[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In our previous study, parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) which encodes parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was revealed to be up-regulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared with paired apparently normal surgical margins using microarray method. However, the function and prognostic indicators of PTHLH/PTHrP in OSCC remain obscure.Methods
The mRNA levels of PTHLH and its protein levels were investigated in 9 OSCC cell lines and in 36 paired OSCC specimens by real-time PCR and western blotting. The biological function of PTHLH/PTHrP was investigated using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in 3 OSCC cell lines, and immunohistochemistry was used to estimate the prognostic value of PTHrP in 101 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), including OSCC and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Cell cycle was tested by flow cytometry and cell cycle related genes were investigated by western blotting and immunocytochemistry assay.ResultsThis study showed that the mRNA and protein levels of PTHLH in 9 OSCC cell lines were much higher than that in normal epithelial cells (P < 0.0001). In 36 paired OSCC tissues, PTHLH mRNA expressions were found higher in 32 OSCC tissues than that of paired apparently normal surgical margins (P = 0.0001). The results revealed that the down-regulation of PTHLH/PTHrP by siRNAs could reduce cell proliferation and inhibit plate and soft agar colony formation as well as affect the cell cycle of OSCC cells. The key proteins related to the cell cycle were changed by anti-PTHLH siRNA. The results showed that cyclin D1 and CDK4 expressions were significantly reduced in the cells transfected with anti-PTHLH siRNA. On the other hand, the expression of p21 was increased. The results also showed that high PTHrP level was associated with poor pathologic differentiation (P = 0.0001) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0003) in patients with HNSCC.Conclusions
This study suggests that PTHLH/PTHrP is up-regulated in OSCCs. Therefore, PTHLH/PTHrP could play a role in the pathogenesis of OSCC by affecting cell proliferation and cell cycle, and the protein levels of PTHrP might serve as a prognostic indicator for evaluating patients with HNSCCs.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer stem-like cells represent a population of tumour-initiating cells that lead to the relapse and metastasis of cancer. Conventional anti-cancer therapeutic drugs are usually ineffective in eliminating the cancer stem-like cells. Therefore, new drugs or therapeutic methods effectively targeting cancer stem-like cells are in urgent need to successfully cure cancer. Gamboge is a natural anti-cancer medicine whose pharmacological effects are different from those of conventional chemotherapeutical drugs and they can kill some kinds of cancer cells selectively. In this study, we identified a new gamboge derivative, Compound 2 (C2), which presents eminent suppression effects on cancer cells. Interestingly, when compared with cisplatin (CDDP), C2 effectively suppresses the growth of both cancer stem-like cells and non-cancer stem-like cells derived from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), inhibiting the formation of tumour spheres and colony in vitro, resulting in the loss of expression of multiple cancer stem cell (CSC)-related molecules in HNSCC. Treating with C2 effectively inhibited the growth of HNSCC in BALB/C nude mice. Further investigation found that C2 notably inhibits the activation of epithelial growth factor receptor and the phosphorylation of its downstream protein kinase homo sapiens v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) in HNSCC, resulting in down-regulation of multiple CSC-related molecules in HNSCC. Our study has demonstrated that C2 effectively inhibits the stem-like property of cancer stem-like cells in HNSCC and may be a hopeful targeting drug in cancer therapy.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary Patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have a poor prognosis with the currently available therapy, and tumor recurrence is frequently observed. The discovery of specific membrane-associated cancer stem cell (CSC) markers is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these CSCs. To address this issue, we established sphere cultures to enrich CSCs and used them for plasma membrane proteomics to identify specific membrane signatures of the HNSCC spheres. Of a total data set that included 376 identified proteins, 200 were bona fide membrane proteins. Among them, 123 proteins were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated in the spheres compared with the adherent cultures. These proteins included cell adhesion molecules, receptors, and transporter proteins. Some of them play key roles in wnt, integrin and TGF&beta signaling pathways. Comparing our dataset with two published hESC membrane protein signatures, we found 18 proteins common to all three of the databases. CD166 and CD44 were two of them. Interestingly, the expression of CD166, rather than that of the well-established HNSCC CSCs marker CD44, was significantly related to the malignant behavior of HNSCC. Compared with CD166low HNSCC cells, CD166high HNSCC cells had a greater sphere-formation ability in vitro and tumor formation ability in vivo. Patients whose tumors expressed high levels of CD166 had a significantly poorer clinical outcome than those whose tumors expressed low levels of CD166 (cohort 1: 96 cases, p=0.040), while the level of CD44 expression had only a marginal influence on the clinical outcome of patients with HNSCC (p=0.078). The level of CD166 expression in HNSCC tumors was also associated with the tumor recurrence rate (cohort 2: 104 cases, p=0.016). This study demonstrates that CD166 is a valuable cell surface marker for the enrichment of HNSCC stem cells and that plasma membrane proteomics is a promising biological tool for investigating the membrane proteins of CSCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterised by an elevated capacity for tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis and the cause remains to be determined. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs can regulate the evolution of malignant behaviours by regulating multiple target genes. In this study, we have first confirmed that miR-363 is down-regulated in HNSCC tissues with lymph node metastasis and cell lines with highly invasive capacity. We used bioinformatics, cellular and molecular methods to predict and prove that miR-363 directly targeted to podoplanin (PDPN) and caused up-regulation of PDPN in HNSCC. MSP assay showed that DNA promoter methylation was involved in silencing the miR-363 in HNSCC. Furthermore, we provided evidence to demonstrate that PDPN dysregulation caused by down-regulation of miR-363 contributes to HNSCC invasion and metastasis. These data reveal a key role of miR-363-PDPN in HNSCC metastasis and support biological and clinical links between miR-363-PDPN and HNSCC.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gambogic acid (GA) is known for its anti-cancer activity in a phase II clinical trial. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of its anti-multidrug resistance remain unclear. The present study was designed to study the relationship between GA and multidrug-resistant protein ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1). GA dose dependently inhibited ABCB1 activity levels in the in vitro Pgp-Glo assay system and increased the cellular accumulation of ABCB1 substrate adriamycin. Although GA had no significant influence on ABCB1 mRNA in the real-time PCR assay, Western blot detection indicated the compound reduced ABCB1 protein levels. Further study showed the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 reversed the GA-decreased ABCB1 level and prolonged half-life of ABCB1. It was also found that GA coordinated with other anti-cancer drugs (such as adriamycin, docetaxel, verapamil and protopanaxadiol) to enhance cellular cytotoxicity on human epithelial cancer cell lines with higher ABCB1 expression levels. These data suggest that GA functions as a non-competitive inhibitor of ABCB1 by directly inhibiting and reducing its expression levels by promoting protein degradation through post-translational proteasome pathway. The results of this study will aid in the understanding of the synergistic effects of combining GA with other drugs as a new anti-multidrug-resistant agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 60-80% of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) die within five years after diagnosis. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the most commonly used palliative treatment for these patients. To evaluate the prognostic value of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) level as a potential biomarker in these patients, we investigated the relationship between XIAP expression and cisplatin response of these patients and their prognosis.
Sixty patients with advanced HNSCC were recruited in this study. Expression of XIAP was examined both before and after chemotherapy and was correlated with chemotherapy response, clinicopathology parameters and clinical outcomes of the patients. We found that XIAP was expressed in 17 (20.83%) of the 60 advanced HNSCC samples and the expression was significantly associated with cisplatin resistance (P = 0.036) and poor clinical outcome (P = 0.025). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy induced XIAP expression in those post-chemotherapy samples (P = 0.011), was further associated with poorer clinical outcome (P = 0.029). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only alcohol consumption, lymph node metastasis and XIAP level were independently associated with the prognosis of advanced HNSCC patients. Inhibiting XIAP expression with siRNA in XIAP overexpressed HNSCC cells remarkably increased their sensitivity to cisplatin treatment to nearly a 3 fold difference.
Our results demonstrate that XIAP overexpression plays an important role in the disease course and cisplatin-resistance of advanced HNSCC. XIAP is a valuable predictor of cisplatin-response and prognosis for patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Down-regulation of XIAP might be a promising adjuvant therapy for those patients of advanced HNSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant activation of HH/GLI has recently been reported in multiple cancer types, yet its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of HH/GLI in OSCC. Expression of GLI1 and GLI2 was examined in OSCC samples from 136 patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathology parameters and clinical outcomes of the patients. Two HH/GLI specific small molecule inhibitors cyclopamine and GANT61, were used to test the potential role of HH/GLI in OSCC. We found that GLI2, one of the main transcriptional activators of HH/GLI signalling, was expressed in 60 (44%) of the 136 OSCC samples and the expression was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Only 44% of the patients whose tumours expressed GLI2 survived at 5years after surgery compared to 77% of those whose tumours lacked the GLI2 expression (P<0.0001). Both cyclopamine and GANT61 effectively inhibited GLI expression, slowed cell growth, promoted G1 arrest, increased apoptosis and inhibited migration of OSCC cells. Our results demonstrate that activation of HH/GLI pathway plays an important role in OSCC progression. Together with the finding that expression of GLI2 is strongly associated with a poor clinic outcome of OSCC patients, the data suggest that a subset of OSCC patients may benefit from anti-HH/GLI therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify new and useful candidate biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we performed a genome-wide survey and found that Myelin and lymphocyte-associated protein (MAL) was a gene that was markedly down-regulated in HNSCC. Hence, we investigated the mechanism of MAL silencing and the effects of MAL on the proliferation, invasion, and apoptotic potential in HNSCC.
MAL was significantly down-regulated in 91.7% of HNSCC specimens at the mRNA level as compared with adjacent normal tissues (P = 0.0004). Moreover, the relative transcript levels of the MAL gene were remarkably decreased by five-fold in nine HNSCC cell lines as compared with normal head and neck epithelium cells. MAL gene expression was restored in 44%, 67%, and 89% in HNSCC cell lines treated with TSA, 5-Aza-dC, and TSA plus 5-Aza-dC, respectively. Furthermore, bisulfate-treated DNA sequencing demonstrated that the two CpG islands (that is, M1 and M2) located in MAL promoter region were completely methylated in the HNSCC cell lines (CpG methylated ratio was more than 90%), and only one CpG island (that is, M1) was partially methylated in HNSCC tissues (CpG methylated ratio between 20% and 90%). A significant reduction in cell proliferation and a change in the cell cycle profile were also observed in MAL transfectants. Matrigel assay demonstrated that the invasiveness of HNSCC cells significantly decreased. A significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells was observed in MAL transfected cells. The exogenous expression of the MAL gene suppressed malignant phenotypes, while the cell death induced by MAL gene transfer was a result of apoptosis as demonstrated by the induction of cleavage of the poly (that is, ADP-ribose) polymerase. Additionally, tumor growth was suppressed in cells expressing MAL as compared with cells not expressing MAL.
Our data suggest that the epigenetic inactivation of MAL, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelial cell carcinoma and may be served as a biomarker in HNSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling constitutes a key event in the multistep process of carcinogenesis, progression and treatment in many cancer types. However, the significance of NF-kappaB pathway for complex and tissue-specific aspects of head and neck cancer progression, such as invasion and metastasis, is less understood.
The expression of NF-kappaB p65 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) clinical specimens by immunohistochemistry. The role of NF-kappaB activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was determined by western blot, reporter assay and EMSA analysis in vitro and metastasis assays in vivo in different metastatic potential tumor cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate and expression of metastasis-related protein such as MMP9 and VEGF were examined by Annexin V/PI staining and Western blot, respectively.
A higher level of active nuclear-localized NF-kappaB was observed in the metastatic SCCHN specimens group (p < 0.01). The NF-kappaB activities of SCCHN cell lines with different metastatic potentials were then determined and in excellent agreement with results found in SCCHN specimens, highly metastatic SCCHN cell lines expressed high level of NF-kappaB activity. The treatment of highly metastatic SCCHN cells with NF-kappaB inhibitors reduced the in vitro cell invasion capacity of the cells without affecting the apoptotic rate. Additionally, the NF-kappaB inhibitors significantly inhibited the experimental lung metastasis of Tb cells and lymph node metastasis of TL cells in nude mice. Furthermore, the expression of metastasis-related proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor, was inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate.
This study suggests that NF-kappaB activity significantly contributes to tumor hematologic and lymphatic metastases and may aid in the development of early detection methods or therapies targeting non-conventional molecular targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the roles of inflammatory factors and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) signal pathway in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
The oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines with highly metastasis potential (Tb) and lower metastasis potential (Tca8113) were used in this study. The levels of NF-kappaB activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were determined by Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. pBalphabe-IkappaBalpha-SR expression vector or NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) was used to inhibit NF-kappaB, and cell migration was examined by transwell assay. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF proinflammatory cytokines was determined by ELISA when Tb cells were transfected with pBalphabe-SR-IkappaBalpha or treated with PDTC.
Western blotting showed that the levels of phosphorIkappaBalpha and phosphor-p65 were highly expressed in Tb cells. Tb cells had high level of constitutive NF-kappaB activity and were more sensitive to TNF-alpha. The migration of highly metastatic Tb cells, either transfected with dominant-negative mutant inhibitor pBalphabe-SR-IkappaBalpha or treated with PDTC, was suppressed when determined by transwell assay. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), was inhibited by pBalphabe-SR-IkappaBalpha transfection or PDTC treatment.
The inflammatory factors such as TNF-alpha could promote oral squamous cell carcinoma cell metastasis via NF-kappaB signal pathway.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of Podoplanin on cell proliferation and cell cycle in oral leukoplakia cells.
Oral leukoplakia cell line (Leuk-1) transfected with pCMV-Podoplanin (A4-1) or pCMV (B4-1) was used in this study. The levels of mRNA and protein of Podoplanin were detected by real-time PCR and Western boltting in A4-1, B4-1 and Leuk-1 cells. The localization of Podoplanin was detected by confocal microscope. Cell growth and proliferation was examined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry (FCM).
The value of Podoplanin mRNA level in A4-1 cells was 0.022, which was significantly higher than the values in B4-1 (0.001) and Leuk-1 cells (0.002), P < 0.05. The gray scale of Podoplanin protein in A4-1 cells was significantly higher than in the control groups (P < 0.05). The expression of Podoplanin was observed in cell plasm and membrane of A4-1, B4-1 and Leuk-1 cells. But the expression level of Podoplanin in A4-1 cells was higher than in control groups. A4-1 cells grew faster than Leuk-1 cells. The proliferation rate after 3 days of culture in A4-1 cells was 40.4% higher than that in B4-1 cells (P < 0.05). The G₂-M phase (24.89 +/- 4.55)% and PI (0.57 +/- 0.06) of A4-1 cells were significantly higher than that in B4-1 cells [(4.13 +/- 5.24)%, (0.41 +/- 0.04)] and Leuk-1 cells [(4.69 +/- 7.42)%, (0.40 +/- 0.02)], P < 0.05.
Over expression of Podoplanin accelerated the growth and proliferation of oral leukoplakia cells. Podoplanin may be one of key genes in the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gambogic acid (GA) is a major active ingredient of gamboge, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine that has been reported to be a potent cytotoxic agent against some malignant tumors. Many studies have shown that the NF-kappa B signaling pathway plays an important role in anti-apoptosis and the drug resistance of tumor cells during chemotherapy. In this study, the effects and mechanisms of GA and the NF-kappa B inhibitor celastrol on oral cancer cells were investigated.
Three human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, Tca8113, TSCC and NT, were treated with GA alone, celastrol alone or GA plus celastrol. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay. The rate of apoptosis was examined with annexin V/PI staining as well as transmission electronic microscopy in Tca8113 cells. The level of constitutive NF-kappa B activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was determined by immunofluorescence assays and nuclear extracts and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) in vitro. To further investigate the role of NF-kappa B activity in GA and celastrol treatment in oral squamous cell carcinoma, we used the dominant negative mutant SR-IkappaBalpha to inhibit NF-kappa B activity and to observe its influence on the effect of GA.
The results showed that GA could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and that the NF-kappa B pathway was simultaneously activated by GA treatment. The minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol was able to effectively suppress the GA-induced NF-kappa B pathway activation. Following the combined treatment with GA and the minimal cytotoxic dose of celastrol or the dominant negative mutant SR-IkappaBalpha, proliferation was significantly inhibited, and the apoptotic rate of Tca8113 cells was significantly increased.
The combination of GA and celastrol has a synergistic antitumor effect. The effect can be primarily attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in NF-kappa B pathway activation. The NF-kappa B signaling pathway plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining GA and celastrol may be a promising modality for treating oral squamous cell carcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the influence of high extracellular glucose levels on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and to determine if Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein can alleviate those effects. BMSCs were incubated with NG (normal glucose), NG+Shh (200 ng/ml Shh in normal glucose), NG+Shh+Gan (200 ng/ml Shh and 5 micromol/L GANT61 in normal glucose), HG (high glucose), HG+Shh (200 ng/ml Shh in high glucose), and HG+Shh+Gan (200 ng/ml Shh and 5 micromol/L GANT61 in high glucose). The expression levels of Shh signaling pathway genes Patched 1 (PTCH1) and osteogenesis-related genes were tested, which included bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteopontin (OPN). Alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity and mineralized matrix formation were also investigated. Immunofluorescent staining of Gli1 was tested for Shh signaling activation. We found that recombinant Shh in normal-glucose medium could promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, while inhibiting Shh signaling by GANT61 could antagonize this differentiation. Besides that high glucose impaired the Shh signaling as well as osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, reactivation of Shh signal pathway by addition of Shh protein could mitigate the inhibition while further deactivation by Shh inhibitor GANT61 could retain their osteogenic inhibitions. The above data suggest that Shh pathway activity is involved in the HG condition mediated osteoblastic differentiation deficiency for BMSCs and that recombinant Shh could alleviate this inhibitory effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A20, also known as tumor necrosis factor alpha induced protein 3 (TNFaip3), is a cytoplasmic zinc finger protein that inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) activity and prevents tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated programmed cell death. NF-kappaB is a transcription factor that regulates expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and anti-apoptosis. Several studies have implicated that the NF-kappaB signal pathway is associated with angiogenesis and clinico-pathological process of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary glands.
The ability of overexpression of A20 to influence the biological behavior and invasion of ACC cells was examined. The cells were stably transfected with full-length A20 cDNA. Stable gene transfer was verified by realtime-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The change of cell biological behavior was examined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and NF-kappaB luciferase reporter assay and the invasion of the cells was examined by a Matrigel invasion chamber.
pEGPFN3-A20 gene was stably transferred into ACC-2 cells and overexpressed. When cells were treated with TNFalpha, the NF-kappaB activity of ACC-2-A20 cells could be down-regulated about 46.32% in contrast to ACC-2-GFP cells (P < 0.05). A20 potently inhibited growth of A20 transfectant ACC-2-A20 compared with control vector transfected groups and the ACC-2 empty control group (P < 0.05). The ACC-2-A20 cells showed significantly reduced ability to invade through Matrigei-coated filters compared to ACC-2-GFP and ACC-2 cells. The inhibition rate was up to 71.05% (P < 0.05).
A20 gene transfer is associated with decreased tumor invasion, in part via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB expression, providing evidence for a potential application of A20 in designing a treatment modality for salivary gland cancers such as ACC.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To select and identify the target genes related to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and provide target genes for designing oligo-nucleotide functional microarray of OSCC.
Genes possibly related to oral squamous cell carcinoma were selected from the 5 years' published data of differently expressed profiles with microarray testing in OSCC. Then mRNA expression of selected genes were evaluated by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 22 cases of OSCC, including tumor tissues and paried normal mucosas and quantified according to an internal control GAPDH.
Eight genes were tested. The overexpression of SPARC, PDGF-A, SERPINE1, TGF-beta(1) and VEGF-C genes were measured in 16, 18, 16, 20, 18 cases of tumor specimens, respectively. The expression of CK15 gene was lower than that of its normal tissue. There were overexpression of CCND1, BIRC3 in tumor tissues, but there was no significant difference of CCND1 and BIRC3 expression between tumor tissue and normal tissue (P > 0.05).
SPARC, PDGF-A, SERPINE1, TGF-beta(1), VEGF-C and CK15 genes were closely related to tumor progress of OSCC. They can be used as the target genes for designing oligo-nucleotide functional microarray of OSCC.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology