[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We measured antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity in serum and genital fluids of heterosexually exposed women during HIV seroconversion.
Plasma and cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) fluid from 11 seroconverters (SC) were analyzed biannually from one year pre- to 6 year post-seroconversion using a (51)Cr-release assay to measure HIV-1 gp120 specific ADCC.
No SC had significant HIV specific CVL ADCC activity before seroconversion or until 1.5 yr after seroconversion. One individual had a %Specific Release (SR) of 25.4 at 2 years, 26.7 at 3 years and 21.0 at 4 years after seroconversion in CVL. Another sample had 4.7% SR at 2 years, 5.3 at 3 years, 10.9 at 4 years, and 8.4 at 5 years after seroconversion in CVL. A third had no activity until 17% SR 5 years after seroconversion in CVL. A fourth showed activity of 36.5% SR at 6.5 years after seroconversion. Seven women had no ADCC activity in their CVL. Paired serum samples showed HIV specific ADCC activity prior to the appearance of CVL ADCC activity.
HIV specific ADCC activity in CVL rose 2 years after seroconversion; ADCC was present in the serum prior to this time. These data suggest that genital tract ADCC activity is not present until well after acute infection.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: APOL1 genotype is associated with advanced kidney disease in African Americans, but the pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. Here, associations of APOL1 genotype with urine biomarkers of glomerular and tubular injury and kidney function decline were evaluated.
431 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African American women enrolled in Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).
Albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), 4 tubular injury biomarkers (interleukin 18 [IL-18], kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1], neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], and α1-microglobulin [A1M]), and kidney function estimated using the CKD-EPI cystatin C equation.
Participants were genotyped for APOL1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs73885319 (G1 allele) and rs71785313 (G2 allele). Urine biomarkers were measured using stored samples from 1999-2000. Cystatin C was measured using serum collected at baseline and 4- and 8-year follow-ups.
At baseline, ACRs were higher among 47 women with 2 APOL1 risk alleles versus 384 women with 0/1 risk allele (median, 24 vs 11mg/g; P<0.001). Compared with women with 0/1 risk allele, women with 2 risk alleles had 104% higher ACRs (95% CI, 29-223mg/g) and 2-fold greater risk of ACR>30 (95% CI, 1.17-3.44) mg/g after multivariable adjustment. APOL1 genotype showed little association with urine IL-18:Cr ratio, KIM-1:Cr ratio, and NGAL:Cr ratio (estimates of -5% [95% CI, -24% to 18%], -20% [95% CI, -36% to -1%], and 10% [95% CI, -26% to 64%], respectively) or detectable urine A1M (prevalence ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.65-1.97) in adjusted analyses. Compared with women with 0/1 allele, women with 2 risk alleles had faster eGFR decline, by 1.2 (95% CI, 0.2 to 2.2) mL/min/1.73m(2) per year, and 1.7- and 3.4-fold greater rates of incident chronic kidney disease (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5) and 10% annual eGFR decline (95% CI, 1.7 to 6.7), respectively, with minimal attenuation after adjustment for glomerular and tubular injury biomarker levels.
Results may not be generalizable to men.
Among HIV-infected African American women, APOL1-associated kidney injury appears to localize to the glomerulus, rather than the tubules.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objectivesDespite advances in therapy, HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk for kidney dysfunction than uninfected individuals. It was hypothesized that urine levels of 1-microglobulin, a biomarker of proximal tubular dysfunction, would predict kidney function decline and mortality risk in HIV-infected and uninfected women.Design, setting, participants, & measurementsIn the Women's Interagency HIV Study, urine 1-microglobulin and creatinine concentrations were measured in 903 HIV-infected and 287 uninfected women using stored urine from 1999 to 2000, when prevalence of tenofovir use was <1%. Participants were categorized into three categories by level of 1-microglobulin-to-creatinine ratio, and associations with kidney decline and all-cause mortality over 8 years were evaluated.ResultsUrine 1-microglobulin was detectable in 60% of HIV-infected and 40% of uninfected women (P<0.001). Among HIV-infected women, there were 177 (22%), 61 (7%), and 128 (14%) patients with incident CKD, with 10% annual eGFR decline, and who died, respectively. Compared with HIV-infected women in the lowest 1-microglobulin category, HIV-infected women in the highest 1-microglobulin category had a 2.1-fold risk of incident CKD (95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 3.4), 2.7-fold risk of 10% annual eGFR decline (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 5.9), and 1.6-fold mortality risk (95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 2.6) in models adjusting for kidney risk factors, baseline eGFR, and albuminuria. Among uninfected women, the highest 1-microglobulin category was associated with 3% (relative risk, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 3.5) and 5% (relative risk, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 4.3) annual eGFR decline relative to the lowest 1-microglobulin category.Conclusions
Proximal tubular dysfunction, indicated by urine 1-microglobulin, was independently associated with kidney function decline in HIV-infected and uninfected women and mortality risk among HIV-infected women.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : In HIV negatives, markers of hemostasis, including D-dimer, factor VIII, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (PAI-1), and total protein S are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. In HIV positives, studies of D-dimer and factor VIII with death were limited to short follow-up; associations of PAI-1 and total protein S with death have not been examined. In 674 HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, markers from the first visit after enrollment were exposures of interest in multivariate analyses of death (AIDS and non-AIDS) in separate models at 5 and 16 years. There were 87 AIDS and 44 non-AIDS deaths at 5 years, and 159 AIDS and 113 non-AIDS deaths at 16 years. An inverse association of total protein S quartiles with non-AIDS deaths was observed at 5 (P trend = 0.002) and 16 years (P trend = 0.02); there was no association with AIDS deaths. The third quartile of PAI-1 was associated with AIDS deaths at 5 [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 8.4] and 16 years (HR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.9 to 5.9); and with non-AIDS deaths at 5 years (HR = 4.8; 95% CI: 1.6 to 13.9). D-dimer and factor VIII were not associated with AIDS or non-AIDS death at 5 or 16 years. Lower total Protein S was a consistent marker of non-AIDS death. We found no association between D-dimer with AIDS or non-AIDS death, in contrast to previous studies showing increased short-term (<5 years) mortality, which may represent sex differences or population heterogeneity. Given longer survival on highly active antiretroviral therapy, further studies of these markers are needed to determine their prognostic value.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum albumin concentrations are a strong predictor of mortality and cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. We studied the longitudinal associations between serum albumin levels and kidney function decline in a population of HIV-infected women.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : We describe four solid-organ transplant recipients with donor-derived West Nile virus (WNV) infection (encephalitis 3, asymptomatic 1) from a common donor residing in a region of increased WNV activity. All four transplant recipients had molecular evidence of WNV infection in their serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Serum from the organ donor was positive for WNV IgM but negative for WNV RNA, whereas his lymph node and spleen tissues tested positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Combination therapy included intravenous immunoglobulin (4 cases), interferon (3 cases), fresh frozen plasma with WNV IgG (2 cases), and ribavirin (1 case). Two of the four transplant recipients survived.Review of the 20 published cases of organ-derived WNV infection found that this infection is associated with a high incidence of neuroinvasive disease (70%) and severe morbidity and mortality (30%). Median time to onset of symptomatic WNV infection was 13 days after transplantation (range 5-37 days). Initial unexplained fever unresponsive to antibiotic therapy followed by rapid onset of neurologic deficits was the most common clinical presentation. Confirmation of infection was made by testing serum and CSF for both WNV RNA by RT-PCR and WNV IgM by serological assays. Treatment usually included supportive care, reduction of immunosuppression, and frequent intravenous immunoglobulin. The often negative results for WNV by current RT-PCR and serological assays and the absence of clinical signs of acute infection in donors contribute to the sporadic occurrence of donor-derived WNV infection. Potential organ donors should be assessed for unexplained fever and neurological symptoms, particularly if they reside in areas of increased WNV activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in HIV-infected individuals, and is associated with mortality in both the HIV-infected and general populations. Urinary markers of tubular injury have been associated with future kidney disease risk, but associations with mortality are unknown.
We evaluated the associations of urinary interleukin-18 (IL-18), liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with 10-year, all-cause death in 908 HIV-infected women. Serum cystatin C was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys).
There were 201 deaths during 9269 person-years of follow-up. After demographic adjustment, compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertiles of IL-18 [hazard ratio (HR) 2.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-3.68], KIM-1 (HR 2.04; 95% CI 1.44-2.89), NGAL (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.05-2.14) and ACR (HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.13-2.36) were associated with higher mortality. After multivariable adjustment including adjustment for eGFRcys, only the highest tertiles of IL-18 (HR 1.88; 95% CI 1.29-2.74) and ACR (HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.01-2.12) remained independently associated with mortality. Findings for KIM-1 were borderline (HR 1.41; 95% CI 0.99-2.02). We found a J-shaped association between L-FABP and mortality. Compared with persons in the lowest tertile, the HR for the middle tertile of L-FABP was 0.67 (95% CI 0.46-0.98) after adjustment. Associations were stronger when IL-18, ACR and L-FABP were simultaneously included in models.
Among HIV-infected women, some urinary markers of tubular injury are associated with mortality risk, independently of eGFRcys and ACR. These markers represent potential tools with which to identify early kidney injury in persons with HIV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In HIV-infected women, urine concentrations of novel tubulointerstitial injury markers, interleukin-18 (IL-18) and kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1) are associated with kidney function decline and all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that HIV-infected individuals with preserved kidney filtration function would have more extensive kidney injury, as determined by urine injury markers, compared to the uninfected controls, and that risk factors for tubulointerstitial injury would differ from risk factors for albuminuria.
In this cross-sectional study, we compared urine concentrations of IL-18, KIM-1, and ACR in 908 HIV-infected and 289 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, utilizing stored urine specimens from visits between 1999 and 2000.
After multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis, mean urine concentrations were higher in HIV-infected individuals by 38% for IL-18 (p<0.0001), 12% for KIM-1 (p=0.081), and 47% for ACR (p<0.0001). Higher HIV RNA level (15% per 10-fold increase, p<0.0001), lower CD4 count (8% per doubling, p=0.0025), HCV infection (30%, p=0.00018), and lower HDL (5% per 10 mg/dL, p=0.0024) were each associated with higher IL-18 concentrations. In contrast, hypertension (81%, p<0.0001) and diabetes (47%, p=0.018) were among the strongest predictors of higher ACR, though HIV RNA level (15% per 10-fold increase, p=0.0004) was also associated with higher ACR.
HIV-infected women had more extensive tubulointerstitial and glomerular injury than uninfected women, but the associated factors differed among the urine biomarkers. Combinations of urinary biomarkers should be investigated to further characterize early kidney injury in HIV-infected women.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Antiviral therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Cystatin C could improve chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification in HIV-infected women relative to serum creatinine. DESIGN:: Retrospective cohort analysis. METHODS:: Cystatin C and creatinine were measured from specimens taken and stored during the 1999-2000 exam among 908 HIV-infected participants in the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS). Mean follow-up was 10.2 years. Predictors of differential GFR estimates were evaluated with multivariable linear regression. The associations of baseline categories (<60, 60-90, and >90 mL/min/1.73m) of creatinine eGFR (eGFRcr), cystatin C eGFR (eGFRcys), and combined creatinine-cystatin C eGFR (eGFRcr-cys) with all-cause mortality were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression. The net reclassification index (NRI) was calculated to evaluate the effect of cystatin C on reclassification of CKD staging. RESULTS:: CKD risk factors were associated with lower eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys values compared to eGFRcr. Relative to eGFR >90, the eGFR <60 category by eGFRcys (Adjusted HR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.63, 4.02), eGFRcr-cys (3.11; 1.94-5.00), and eGFRcr (2.34; 1.44-3.79) was associated with increased mortality risk. However, the eGFR 60-90 category was associated with increased mortality risk for eGFRcys (1.80; 1.28-2.53) and eGFRcr-cys (1.91; 1.38-2.66) but not eGFRcr (1.20; 0.85-1.67). The overall NRI for mortality was 26% when reclassifying from eGFRcr to eGFRcys (p < 0.001) and was 20% when reclassifying from eGFRcr to eGFRcr-cys (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION:: The addition of cystatin C may improve mortality risk prediction by stages of kidney function relative to creatinine. CKD risk factors are associated with an overestimate of GFR by serum creatinine relative to cystatin C.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with HIV infection exhibit high cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG levels, but there are few data regarding the association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with the immune response against CMV.
Associations of HCV with CMV seropositivity and CMV IgG levels were studied in 635 HIV-infected women, 187 of whom were HCV-seropositive, with adjustment in multivariable models for age, race/ethnicity, and HIV disease characteristics. Eighty one percent of the women reported receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prior to or at CMV testing.
In adjusted models women with chronic HCV had higher CMV IgG levels than those without HCV RNA (β = 2.86, 95% CI:0.89 - 4.83; P = 0.004). The association of HCV RNA with CMV IgG differed by age (P interaction = 0.0007), with a strong association observed among women in the low and middle age tertiles (≤45.3 years of age; β = 6.21, 95% CI:3.30 - 9.11, P<0.0001) but not among women in the high age tertile. CMV IgG levels were not associated with non-invasive measures of liver disease, APRI and FIB-4, or with HCV RNA level and adjustment for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgG levels did not affect the association between HCV and CMV.
CMV IgG levels are higher in HCV/HIV co-infected women than in HIV mono-infected women. Further research on the association of HCV with CMV IgG is indicated because prior studies have found CMV IgG to be associated with morbidity and mortality in the general population and subclinical carotid artery disease in HIV-infected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Systemic and mucosal inflammation may play a role in HIV control. A cross-sectional comparison was conducted among women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study to explore the hypothesis that compared with HIV-uninfected participants, women with HIV, and, in particular, those with high plasma viral load (PVL) have increased levels of mucosal and systemic inflammatory mediators and impaired mucosal endogenous antimicrobial activity.
Nineteen HIV-uninfected, 40 HIV-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PVL ≤ 2600 copies/mL (low viral load) (HIV-LVL), and 19 HIV-infected on or off ART with PVL >10,000 (high viral load) (HIV-HVL) were evaluated. Immune mediators and viral RNA were quantified in plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). The CVL antimicrobial activity was also determined.
Compared to HIV-uninfected participants, HIV-HVL women had higher levels of mucosal but not systemic proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, higher Nugent scores, and lower Escherichia coli bactericidal activity. In contrast, there were no significant differences between HIV-LVL and HIV-uninfected controls. After adjusting for PVL, HIV genital tract shedding was significantly associated with higher CVL concentrations of IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-1α, and CCL5 (RANTES) and higher plasma concentrations of MIP-1α. High PVL was associated with higher CVL levels of IL-1β and RANTES, as well as with higher Nugent scores, lower E. coli bactericidal activity, smoking, and lower CD4 counts; smoking and CD4 count retained statistical significance in a multivariate model.
Further study is needed to determine if the relationship between mucosal inflammation and PVL is causal and to determine if reducing mucosal inflammation is beneficial.
No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common. HIV infection and treatment are associated with hypercoagulability; thrombosis in HCV is underinvestigated. Proposed markers of hemostasis in HIV include higher D-dimer, Factor VIII%, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen and lower total Protein S% (TPS) but have not been examined in HCV. We assessed the independent association of HCV with these 4 measures of hemostasis in a multicenter, prospective study of HIV: the Women's Interagency HIV Study.
We randomly selected 450 HCV-infected (anti-HCV+ with detectable plasma HCV RNA) and 450 HCV-uninfected (anti-HCV-) women. HCV was the main exposure of interest in regression models.
Four hundred forty-three HCV+ and 425 HCV- women were included. HCV+ women had higher Factor VIII% (124.4% ± 3.9% vs. 101.8% ± 3.7%, P < 0.001) and lower TPS (75.7% ± 1.1% vs. 84.3% ± 1.1%, <0.001) than HCV- women, independent of HIV infection and viral load; there was little difference in PAI-1 or log10 D-dimer. After adjustment for confounders, these inferences remained. HIV infection was independently associated with higher Factor VIII% and log10 D-dimer and lower TPS.
HCV was independently associated with higher Factor VIII% and lower TPS consistent with hypercoagulability. Higher Factor VIII% and D-dimer and lower TPS were also strongly associated with HIV infection and levels of HIV viremia, independent of HCV infection. Further investigation is needed to determine if there is increased thrombotic risk from HCV. Studies examining hemostasis markers in HIV infection must also assess the contribution of HCV infection.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Among individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), African Americans have lower spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) than Caucasians, and women have higher clearance than men. Few studies report racial/ethnic differences in acute HCV in HIV infected, or Hispanic women. We examined racial/ethnic differences in spontaneous HCV clearance in a population of HCV mono- and co-infected women.
We conducted a cross sectional study of HCV seropositive women (897 HIV infected and 168 HIV uninfected) followed in the US multicenter, NIH-funded Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), to determine the association of race/ethnicity with spontaneous HCV clearance, as defined by undetectable HCV RNA at study entry.
Among HIV and HCV seropositive women, 18.7 % were HCV RNA negative, 60.9 % were African American, 19.3 % Hispanic and 17.7 % Caucasian. HIV infected African American women were less likely to spontaneously clear HCV than Hispanic (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.38-0.93, p = 0.022) or Caucasian women (OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.36-0.93, p = 0.023). Among HIV uninfected women, African Americans had less HCV clearance than Hispanics (OR 0.18, 95 % CI 0.07-0.48, p = 0.001) or Caucasians (OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.09-0.79, p = 0.017). There were no significant differences in HCV clearance between Hispanics and Caucasians, among either HIV infected (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.57-1.66, p = 0.91) or uninfected (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 0.56-3.8, p = 0.45) women.
African Americans were less likely to spontaneously clear HCV than Hispanics or Caucasians, regardless of HIV status. No significant differences in spontaneous HCV clearance were observed between Caucasian and Hispanic women. Future studies incorporating IL28B genotype may further explain these observed racial/ethnic differences in spontaneous HCV clearance.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among individuals with and without concurrent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), racial/ethnic differences in the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been described. African Americans have lower spontaneous HCV clearance than Caucasians, yet slower rates of liver fibrosis once chronically infected. It is not clear how these differences in the natural history of hepatitis C affect mortality, in either HIV-positive or -negative individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV/HCV coinfected women followed in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study to determine the association of self-reported race/ethnicity with all-cause and liver-related mortality. Survival analyses were performed using Cox's proportional hazards models. The eligible cohort (n = 794) included 140 Caucasians, 159 Hispanics, and 495 African Americans. There were 438 deaths and 49 liver-related deaths during a median follow-up of 8.9 years and maximum follow-up of 16 years. African-American coinfected women had significantly lower liver-related mortality, compared to Caucasian (hazard ratio [HR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19-0.88; P = 0.022) and Hispanic coinfected women (HR, 0.38; 95% CI: 0.19-0.76; P = 0.006). All-cause mortality was similar between racial/ethnic groups (HRs for all comparisons: 0.82-1.03; log-rank test: P = 0.8). Conclusions: African-American coinfected women were much less likely to die from liver disease, as compared to Caucasians and Hispanics, independent of other causes of death. Future studies are needed to investigate the reasons for this marked racial/ethnic discrepancy in liver-related mortality. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
HIV-infected persons have substantially higher risk of kidney failure than persons without HIV, but serum creatinine levels are insensitive for detecting declining kidney function. We hypothesized that urine markers of kidney injury would be associated with declining kidney function among HIV-infected women.
In the Women's Interagency HIV Study, we measured concentrations of albumin-to-creatinine ratio, interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin from stored urine among 908 HIV-infected and 289 HIV-uninfected participants. Primary analyses used cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI eGFRcys) as the outcome, measured at baseline and 2 follow-up visits over 8 years; secondary analyses used creatinine (CKD-EPI eGFRcr). Each urine biomarker was categorized into tertiles, and kidney decline was modeled with both continuous and dichotomized outcomes.
Compared with the lowest tertiles, the highest tertiles of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (-0.15 mL/min per 1.73 m, P < 0.0001), IL-18 (-0.09 mL/min per 1.73 m, P < 0.0001) and KIM-1 (-0.06 mL/min per 1.73 m, P < 0.001) were independently associated with faster eGFRcys decline after multivariate adjustment including all 3 biomarkers among HIV-infected women. Among these biomarkers, only IL-18 was associated with each dichotomized eGFRcys outcome: ≥3% (relative risk = 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.89); ≥5% (1.88; 1.30 to 2.71); and ≥10% (2.16; 1.20 to 3.88) for the highest versus lowest tertile. In alternative models using eGFRcr, the high tertile of KIM-1 had independent associations with 5% (1.71; 1.25 to 2.33) and 10% (1.78; 1.07 to 2.96) decline, and the high IL-18 tertile with 10% decline (1.97; 1.00 to 3.87).
Among HIV-infected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study cohort, novel urine markers of kidney injury detect risk for subsequent declines in kidney function.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation persists in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may contribute to an increased risk for non-AIDS-related pathologies. We investigated the correlation of cytokine responses with changes in CD4 T-cell levels and coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART).
A total of 383 participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (212 with HIV monoinfection, 56 with HCV monoinfection, and 115 with HIV/HCV coinfection) were studied. HIV-infected women had <1000 HIV RNA copies/mL, 99.7% had >200 CD4 T cells/μL; 98% were receiving HAART at baseline. Changes in CD4 T-cell count between baseline and 2-4 years later were calculated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained at baseline were used to measure interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) responses to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 stimulation.
Undetectable HIV RNA (<80 copies/mL) at baseline and secretion of IL-10 by PBMCs were positively associated with gains in CD4 T-cell counts at follow-up. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α) were also produced in TLR-stimulated cultures, but only IL-10 was significantly associated with sustained increases in CD4 T-cell levels. This association was significant only in women with HIV monoinfection, indicating that HCV coinfection is an important factor limiting gains in CD4 T-cell counts, possibly by contributing to unbalanced persistent inflammation.
Secreted IL-10 from PBMCs may balance the inflammatory environment of HIV, resulting in CD4 T-cell stability.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases