Ming Shen

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (13)45.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Cardiac ultrasound simulation can have important applications in the design of ultrasound systems, understanding the interaction effect between ultrasound and tissue and setting the ground truth for validating quantification methods. Current ultrasound simulation methods fail to simulate the myocardial intensity anisotropies. New simulation methods are needed in order to simulate realistic ultrasound images of the heart. Methods: The proposed cardiac ultrasound image simulation method is based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data of the heart. The method utilizes both the cardiac geometry and the fiber orientation information to simulate the anisotropic intensities in B-mode ultrasound images. Before the simulation procedure, the geometry and fiber orientations of the heart are obtained from high-resolution structural MRI and DTI data, respectively. The simulation includes two important steps. First, the backscatter coefficients of the point scatterers inside the myocardium are processed according to the fiber orientations using an anisotropic model. Second, the cardiac ultrasound images are simulated with anisotropic myocardial intensities. The proposed method was also compared with two other nonanisotropic intensity methods using 50 B-mode ultrasound image volumes of five different rat hearts. The simulated images were also compared with the ultrasound images of a diseased rat heart in vivo. A new segmental evaluation method is proposed to validate the simulation results. The average relative errors (AREs) of five parameters, i.e., mean intensity, Rayleigh distribution parameter σ, and first, second, and third quartiles, were utilized as the evaluation metrics. The simulated images were quantitatively compared with real ultrasound images in both ex vivo and in vivo experiments. Results: The proposed ultrasound image simulation method can realistically simulate cardiac ultrasound images of the heart using high-resolution MR-DTI data. The AREs of their proposed method are 19% for the mean intensity, 17.7% for the scale parameter of Rayleigh distribution, 36.8% for the first quartile of the image intensities, 25.2% for the second quartile, and 19.9% for the third quartile. In contrast, the errors of the other two methods are generally five times more than those of their proposed method. Conclusions: The proposed simulation method uses MR-DTI data and realistically generates cardiac ultrasound images with anisotropic intensities inside the myocardium. The ultrasound simulation method could provide a tool for many potential research and clinical applications in cardiac ultrasound imaging.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Medical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the ability of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) decorated nanoparticles and their cargo to modulate calcium handling in failing cardiac myocytes (CMs). Primary CMs isolated from normal and failing hearts were treated with GlcNAc nanoparticles in order to assess the ability of the nanoparticles and their cargo to correct dysfunctional calcium handling in failing myocytes. GlcNAc particles reduced aberrant calcium release in failing CMs and restored sarcomere function. Additionally, encapsulation of a small calcium-modulating protein, S100A1, in GlcNAc nanoparticles also showed improved calcium regulation. Thus, the development of our bioactive nanoparticle allows for a 'two-hit' treatment, by which the cargo and also the nanoparticle itself can modulate intracellular protein activity.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Nanomedicine
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    ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound or echocardiography is one of the most widely used examinations for the diagnosis of cardiac diseases. However, it only supplies the geometric and structural information of the myocardium. In order to supply more detailed microstructure information of the myocardium, this paper proposes a registration method to map cardiac fiber orientations from three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI) volume to the 2D ultrasound image. It utilizes a 2D/3D intensity based registration procedure including rigid, log-demons, and affine transformations to search the best similar slice from the template volume. After registration, the cardiac fiber orientations are mapped to the 2D ultrasound image via fiber relocations and reorientations. This method was validated by six images of rat hearts ex vivo. The evaluation results indicated that the final Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) achieved more than 90% after geometric registrations; and the inclination angle errors (IAE) between the mapped fiber orientations and the gold standards were less than 15 degree. This method may provide a practical tool for cardiologists to examine cardiac fiber orientations on ultrasound images and have the potential to supply additional information for diagnosis of cardiac diseases.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) and galectin-3 are two important mediators that play a key pathogenic role in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between and roles of PKC-α and galectin-3 in the development of HF. We found that activation of PKC by phorbol dibutyrate (PDB) increased galectin-3 expression by ~180%, as well as collagen I and fibronection accumulation in cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Over-expression of galectin-3 in HL-1 cells increased collagen I protein production. Inhibition of galectin-3 by β-lactose blocked PDB-induced galectin-3 and collagen production, indicating that galectin-3 mediates PKC-induced cardiac fibrosis. In rats subjected to pulmonary artery banding (PAB) to induce right ventricular HF, galectin-3 was increased by ~140% in the right ventricle and also by ~240% in left ventricle compared to control. The elevated galectin-3 is consistent with an increase of total and activated (phosphorylated) PKC-α, α-SMA and collagen I. Finally, we extended our findings to examine the role of angiotensin II (Ang II), which activates the PKC pathway and contributes to cardiac fibrosis and the development of HF. We found that Ang II activated the PKC-α pathway and increased galectin-3 expression and collagen production. This study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of HF mediated by PKC-α and galectin-3. PKC-α promotes cardiac fibrosis and HF by stimulation of galectin-3 expression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Medical Physics
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    ABSTRACT: In the adult heart, catalase (CAT) activity increases appropriately with increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide, conferring cardioprotection. This mechanism is absent in the newborn for unknown reasons. In the present study, we examined how the posttranslational modification of CAT contributes to its activation during hypoxia/ischemia and the role of c-Abl tyrosine kinase in this process. Hypoxia studies were carried out using primary cardiomyocytes from adult (>8 weeks) and newborn rats. Following hypoxia, the ratio of phosphorylated to total CAT and c-Abl in isolated newborn rat myocytes did not increase and were significantly lower (1.3- and 4.2-fold, respectively; P < .05) than their adult counterparts. Similarly, there was a significant association (P < .0005) between c-Abl and CAT in adult cells following hypoxia (30.9 ± 8.2 to 70.7 ± 13.1 au) that was absent in newborn myocytes. Although ubiquitination of CAT was higher in newborns compared to adults following hypoxia, inhibition of this did not improve CAT activity. When a c-Abl activator (5-(1,3-diaryl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydantoin [DPH], 200 µmol/L) was administered prior to hypoxia, not only CAT activity was significantly increased (P < .05) but also phosphorylation levels were also significantly improved (P < .01) in these newborn myocytes. Additionally, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) studies were performed using newborn (4-5 days) rabbit hearts perfused in a Langendorff method. The DPH given as an intracardiac injection into the right ventricle of newborn rabbit resulted in a significant improvement (P < .002) in the recovery of developed pressure after IR, a key indicator of cardiac function (from 74.6% ± 6.6% to 118.7% ± 10.9%). In addition, CAT activity was increased 3.92-fold (P < .02) in the same DPH-treated hearts. Addition of DPH to adult rabbits in contrast had no significant effect (from 71.3% ± 10.7% to 59.4% ± 12.1%). Therefore, in the newborn, decreased phosphorylation of CAT by c-Abl potentially mediates IR-induced dysfunction, and activation of c-Abl may be a strategy to prevent ischemic injury associated with surgical procedures.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient’s cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Proc SPIE
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    Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Heart Rhythm
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding developmental changes in contractility is critical to improving therapies for young cardiac patients. Isometric developed force was measured in human ventricular muscle strips from two age groups: newborns (<2 wk) and infants (3-14 mo) undergoing repair for congenital heart defects. Muscle strips were paced at several cycle lengths (CLs) to determine the force frequency response (FFR). Changes in Na/Ca exchanger (NCX), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase (SERCA), and phospholamban (PLB) were characterized. At CL 2000 ms, developed force was similar in the two groups. Decreasing CL increased developed force in the infant group to 131 +/- 8% (CL 1000 ms) and 157 +/- 18% (CL 500 ms) demonstrating a positive FFR. The FFR in the newborn group was flat. NCX mRNA and protein levels were significantly larger in the newborn than infant group whereas SERCA levels were unchanged. PLB mRNA levels and PLB/SERCA ratio increased with age. Immunostaining for NCX in isolated newborn cells showed peripheral staining. In infant cells, NCX was also found in T-tubules. SERCA staining was regular and striated in both groups. This study shows for the first time that the newborn human ventricle has a flat FFR, which increases with age and may be caused by developmental changes in calcium handling.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2008 · Pediatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: Dopamine is used to treat heart failure, particularly after cardiac surgery in infants, but the mechanisms of action are unclear. We investigated differences in the effect of dopamine on L-type calcium current (I(Ca)) between newborn (NB, 1-4 days) and adult (AD, 3-4 mo) rabbit ventricular myocytes. Myocytes were enzymatically dissociated from NB and AD rabbit hearts. I(Ca) was recorded by using the whole cell patch-clamp technique. mRNA levels of cardiac dopamine receptor type 1 (D1), type 2 (D2), and beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-ARs) were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Dopamine (100 microM) increased I(Ca) more in NB (E(max) 87 +/- 10%) than in AD ventricular cells (E(max) 21 +/- 3%). Further investigation of this difference showed that mRNA levels of the D1 receptor were significantly higher in NB, and, with beta-AR blockade, dopamine increased I(Ca) more in NB than AD cells. Additionally, SKF-38393 (selective D1 receptor agonist) significantly increased I(Ca) by 55 +/- 4% in NB (P < 0.05, n = 4) and by 11 +/- 1% in AD (P < 0.05, n = 6). Dopamine in the presence of SCH-23390 (D1 receptor antagonist) increased I(Ca) in NB cells by 67 +/- 5% and by 22 +/- 2% in AD cells, suggesting a role for beta-AR stimulation. Selective blockade of beta(1)- or beta(2)-receptors (with block of D1 receptors) showed that the beta-AR action of dopamine in the NB was largely mediated via beta(2)-AR activation. Dopamine produces a larger increase in I(Ca) in NB cardiomyocytes compared with ADs. The mechanism of action is not only through beta(2)-ARs but also due to higher expression of cardiac D1 receptor in NB.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology