Matthias Schwab

Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (452)2694.19 Total impact


  • No preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Genome Medicine
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2016
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the influence of CYP2C19 variants and associated haplotypes on the disposition of tamoxifen and its metabolites, particularly norendoxifen (NorEND), in Asian breast cancer patients. Sixty-six CYP2C19 polymorphisms were identified in healthy Asians (N = 240), of which 14 were found to be tightly linked with CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17. These 17 SNPs were further genotyped in Asian breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen (N = 201). Steady-state concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Non-parametric tests and regression methods were implemented to evaluate genotypic-phenotypic associations and haplotypic effects of the SNPs. CYP2C19 functional polymorphisms and their linked SNPs were not significantly associated with plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and its main metabolites N-desmethyltamoxifen, (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen and (Z)-Endoxifen. However, CYP2C19*2 and its 7 linked SNPs were significantly associated with lower NorEND levels, MRNorEND/NDDM and MRNorEND/(Z)-END. Specifically, patients carrying CYP2C19*2 variant allele A had significantly lower NorEND levels [GG vs. GA vs. AA: 1.51 (0.38-3.28) vs. 1.28 (0.30-3.36) vs. 1.15 ng/mL (0.26-2.45, P = 0.010)] as well as significantly lower MRNorEND/(Z)-END [GG vs. GA vs. AA: 9.40 (3.27-28.35) vs. 8.15 (2.67-18.9) vs. 6.06 (4.47-14.6), P < 0.0001] and MRNorEND/NDDM [GG vs. GA vs. AA: 2.75 (0.62-6.26) vs. 2.43 (0.96-4.18) vs. 1.75 (1.10-2.49), P < 0.00001]. CYP2C19 H2 haplotype, which included CYP2C19*2, was also significantly associated with lower NorEND levels (P = 0.0020), MRNorEND/NDDM (P < 0.0001) and MRNorEND/(Z)-END (P < 0.0001), indicating significantly lower formation rates of NorEND. These data highlight the potential relevance of CYP2C19 pharmacogenetics in influencing NorEND levels in tamoxifen-treated patients, which may influence treatment outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current artesunate (ARS) regimens for severe malaria are complex. Once daily intramuscular (i.m.) injection for 3 d would be simpler and more appropriate for remote health facilities than the current WHO-recommended regimen of five intravenous (i.v.) or i.m. injections over 4 d. We compared both a three-dose i.m. and a three-dose i.v. parenteral ARS regimen with the standard five-dose regimen using a non-inferiority design (with non-inferiority margins of 10%). Methods and findings: This randomized controlled trial included children (0.5-10 y) with severe malaria at seven sites in five African countries to assess whether the efficacy of simplified three-dose regimens is non-inferior to a five-dose regimen. We randomly allocated 1,047 children to receive a total dose of 12 mg/kg ARS as either a control regimen of five i.m. injections of 2.4 mg/kg (at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h) (n = 348) or three injections of 4 mg/kg (at 0, 24, and 48 h) either i.m. (n = 348) or i.v. (n = 351), both of which were the intervention arms. The primary endpoint was the proportion of children with ≥99% reduction in parasitemia at 24 h from admission values, measured by microscopists who were blinded to the group allocations. Primary analysis was performed on the per-protocol population, which was 96% of the intention-to-treat population. Secondary analyses included an analysis of host and parasite genotypes as risks for prolongation of parasite clearance kinetics, measured every 6 h, and a Kaplan-Meier analysis to compare parasite clearance kinetics between treatment groups. A post hoc analysis was performed for delayed anemia, defined as hemoglobin ≤ 7g/dl 7 d or more after admission. The per-protocol population was 1,002 children (five-dose i.m.: n = 331; three-dose i.m.: n = 338; three-dose i.v.: n = 333); 139 participants were lost to follow-up. In the three-dose i.m. arm, 265/338 (78%) children had a ≥99% reduction in parasitemia at 24 h compared to 263/331 (79%) receiving the five-dose i.m. regimen, showing non-inferiority of the simplified three-dose regimen to the conventional five-dose regimen (95% CI -7, 5; p = 0.02). In the three-dose i.v. arm, 246/333 (74%) children had ≥99% reduction in parasitemia at 24 h; hence, non-inferiority of this regimen to the five-dose control regimen was not shown (95% CI -12, 1; p = 0.24). Delayed parasite clearance was associated with the N86YPfmdr1 genotype. In a post hoc analysis, 192/885 (22%) children developed delayed anemia, an adverse event associated with increased leukocyte counts. There was no observed difference in delayed anemia between treatment arms. A potential limitation of the study is its open-label design, although the primary outcome measures were assessed in a blinded manner. Conclusions: A simplified three-dose i.m. regimen for severe malaria in African children is non-inferior to the more complex WHO-recommended regimen. Parenteral ARS is associated with a risk of delayed anemia in African children. Trial registration: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201102000277177.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS Medicine
  • Pascale Fisel · Elke Schaeffeler · Matthias Schwab
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    ABSTRACT: DNA methylation; ADME genes; drug response
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane transporters are key determinants of therapeutic outcomes. They regulate systemic and cellular drug levels influencing efficacy as well as toxicities. Here, we report a unique phosphorylation-dependent interaction between drug-transporters and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) which has uncovered widespread phosphotyrosine-mediated regulation of drug-transporters. We initially found that organic cation transporters (OCTs), uptake-carriers of metformin and oxaliplatin, were inhibited by several clinically-used TKIs. Mechanistic studies showed that these TKIs inhibit the Src family kinase Yes1, which was found to be essential for OCT2 tyrosine phosphorylation and function. Yes1 inhibition in vivo diminished OCT2 activity, significantly mitigating oxaliplatin-induced acute sensory neuropathy. Along with OCT2, other SLC-family drug-transporters are potentially part of an extensive ‘transporter-phosphoproteome’ with unique susceptibility to TKIs. Based on these findings we propose that TKIs, an important and rapidly expanding class of therapeutics, can functionally modulate pharmacologically important proteins by inhibiting protein kinases essential for their post-translational regulation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Nature Communications
  • Anne T Nies · Tarek Magdy · Matthias Schwab · Ulrich M Zanger
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    ABSTRACT: Since over 50 years, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is in use as backbone of chemotherapy treatment regimens for a wide range of cancers including colon, breast, and head and neck carcinomas. However, drug resistance and severe toxicities such as mucositis, diarrhea, neutropenia, and vomiting in up to 40% of treated patients often lead to dose limitation or treatment discontinuation. Because the oral bioavailability of 5-FU is unpredictable and highly variable, 5-FU is commonly administered intravenously. To overcome medical complications and inconvenience associated with intravenous administration, the oral prodrugs capecitabine and tegafur have been developed. Both fluoropyrimidines are metabolically converted intracellularly to 5-FU, which then needs metabolic activation to exert its damaging activity on RNA and DNA. The low response rates of 10-15% of 5-FU monotherapy can be improved by combination regimens of infusional 5-FU and leucovorin together with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan (FOLFIRI), thereby increasing response rates to 30-40%. The impact of metabolizing enzymes in the development of fluoropyrimidine toxicity and resistance has been studied in great detail. In addition, membrane drug transporters, which are critical determinants of intracellular drug concentrations, may play a role in occurrence of toxicity and development of resistance against fluoropyrimidine-based therapy as well. This review therefore summarizes current knowledge on the role of drug transporters with particular focus on ATP-binding cassette transporters in fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy response. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Advances in Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: The presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone steroid hormone receptor expression (ER, PR) is an essential feature of invasive breast cancer and determines prognosis and endocrine treatment decisions. Among the four ER/PR receptor phenotypes, the ER-/PR+ is infrequent, and its clinical relevance has been controversially discussed. Thus, we investigated its clinical significance and gene expression pattern in large datasets. In a retrospective clinical study of 15,747 breast cancer patients, we determined the ER/PR subtype survival probabilities using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. From The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) breast cancer dataset, PAM50 expression signature and pathway analyses were performed to test for distinct molecular features. In our cohort, the ER-/PR+ phenotype has been observed at a frequency of 4.1 % and was associated with an improved 10-year survival for stage I cancers compared to the ER+/PR+ reference subtype (median; 95 % CI 88.1 %; 83-93 vs. 84.3 %; 82-86 %, P = 0.024) as was confirmed by multivariate analysis over the entire follow-up (HR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.38-0.92, P = 0.021). This association lacked significance when including all stages. ER-/PR+ patients treated with antihormonal agents (34.5 %) had shorter survival compared to their non-treated counterparts (Log-rank P = 0.0001). PAM50 signatures suggest a distinct configuration for the ER-/PR+ phenotype. This specific phenotype has been further separated by a set of 59 uniquely expressed genes. Our study supports the notion of the existence of an ER-/PR+ phenotype with clinical and molecular features distinct from the large group of ER+/PR+ patients.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Risk classification and prediction of prognosis in GIST is still a matter of debate. Data on the impact of age and gender as potential confounding factors are limited. Therefore we comprehensively investigated age and gender as independent risk factors for GIST. Two independent patient cohorts (cohort I, n = 87 [<50 years]; cohort II, n = 125 [≥50 years]) were extracted from the multicentre Ulmer GIST registry including a total of 659 GIST patients retrospectively collected in 18 collaborative German oncological centers. Based on demographic and clinicopathological parameters and a median follow-up time of 4.3 years (range 0.56; 21.33) disease-specific-survival (DSS), disease-free-survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. GIST patients older than fifty years showed significantly worse DSS compared to younger patients (p = 0.021; HR = 0.307, 95% CI [0.113; 0.834]). DSS was significantly more favorable in younger female GIST patients compared with elderly females (p = 0.008). Female gender resulted again in better prognosis in younger patients (p = 0.033). Patient age (<50 years) and female gender were significantly associated with a more favourable prognosis in GIST. Extended studies are warranted to confirm our clinical results and to elucidate underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P450, CYP2C8, metabolizes more than 60 clinically used drugs as well as endogenous substances including retinoic acid and arachidonic acid. However, predictive factors for interindividual variability in the efficacy and toxicity of CYP2C8 drug substrates are essentially lacking. Recently we demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor primarily involved in control of lipid and energy homeostasis directly regulates the transcription of CYP3A4. Here we investigated the potential regulation of CYP2C8 by PPARα. Two linked intronic SNPs in PPARα (rs4253728, rs4823613) previously associated with hepatic CYP3A4 status showed significant association with CYP2C8 protein level in human liver samples (N = 150). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knock-down of PPARα in HepaRG human hepatocyte cells resulted in up to ∼60 and ∼50% downregulation of CYP2C8 mRNA and activity, while treatment with the PPARα agonist WY14,643 lead to an induction by >150 and >100%, respectively. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation scanning assay we identified a specific upstream gene region that is occupied in vivo by PPARα. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated direct binding of PPARα to a DR-1 motif located at positions –2762/–2775 bp upstream of the CYP2C8 transcription start site. We further validated the functional activity of this element using luciferase reporter gene assays in HuH7 cells. Moreover, based on our previous studies we demonstrated that WNT/β-catenin acts as a functional inhibitor of PPARα-mediated inducibility of CYP2C8 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest direct involvement of PPARα in both constitutive and inducible regulation of CYP2C8 expression in human liver, which is further modulated by WNT/β-catenin pathway. PPARA gene polymorphism could have a modest influence on CYP2C8 phenotype.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: This manuscript provides nomenclature recommendations developed by an international workgroup to increase transparency and standardization of pharmacogenetic (PGx) result reporting. Presently, sequence variants identified by PGx tests are described using different nomenclature systems. In addition, PGx analysis may detect different sets of variants for each gene, which can affect interpretation of results. This practice has caused confusion and may thereby impede the adoption of clinical PGx testing. Standardization is critical to move PGx forward. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We have demonstrated previously that enzymatically degraded low-density lipoprotein (eLDL) is an essential causative component for the initiation of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the different stages of human aortic valve sclerosis for the presence of eLDL and effectors of the innate immune system, as well as the interaction of eLDL with isolated valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts to discover possible pathways leading to aortic valve sclerosis. Methods and results: Human aortic valvular tissue was obtained from 68 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery. Patients were classified into 3 groups (mild, moderate, or severe aortic valve sclerosis), and clinical data for statistical analysis were gathered from all patients. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated extensive extracellular deposits of eLDL throughout all grades of aortic valve sclerosis. Complementary analysis of lipid composition revealed higher concentrations of the decisive components of eLDL (ie, unesterified cholesterol and linoleic acid) compared with internal control tissues. Further, the complement component C3d and terminal complement complexes colocalized with eLDL compatible with the proposal that subendothelially deposited eLDL is enzymatically transformed into a complement activator at early stages of valvular cusp lesion development. Gene expression profiles of proteases and complement components corroborated by immunohistochemistry demonstrated an upregulation of the protease cathepsin D (a possible candidate for LDL degradation to eLDL) and the complement inhibitor CD55. Surprisingly, substantial C-reactive protein expression was not observed before grade 2 aortic valve sclerosis as investigated with microarray analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Finally, we demonstrated cellular uptake of eLDL by valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts. Conclusions: The present study is a startup of a hypothesis on the pathogenesis of aortic valve sclerosis declaring extracellular lipoprotein modification, subsequent complement activation, and cellular uptake by valvular interstitial cells/myofibroblasts as integral players.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Systemic glucocorticoids reduce the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia among extremely preterm infants, but they may compromise brain development. The effects of inhaled glucocorticoids on outcomes in these infants are unclear. Methods: We randomly assigned 863 infants (gestational age, 23 weeks 0 days to 27 weeks 6 days) to early (within 24 hours after birth) inhaled budesonide or placebo until they no longer required oxygen and positive-pressure support or until they reached a postmenstrual age of 32 weeks 0 days. The primary outcome was death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, confirmed by means of standardized oxygen-saturation monitoring, at a postmenstrual age of 36 weeks. Results: A total of 175 of 437 infants assigned to budesonide for whom adequate data were available (40.0%), as compared with 194 of 419 infants assigned to placebo for whom adequate data were available (46.3%), died or had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.00; P=0.05). The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 27.8% in the budesonide group versus 38.0% in the placebo group (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P=0.004); death occurred in 16.9% and 13.6% of the patients, respectively (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.69; P=0.17). The proportion of infants who required surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus was lower in the budesonide group than in the placebo group (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.83; P=0.004), as was the proportion of infants who required reintubation (relative risk, stratified according to gestational age, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.96; P=0.03). Rates of other neonatal illnesses and adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions: Among extremely preterm infants, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was lower among those who received early inhaled budesonide than among those who received placebo, but the advantage may have been gained at the expense of increased mortality. (Funded by the European Union and Chiesi Farmaceutici; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01035190.).
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical pharmacology is a medical specialty whose practitioners teach, undertake research, frame policy, give information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implement that knowledge in clinical practice. It involves a combination of several activities: drug discovery and development; training safe prescribers; providing objective and evidence-based therapeutic information to ethics, regulatory and pricing bodies; supporting patient care in an increasingly subspecialized arena where co-morbidities, polypharmacy, altered pharmacokinetics and drug interactions are common; and developing and contributing to medicines policies for Governments. Clinical pharmacologists must advocate drug quality. And they must also advocate for sustainability of the Discipline. However for this they need appropriate clinical service and training support. This Commentary discusses strategies to: ensure the Discipline is supported by teaching, training and policy organisations; communicate the full benefits of clinical pharmacology services; put a monetary value on clinical pharmacology services and to grow the clinical pharmacology workforce to support a growing clinical, academic and regulatory need. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The best-known cause of intolerance to fluoropyrimidines is dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency, which can result from deleterious polymorphisms in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD), including DPYD*2A and c.2846A>T. Three other variants—DPYD c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A—have been associated with DPD deficiency, but no definitive evidence for the clinical validity of these variants is available. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the clinical validity of c.1679T>G, c.1236G>A/HapB3, and c.1601G>A as predictors of severe fluoropyrimidine-associated toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Lancet Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Membrane transporters play an essential role in the transport of endogenous and exogenous compounds, and consequently they mediate the uptake, distribution, and excretion of many drugs. The clinical relevance of transporters in drug disposition and their effect in adults have been shown in drug-drug interaction and pharmacogenomic studies. Little is known, however, about the ontogeny of human membrane transporters and their roles in pediatric pharmacotherapy. As they are involved in the transport of endogenous substrates, growth and development may be important determinants of their expression and activity. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge on human membrane transporters in pediatric drug disposition and effect. Existing pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic data on membrane substrate drugs frequently used in children are presented and related, where possible, to existing ex vivo data, providing a basis for developmental patterns for individual human membrane transporters. As data for individual transporters are currently still scarce, there is a striking information gap regarding the role of human membrane transporters in drug therapy in children.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Pharmacokinetics
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    ABSTRACT: Methods: CD147 protein expression was assessed in two independent ccRCC-cohorts (n = 186, n = 59) by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and subsequent manual as well as automated software-supported scoring (Tissue Studio, Definien sAG). Epigenetic regulation of CD147 was investigated using RNAseq and DNA methylation data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. These results were validated in our cohort. Relevance of prognostic models for cancer-specific survival, comprising CD147 and MCT4 expression or SLC16A3 DNA methylation, was compared using chi-square statistics. Results: CD147 protein expression generated with Tissue Studio correlated significantly with those from manual scoring (P < 0.0001, rS = 0.85), indicating feasibility of software-based evaluation exemplarily for the membrane protein CD147 in ccRCC. Association of CD147 expression with patient outcome differed between cohorts. DNA methylation in the CD147/BSG promoter was not associated with expression. Comparison of prognostic relevance of CD147/BSG and MCT4/SLC16A3, showed higher significance for MCT4 expression and superior prognostic power for DNA methylation at specific CpG-sites in the SLC16A3 promoter (e.g. CD147 protein: P = 0.7780,Harrell's c-index = 53.7% vs. DNA methylation: P = 0.0076, Harrell's c-index = 80.0%). Conclusions: Prognostic significance of CD147 protein expression could not surpass that of MCT4, especially of SLC16A3 DNA methylation, corroborating the role of MCT4 as prognostic biomarker for ccRCC.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Oncotarget
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide due to polymorphisms in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and OATP1B1 has been extensively studied. However, it is still unknown how much of variation in pharmacokinetics of these two clinically important drugs in total is due to genetic factors. Metoprolol and torsemide were intravenously administered to 44 monozygotic and 14 dizygotic twin pairs. Metoprolol AUC varied 4.7-fold and torsemide AUC 3.5-fold. A very high fraction of AUC variations, 91% of metoprolol and 86% of torsemide, were found to be due to additive genetic effects. However, known genetic variants of CYP2D6, -2C9 and OATP1B1 explained only 39%, 2% and 39% of that variation. Comparable results for genetically explained variation in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have been found for other substrates of these enzymes earlier. These findings indicate that a substantial fraction of the heritable variability in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol and torsemide remains to be elucidated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics
  • M Schwab · E Schäffeler · U Klotz · G Treiber

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie

Publication Stats

16k Citations
2,694.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2016
    • Universitätsklinikum Tübingen
      • • Division of Clinical Pharmacology
      • • Division of Neurogastroenterology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of Urology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2015
    • German Cancer Research Center
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Universität Ulm
      • Institute of Pathology
      Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2008-2015
    • Universität Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2007-2015
    • University of Tuebingen
      • Division of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1997-2014
    • Institut für klinische Pharmakologie
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2013
    • University of Greifswald
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2012
    • Binghamton University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Binghamton, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2006
    • Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
      • Institut für Pharmazeutische Biologie
      Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 2004
    • Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Robert-Bosch Krankenhaus
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003
    • Klinikum Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
      • Department of Biology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 1999
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany