Makoto M Taketo

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

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Publications (343)2404.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported loss of SMAD4 promotes chemokine CCL15 expression to recruit CCR1+ myeloid cells via the CCL15-CCR1 axis, which facilitates metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the liver. The purposes of this study are to investigate whether essentially the same mechanism works in tumor invasion of the primary CRC and to evaluate the clinical importance of CCL15 expression and CCR1+ cell accumulation. Using human CRC cell lines with reduced expression of SMAD4 or CCL15, we investigated tumor growth activities in vivo. We used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to investigate expression of SMAD4, CCL15 and CCR1 with 333 clinical specimens of primary CRC. We next characterized the CCR1+ cells using double immunofluorescence staining with several specific cell-type markers. Finally, we determined the serum CCL15 levels in 132 CRC patients. In an orthotopic xenograft model, CCL15 secreted from SMAD4-deficient CRC cells recruited CCR1+ cells, resulting in aggressive tumor growth. IHC indicated loss of SMAD4 was significantly associated with CCL15 expression, and that CCL15-positive primary CRCs recruited ~2.2 times more numbers of CCR1+ cells at their invasion front than CCL15-negative CRCs. Importantly, these CCR1+ cells were of the myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) phenotype (CD11b+, CD33+, and HLA-DR-). Most CCR1+ cells showed the granulocytic-MDSC phenotype (CD15+), although some did the monocytic-MDSC phenotype (CD14+). Serum CCL15 levels in CRC patients were significantly higher than in controls. Blocking the recruitment of CCR1+ MDSCs may represent a novel molecular targeted therapy, and serum CCL15 concentration can be a novel biomarker for CRC. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    Bryan R Kuo · Emily M Baldwin · Wanda S Layman · Makoto Mark Taketo · Jian Zuo
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian cochlea exhibit minimal spontaneous regeneration, and loss of sensory hair cells (HCs) results in permanent hearing loss. In nonmammalian vertebrates, spontaneous HC regeneration occurs through both proliferation and differentiation of surrounding supporting cells (SCs). HC regeneration in postnatal mammalian cochleae in vivo remains limited by the small HC number and subsequent death of regenerated HCs. Here, we describe in vivo generation of 10-fold more new HCs in the mouse cochlea than previously reported, most of which survive to adulthood. We achieved this by combining the expression of a constitutively active form of beta-catenin (a canonical Wnt activator) with ectopic expression of Atoh1 (a HC fate determination factor) in neonatal Lgr5(+) cells (the presumed SC and HC progenitors of the postnatal mouse cochlea), and discovered synergistic increases in proliferation and differentiation. The new HCs were predominantly located near the endogenous inner HCs, expressed early HC differentiation markers, and were innervated despite incomplete alignment of presynaptic and postsynaptic markers. Surprisingly, genetic tracing revealed that only a subset of Lgr5(+) cells that lie medial to the inner HCs respond to this combination, highlighting a previously unknown heterogeneity that exists among Lgr5(+) cells. Together, our data indicate that beta-catenin and Atoh1 mediate synergistic effects on both proliferation and differentiation of a subset of neonatal cochlear Lgr5(+) cells, thus overcoming major limitations of HC regeneration in postnatal mouse cochleae in vivo. These results provide a basis for combinatorial therapeutics for hearing restoration.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • Jing Cai · Anirban Maitra · Robert A Anders · Makoto M Taketo · Duojia Pan
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) underlie familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an inherited cancer syndrome characterized by the widespread development of colorectal polyps. APC is best known as a scaffold protein in the β-catenin destruction complex, whose activity is antagonized by canonical Wnt signaling. Whether other effector pathways mediate APC's tumor suppressor function is less clear. Here we report that activation of YAP, the downstream effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, is a general hallmark of tubular adenomas from FAP patients. We show that APC functions as a scaffold protein that facilitates the Hippo kinase cascade by interacting with Sav1 and Lats1. Consistent with the molecular link between APC and the Hippo signaling pathway, genetic analysis reveals that YAP is absolutely required for the development of APC-deficient adenomas. These findings establish Hippo-YAP signaling as a critical effector pathway downstream from APC, independent from its involvement in the β-catenin destruction complex. © 2015 Cai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Genes & development

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Cancer Science
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent demyelinating disease in the CNS that is characterized by inflammatory demyelinating lesions and axonal loss, the morphological correlate of permanent clinical disability. Remyelination does occur, but is limited especially in chronic disease stages. Despite effective immunomodulatory therapies that reduce the number of relapses the progressive disease phase cannot be prevented. Therefore, promotion of neuroprotective and repair mechanisms, such as remyelination, represents an attractive additional treatment strategy. A number of pathways have been identified that may contribute to impaired remyelination in MS lesions, among them the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we demonstrate that indometacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has been also shown to modulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer cells promotes differentiation of primary human and murine oligodendrocytes, myelination of cerebellar slice cultures and remyelination in cuprizone-induced demyelination. Our in vitro experiments using GSK3β inhibitors, luciferase reporter assays and oligodendrocytes expressing a mutant, dominant stable β-catenin indicate that the mechanism of action of indometacin depends on GSK3β activity and β-catenin phosphorylation. Indometacin might represent a promising treatment option to enhance endogenous remyelination in MS patients.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Acta Neuropathologica
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    ABSTRACT: The forced reduction of global DNA methylation suppresses tumor development in several cancer models in vivo. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these suppressive effects remain unclear. In this report, we describe our findings showing that a genome-wide reduction in the DNA methylation levels induces cellular differentiation in association with decreased cell proliferation in Apc(Min/+) mouse colon tumor cells in vivo. Colon tumor-specific DNA methylation at Cdx1 is reduced in the DNA-hypomethylated tumors accompanied by Cdx1 derepression and an increased expression of intestinal differentiation-related genes. Furthermore, a histological analysis revealed that Cdx1 derepression in the DNA-hypomethylated tumors is correlated with the differentiation of colon tumor cells. Similarly, the treatment of human colon cancer cell lines with a hypomethylating agent induces differentiation-related genes, including CDX1. We herein propose that DNA demethylation exerts a tumor suppressive effect in the colon by inducing tumor cell differentiation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Carcinogenesis
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    ABSTRACT: ERK is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that is most closely associated with cell proliferation, and the MEK-ERK signaling pathway is implicated in various human cancers. Although EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF are considered major targets for colon cancer treatment, the precise roles of the MEK-ERK pathway, one of their major downstream effectors, during colon cancer development, remain to be determined. Using Apc(Δ716) mice, a mouse model of familial adenomatous polyposis and early stage of sporadic colon cancer formation, we show that the MEK-ERK signaling is activated not only in adenoma epithelial cells, but also in tumor stromal cells including fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. Eight-week treatment of Apc(Δ716) mice with trametinib, a small-molecule MEK inhibitor significantly reduced the number of polyps in the large size class, accompanied by reduced angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Trametinib treatment reduced the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) level in Apc(Δ716) tumors in vivo, and in primary culture of intestinal fibroblasts in vitro. Antibody array analysis revealed that trametinib and the COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib both reduced the level of CCL2, a chemokine known to be essential for the growth of Apc mutant polyps, in intestinal fibroblasts in vitro. Consistently, trametinib treatment reduced the Ccl2 mRNA level in Apc(Δ716) tumors in vivo. These results suggest that the MEK-ERK signaling plays key roles in intestinal adenoma formation in Apc(Δ716) mice at least in part through COX-2 induction in tumor stromal cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Cancer Science
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    ABSTRACT: We previously found that mouse mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with a G13997A mutation (G13997A mtDNA) controls not only the transformation of cultured lung carcinoma cells from poorly metastatic into highly metastatic cells, but also the transformation of lymphocytes into lymphomas in living C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Because the nuclear genetic background of the B6 strain makes the strain prone to develop lymphomas, here we examined whether G13997A mtDNA independently induces lymphoma development even in mice with the nuclear genetic background of the A/J strain, which is not prone to develop lymphomas. Our results showed that the B6 nuclear genetic background is required for frequent lymphoma development in mice with G13997A mtDNA. Moreover, G13997A mtDNA in mice did not enhance the malignant transformation of lung adenomas into adenocarcinomas or that of hepatocellular carcinomas from poorly metastatic into highly metastatic carcinomas. Therefore, G13997A mtDNA enhances the frequency of lymphoma development under the abnormalities in the B6 nuclear genome, and does not independently control tumor development and tumor progression.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic alterations in the TGFβ signaling pathway in combination with oncogenic alterations lead to cancer development in the intestines. However, the mechanisms of TGFβ signaling suppression in malignant progression of intestinal tumors have not yet been fully understood. We have examined Apc(Δ716) Tgfbr2(ΔIEC) compound mutant mice that carry mutations in Apc and Tgfbr2 genes in the intestinal epithelial cells. We found inflammatory microenvironment only in the invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas but not in noninvasive benign polyps of the same mice. We thus treated simple Tgfbr2(ΔIEC) mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) that causes ulcerative colitis. Importantly, these Tgfbr2(ΔIEC) mice developed invasive colon cancer associated with chronic inflammation. We also found that TGFβ signaling is suppressed in human colitis-associated colon cancer cells. In the mouse invasive tumors, macrophages infiltrated and expressed MT1-MMP, causing MMP2 activation. These results suggest that inflammatory microenvironment contributes to submucosal invasion of TGFβ signaling-repressed epithelial cells through activation of MMP2. We further found that regeneration was impaired in Tgfbr2(ΔIEC) mice for intestinal mucosa damaged by DSS treatment or X-ray irradiation, resulting in the expansion of undifferentiated epithelial cell population. Moreover, organoids of intestinal epithelial cells cultured from irradiated Tgfbr2(ΔIEC) mice formed "long crypts" in Matrigel, suggesting acquisition of an invasive phenotype into the extracellular matrix. These results, taken together, indicate that a simple genetic alteration in the TGFβ signaling pathway in the inflamed and regenerating intestinal mucosa can cause invasive intestinal tumors. Such a mechanism may play a role in the colon carcinogenesis associated with inflammatory bowel disease in humans. Cancer Res; 75(4); 766-76. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Osteocytes, >90% of the cells in bone, lie embedded within the mineralized matrix and coordinate osteoclast and osteoblast activity on bone surfaces by mechanisms still unclear. Bone anabolic stimuli activate Wnt signaling, and human mutations of components along this pathway underscore its crucial role in bone accrual and maintenance. However, the cell responsible for orchestrating Wnt anabolic actions has remained elusive. We show herein that activation of canonical Wnt signaling exclusively in osteocytes [dominant active (da)βcat(Ot) mice] induces bone anabolism and triggers Notch signaling without affecting survival. These features contrast with those of mice expressing the same daß-catenin in osteoblasts, which exhibit decreased resorption and perinatal death from leukemia. daßcat(Ot) mice exhibit increased bone mineral density in the axial and appendicular skeleton, and marked increase in bone volume in cancellous/trabecular and cortical compartments compared with littermate controls. daßcat(Ot) mice display increased resorption and formation markers, high number of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in cancellous and cortical bone, increased bone matrix production, and markedly elevated periosteal bone formation rate. Wnt and Notch signaling target genes, osteoblast and osteocyte markers, and proosteoclastogenic and antiosteoclastogenic cytokines are elevated in bones of daßcat(Ot) mice. Further, the increase in RANKL depends on Sost/sclerostin. Thus, activation of osteocytic β-catenin signaling increases both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, leading to bone gain, and is sufficient to activate the Notch pathway. These findings demonstrate disparate outcomes of β-catenin activation in osteocytes versus osteoblasts and identify osteocytes as central target cells of the anabolic actions of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in bone.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Makoto Mark Taketo
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    ABSTRACT: Loss of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family signaling is implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Using cis-Apc +/Δ716Smad4 +/− mutant (cis-Apc/Smad4) mice, a model of invasive CRC whose TGF-β family signaling is blocked, we have found that immature myeloid cells (iMCs) are recruited from the bone marrow to the tumor invasion front. These iMCs express the matrix metalloproteinases MMP9 and MMP2 and the CC-chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1), and migrate towards the CCR1 ligand CCL9. By deleting Ccr1 in the background of the cis-Apc/Smad4 mutant, we have shown an accumulation of iMCs at the invasion front and suppression of tumor invasion. Furthermore, mouse and human CRC cells secrete CCR1 ligands CCL9 and CCL15, respectively, and recruit the CCR1-expressing iMCs. Loss of the Ccr1, Mmp2, or Mmp9 gene in the host mice dramatically suppresses outgrowths of disseminated tumors in the liver. Consistently, CCR1 antagonist BL5923 blocks the iMC accumulation and metastatic colonization, and significantly prolongs the survival of tumor-bearing mice. These results indicate that loss of TGF-β family signaling in CRC epithelium causes accumulation of iMCs that promote tumor invasion, and that CCR1 antagonists can provide anti-metastatic therapies for patients with disseminated CRC cells in the liver.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Canonical WNT signaling stabilizes β-catenin to determine cell fate in many processes from development onwards. One of its main roles in skeletogenesis is to antagonize the chondrogenic transcription factor SOX9. We here identify the SOXC proteins as potent amplifiers of this pathway. The SOXC genes, i.e., Sox4, Sox11, and Sox12, are coexpressed in skeletogenic mesenchyme, including presumptive joints and perichondrium, but not in cartilage. Their inactivation in mouse embryo limb bud caused massive cartilage fusions, as joint and perichondrium cells underwent chondrogenesis. SOXC proteins govern these cells cell autonomously. They replace SOX9 in the adenomatous polyposis coli–Axin destruction complex and therein inhibit phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK3. This inhibition, a crucial, limiting step in canonical WNT signaling, thus becomes a constitutive event. The resulting SOXC/canonical WNT-mediated synergistic stabilization of β-catenin contributes to efficient repression of Sox9 in presumptive joint and perichondrium cells and thereby ensures proper delineation and articulation of skeletal primordia. This synergy may determine cell fate in many processes besides skeletogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Journal of Cell Biology

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • Makoto Mark Taketo

    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cancer Research
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the APC or β-catenin genes are well established initiators of colorectal cancer (CRC), yet modifiers that facilitate the survival and progression of nascent tumor cells are not well defined. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches in mouse CRC and human CRC xenograft models, we show that incipient intestinal tumor cells activate CDC42, an APC-interacting small GTPase, as a crucial step in malignant progression. In the mouse, Cdc42 ablation attenuated the tumorigenicity of mutant intestinal cells carrying single APC or β-catenin mutations. Similarly, human CRC with relatively higher levels of CDC42 activity were particularly sensitive to CDC42 blockade. Mechanistic studies suggested that Cdc42 may be activated at different levels, including at the level of transcriptional activation of the stem-cell-enriched Rho family exchange factor Arhgef4. Our results suggest that early-stage mutant intestinal epithelial cells must recruit the pleiotropic functions of Cdc42 for malignant progression, suggesting its relevance as a biomarker and therapeutic target for selective CRC intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Canonical WNT signaling is required for proper vascularization of the CNS during embryonic development. Here, we used mice with targeted mutations in genes encoding canonical WNT pathway members to evaluate the exact contribution of these components in CNS vascular development and in specification of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB). We determined that vasculature in various CNS regions is differentially sensitive to perturbations in canonical WNT signaling. The closely related WNT signaling coreceptors LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and LRP6 had redundant functions in brain vascular development and barrier maintenance; however, loss of LRP5 alone dramatically altered development of the retinal vasculature. The BBB in the cerebellum and pons/interpeduncular nuclei was highly sensitive to decrements in canonical WNT signaling, and WNT signaling was required to maintain plasticity of barrier properties in mature CNS vasculature. Brain and retinal vascular defects resulting from ablation of Norrin/Frizzled4 signaling were ameliorated by stabilizing β-catenin, while inhibition of β-catenin-dependent transcription recapitulated the vascular development and barrier defects associated with loss of receptor, coreceptor, or ligand, indicating that Norrin/Frizzled4 signaling acts predominantly through β-catenin-dependent transcriptional regulation. Together, these data strongly support a model in which identical or nearly identical canonical WNT signaling mechanisms mediate neural tube and retinal vascularization and maintain the BBB and BRB.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
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    ABSTRACT: Otic fibrocytes tether the cochlear duct to the surrounding otic capsule but are also critically involved in maintenance of ion homeostasis in the cochlea, thus, perception of sound. The molecular pathways that regulate the development of this heterogenous group of cells from mesenchymal precursors are poorly understood. Here, we identified epithelial Wnt7a and Wnt7b as possible ligands of Fzd-mediated ⎕-catenin (Ctnnb1)-dependent (canonical) Wnt signaling in the adjacent undifferentiated periotic mesenchyme (POM). Mice with a conditional deletion of Ctnnb1 in the POM exhibited a complete failure of fibrocyte differentiation, a severe reduction of mesenchymal cells surrounding the cochlear duct, loss of pericochlear spaces, a thickening and partial loss of the bony capsule and a secondary disturbance of cochlear duct coiling shortly before birth. Analysis at earlier stages revealed that radial patterning of the POM in two domains with highly condensed cartilaginous precursors and more loosely arranged inner mesenchymal cells occurred normally but that proliferation in the inner domain was reduced and cytodifferentiation failed. Cells with mis/overexpression of a stabilized form of Ctnnb1 in the entire POM mesenchyme sorted to the inner mesenchymal compartment and exhibited increased proliferation. Our analysis suggests that Wnt signals from the cochlear duct epithelium are crucial to induce differentiation and expansion of fibrocyte precursor cells. Our findings emphasize the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in inner ear development.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Developmental Biology

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for tissue regeneration. However, it is unclear how β-catenin controls stem cell behaviors to coordinate organized growth. Using live imaging, we show that activation of β-catenin specifically within mouse hair follicle stem cells generates new hair growth through oriented cell divisions and cellular displacement. β-Catenin activation is sufficient to induce hair growth independently of mesenchymal dermal papilla niche signals normally required for hair regeneration. Wild-type cells are co-opted into new hair growths by β-catenin mutant cells, which non–cell autonomously activate Wnt signaling within the neighboring wild-type cells via Wnt ligands. This study demonstrates a mechanism by which Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls stem cell–dependent tissue growth non–cell autonomously and advances our understanding of the mechanisms that drive coordinated regeneration.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Science

Publication Stats

27k Citations
2,404.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2000-2015
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2013
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2008
    • William Penn University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • Kanazawa University
      • Division of Genetics
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 1995-2004
    • Tsukuba Research Institute
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996-2000
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997
    • Osaka University
      • Division of Urology
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
    • Central Institute for Experimental Animals
      Kawasaki Si, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 1995-1996
    • Kanazawa Medical University
      Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan
  • 1994
    • Yale University
      • Department of Neurology
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 1992-1994
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States