      Асахикава, Hokkaidō, Japan
  • 2003
    • Osaka University
      • Department of Host Defense
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan