[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies.
This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005. We reviewed late recurrence that occurred at least 2 years after the initial disease-free status and secondary malignancies as well as oncological outcomes.
In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively. Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status. Second primary hematological neoplasms occurred in three (2.2%), although they had a long-term free of the primary disease. All died of the second primary disease.
Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible. Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence. In addition, care should be taken to watch for the development of life-threatening second primary malignant disease during long-term follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To determine the clinical and pathologic risk factors for initial intravesical recurrence in patients with primary renal pelvic and/or ureteral cancer and to examine the progression in the bladder in patients having high risk factors for intravesical recurrence.Methods. This study included 69 patients with renal pelvic and/or ureteral cancer. We excluded patients with distant metastases, those with a short period of follow-up, and those having a previous history or concomitance of bladder cancer. The exclusion criteria were chosen to avoid contamination by patients with a poor prognosis who might die of the primary cancer before bladder cancer development. Multivariate analysis by Cox’s proportional hazards model was used to determine what clinical and pathologic variables significantly affected the initial intravesical recurrence of cancer. We also studied the stage progression of cancer that recurred in the bladder.Results. Initial intravesical recurrence of the cancer was found in 22 patients during a median follow-up period of 53 months (range 12 to 225). The intravesical disease-free rate after upper tract urothelial cancer was 65% (rate of disease recurrence in bladder 35%) at 5 years by the Kaplan-Meier method. The extent (multifocality) of the upper urinary cancer (P = 0.0038) and pathologic stage (P = 0.0409) independently influenced intravesical recurrence. Age, sex, adjuvant chemotherapy, configuration of the primary tumor, primary cancer size, and pathologic grade did not affect recurrence. The rate of stage progression also was not influenced by the extent of the disease in the upper urinary tract.Conclusions. The extent and pathologic stage of cancer in the upper urinary tract were significant and independent factors for initial intravesical recurrence of cancer. However, no difference was found in clinical outcome in terms of stage progression between patients having high risk factors for intravesical recurrence and those without them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in patients with carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter.
68 patients without distant metastasis were included in this study. Multivariate analysis by Cox's proportional hazards model was applied to detect the prognostic factor(s).
12 patients (17.6%) had nodal involvement. More than 10% of the patients with pT1-2 showed nodal metastasis. Preoperatively determined clinical factors were not a predictive factor for nodal involvement. Nodal metastasis was the only significant negative prognostic factor for patient survival by multivariate analysis.
Lymph node dissection is valuable to predict the clinical outcome of the patients with carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. Attention should be paid to nodal status to select patients for conservative surgery.