M. J. Page

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (389)1491.48 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We used wide-area surveys over 39 deg2 by the HerMES (Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) collaboration, performed with the Herschel Observatory SPIRE multiwavelength camera, to estimate the low-redshift, 0.02 < z < 0.5, monochromatic luminosity functions (LFs) of galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 μm. Within this redshift interval, we detected 7087 sources in five independent sky areas, ∼40 per cent of which have spectroscopic redshifts, while for the remaining objects photometric redshifts were used. The SPIRE LFs in different fields did not show any field-to-field variations beyond the small differences to be expected from cosmic variance. SPIRE flux densities were also combined with Spitzer photometry and multiwavelength archival data to perform a complete spectral energy distribution fitting analysis of SPIRE detected sources to calculate precise k-corrections, as well as the bolometric infrared (IR; 8–1000 μm) LFs and their low-z evolution from a combination of statistical estimators. Integration of the latter prompted us to also compute the local luminosity density and the comoving star formation rate density (SFRD) for our sources, and to compare them with theoretical predictions of galaxy formation models. The LFs show significant and rapid luminosity evolution already at low redshifts, 0.02 < z < 0.2, with L$_{\text{IR}}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{6.0\pm 0.4}$ and $\Phi _{\text{IR}}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{-2.1\pm 0.4}$, L$_{250}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{5.3\pm 0.2}$ and $\Phi _{250}^{\ast } \propto (1+z)^{-0.6\pm 0.4}$ estimated using the IR bolometric and the 250 μm LFs, respectively. Converting our IR LD estimate into an SFRD assuming a standard Salpeter initial mass function and including the unobscured contribution based on the UV dust-uncorrected emission from local galaxies, we estimate an SFRD scaling of SFRD0 + 0.08z, where SFRD0 ≃ (1.9 ± 0.03) × 10−2 [M⊙ Mpc−3] is our total SFRD estimate at z ∼ 0.02.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the universe, yet the nature and physical properties of their energy sources are far from understood. Very important clues, however, can be inferred by studying the afterglows of these events. We present optical and X-ray observations of GRB 130831A obtained by Swift, Chandra, Skynet, RATIR, Maidanak, ISON, NOT, LT and GTC. This burst shows a steep drop in the X-ray light-curve at $\simeq 10^5$ s after the trigger, with a power-law decay index of $\alpha \sim 6$. Such a rare behaviour cannot be explained by the standard forward shock (FS) model and indicates that the emission, up to the fast decay at $10^5$ s, must be of "internal origin", produced by a dissipation process within an ultrarelativistic outflow. We propose that the source of such an outflow, which must produce the X-ray flux for $\simeq 1$ day in the cosmological rest frame, is a newly born magnetar or black hole. After the drop, the faint X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical emission, on the other hand, shows no break across the X-ray steep decrease, and the late-time decays of both the X-ray and optical are consistent. Using both the X-ray and optical data, we show that the emission after $\simeq 10^5$ s can be explained well by the FS model. We model our data to derive the kinetic energy of the ejecta and thus measure the efficiency of the central engine of a GRB with emission of internal origin visible for a long time. Furthermore, we break down the energy budget of this GRB into the prompt emission, the late internal dissipation, the kinetic energy of the relativistic ejecta, and compare it with the energy of the associated supernova, SN 2013fu.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we further investigate the relationship, reported by Oates et al., between the optical/UV afterglow luminosity (measured at restframe 200 s) and average afterglow decay rate (measured from restframe 200 s onwards) of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We extend the analysis by examining the X-ray light curves, finding a consistent correlation. We therefore explore how the parameters of these correlations relate to the prompt emission phase and, using a Monte Carlo simulation, explore whether these correlations are consistent with predictions of the standard afterglow model. We find significant correlations between: log LO, 200 s and log LX, 200 s; αO, >200 s and αX, >200 s, consistent with simulations. The model also predicts relationships between log Eiso and log L200 s; however, while we find such relationships in the observed sample, the slope of the linear regression is shallower than that simulated and inconsistent at ≳3σ. Simulations also do not agree with correlations observed between log L200 s and α> 200 s, or $\rm log\;\it E_{iso}$ and α> 200 s. Overall, these observed correlations are consistent with a common underlying physical mechanism producing GRBs and their afterglows regardless of their detailed temporal behaviour. However, a basic afterglow model has difficulty explaining all the observed correlations. This leads us to briefly discuss alternative more complex models.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report contributions to cosmic infrared background (CIB) intensities originating from known galaxies and their faint companions at submillimeter wavelengths. Using the publicly available UltraVISTA catalog and maps at 250, 350, and 500 μm from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, we perform a novel measurement that exploits the fact that uncataloged sources may bias stacked flux densities-particularly if the resolution of the image is poor-and intentionally smooth the images before stacking and summing intensities. By smoothing the maps we are capturing the contribution of faint (undetected in KS ∼ 23.4) sources that are physically associated, or correlated, with the detected sources. We find that the cumulative CIB increases with increased smoothing, reaching 9.82 ± 0.78, 5.77 ± 0.43 and 2.32 ± 0.19 nWm-2 sr-1 at 250, 350, and 500 μm at 300 arcsec FWHM. This corresponds to a fraction of the fiducial CIB of 0.94 ± 0.23, 1.07 ± 0.31, and 0.97 ± 0.26 at 250, 350, and 500 μm, where the uncertainties are dominated by those of the absolute CIB. We then propose, with a simple model combining parametric descriptions for stacked flux densities and stellar mass functions, that emission from galaxies with log(M/M⊙) > 8.5 can account for most of the measured total intensities and argue against contributions from extended, diffuse emission. Finally, we discuss prospects for future survey instruments to improve the estimates of the absolute CIB levels, and observe any potentially remaining emission at z > 4. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We separate the extragalactic radio source population above ∼50 μJy into active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming sources. The primary method of our approach is to fit the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed using Spitzer/IRAC (Infrared Array Camera) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) and Herschel/SPIRE photometry, of 380 radio sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. From the fitted SEDs, we determine the relative AGN and star-forming contributions to their infrared emission. With the inclusion of other AGN diagnostics such as X-ray luminosity, Spitzer/IRAC colours, radio spectral index and the ratio of star-forming total infrared flux to k-corrected 1.4 GHz flux density, qIR, we determine whether the radio emission in these sources is powered by star formation or by an AGN. The majority of these radio sources (60 per cent) show the signature of an AGN at some wavelength. Of the sources with AGN signatures, 58 per cent are hybrid systems for which the radio emission is being powered by star formation. This implies that radio sources which have likely been selected on their star formation have a high AGN fraction. Below a 1.4 GHz flux density of 1 mJy, along with finding a strong contribution to the source counts from pure star-forming sources, we find that hybrid sources constitute 20–65 per cent of the sources. This result suggests that hybrid sources have a significant contribution, along with sources that do not host a detectable AGN, to the observed flattening of the source counts at ∼1 mJy for the extragalactic radio source population.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report contributions to cosmic infrared background (CIB) intensities originating from known galaxies, and their companions, at submillimeter wavelengths. Using the publicly-available UltraVISTA catalog, and maps at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m from Herschel/SPIRE, we perform a novel measurement that exploits the fact that correlated sources will bias stacked flux densities if the resolution of the image is poor; i.e., we intentionally smooth the image - in effect degrading the angular resolution - before stacking and summing intensities. By smoothing the maps we are capturing the contribution of faint (undetected in K_S ~ 23.4) sources that are physically associated with the detected sources. We find that the cumulative CIB increases with increased smoothing, reaching 9.82 +- 0.78, 5.77 +- 0.43, and 2.32 +- 0.19 nWm^-2/sr at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m at 300 arcsec full width half maximum. This corresponds to a fraction of the fiducial CIB of 0.94 +- 0.23, 1.07 +- 0.31, and 0.97 +- 0.26 at 250, 350, and 500 {\mu}m, where the uncertainties are dominated by those of the absolute CIB. We then propose, with a simple model combining parametric descriptions for stacked flux densities and stellar mass functions, that emission from galaxies with log(M/Msun) > 8.5 can account for the entire measured total intensities, and argue against contributions from extended, diffuse emission. Finally, we discuss prospects for future survey instruments to improve the estimates of the absolute CIB levels, and observe any potentially remaining emission at z > 4.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We use deep Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) near-ultraviolet (1600A to 4000A) imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South to measure the rest-frame far-UV (FUV; 1500A) luminosity function (LF) in four redshift bins between z=0.2 and 1.2. Our sample includes 730 galaxies with u < 24.1 mag. We use two methods to construct and fit the LFs: the traditional V_max method with bootstrap errors and a maximum likelihood estimator. We observe luminosity evolution such that M* fades by ~2 magnitudes from z~1 to z~0.3 implying that star formation activity was substantially higher at z~1 than today. We integrate our LFs to determine the FUV luminosity densities and star formation rate densities from z=0.2 to 1.2. We find evolution consistent with an increase proportional to (1+z)^1.9 out to z~1. Our luminosity densities and star formation rates are consistent with those found in the literature, but are, on average, a factor of ~2 higher than previous FUV measurements. In addition, we combine our UVOT data with the MUSYC survey to model the galaxies' ultraviolet-to-infrared spectral energy distributions and estimate the rest-frame FUV attenuation. We find that accounting for the attenuation increases the star formation rate densities by ~1 dex across all four redshift bins.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We have assembled a sample of five X-ray-absorbed and submm-luminous type 1 QSOs at z ∼ 2 which are simultaneously growing their central black holes through accretion and forming stars copiously. We present here the analysis of their rest-frame UV-to-submm spectral energy distributions (SEDs), including new Herschel data. Both AGN (direct and reprocessed) and star formation (SF) emission are needed to model their SEDs. From the SEDs and their UV–optical spectra we have estimated the masses of their black holes MBH ∼ 109–1010 M⊙, their intrinsic AGN bolometric luminosities LBOL ∼ (0.8–20) × 1013 L⊙, Eddington ratios LBOL/LEdd ∼ 0.1–1.1 and bolometric corrections $L_{\rm BOL}/L_{\rm X,2{\rm -}10}\sim 30{-}500$. These values are common among optically and X-ray-selected type 1 QSOs (except for RX J1249), except for the bolometric corrections, which are higher. These objects show very high far-infrared luminosities LFIR ∼ (2–8) × 1012 M⊙ and star formation rates SFR ∼1000 M⊙ yr−1. From their LFIR and the shape of their FIR–submm emission we have estimated star-forming dust masses of MDUST ∼ 109 M⊙. We have found evidence of a tentative correlation between the gas column densities of the ionized absorbers detected in X-ray ($N_{\rm H_{ion}}$) and SFR. Our computed black hole masses are amongst the most massive known.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the calibration of the Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT ) grisms, of which there are two, providing low-resolution field spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and optical bands, respectively. The UV grism covers the range λ1700–5000 Å with a spectral resolution (λ/Δλ) of 75 at λ2600 Å for source magnitudes of u=10–16 mag, while the visible grism covers the range λ2850–6600 Å with a spectral resolution of 100 at λ4000 Å for source magnitudes of b=12–17 mag. This calibration extends over all detector positions, for all modes used during operations. The wavelength accuracy (1σ) is 9 Å in the UV grism clocked mode, 17 Å in the UV grism nominal mode and 22 Å in the visible grism. The range below λ2740 Å in the UV grism and λ5200 Å in the visible grism never suffers from overlapping by higher spectral orders. The flux calibration of the grisms includes a correction we developed for coincidence loss in the detector. The error in the coincidence loss correction is less than 20 per cent. The position of the spectrum on the detector only affects the effective area (sensitivity) by a few per cent in the nominal modes, but varies substantially in the clocked modes. The error in the effective area is from 9 per cent in the UV grism clocked mode to 15 per cent in the visible grism clocked mode.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We have assembled a sample of 5 X-ray-absorbed and submm-luminous type 1 QSOs at $z \sim 2$ which are simultaneously growing their central black holes through accretion and forming stars copiously. We present here the analysis of their rest-frame UV to submm Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), including new Herschel data. Both AGN (direct and reprocessed) and Star Formation (SF) emission are needed to model their SEDs. From the SEDs and their UV-optical spectra we have estimated the masses of their black holes $M_{BH}\sim 10^{9}-10^{10}\,M_{\odot}$, their intrinsic AGN bolometric luminosities $L_{BOL}\sim(0.8 - 20)\times 10^{13} L_{\odot}$, Eddington ratios $L_{BOL}/L_{Edd}\sim 0.1 - 1.1$ and bolometric corrections $L_{BOL}/L_{X,2-10}\sim 30 - 500$. These values are common among optically and X-ray-selected type 1 QSOs (except for RX~J1249), except for the bolometric corrections, which are higher. These objects show very high far-infrared luminosities $L_{FIR}\sim$ (2 - 8)$\times10^{12}\,M_{\odot}$ and Star Formation Rates SFR$\sim 1000 M_{\odot}/$y. From their $L_{FIR}$ and the shape of their FIR-submm emission we have estimated star-forming dust masses of $M_{DUST}\sim 10^9\,M_\odot$. We have found evidence of a tentative correlation between the gas column densities of the ionized absorbers detected in X-ray (N$_{H_{ion}}$) and $SFR$. Our computed black hole masses are amongst the most massive known.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed study of a X -ray selected sample of 5 submillimeter bright QSOs at $z\sim2$, where the highest rates of star formation (SF) and further growth of black holes (BH) occur. Therefore, this sample is a great laboratory to investigate the co-evolution of star formation and AGN. We present here the analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SED) of the 5 QSOS, including new data from Herschel PACS and SPIRE. Both AGN components (direct and reprocessed) and like Star Formation (SF) are needed to model its SED. From the SED and their UV-optical spectra we have estimated the mass of the black hole ($M_{BH} = 10^9 - 10^{10} M_{SUN}$) and bolometric luminosities of AGN ($L_{BOL} = (0.8-20) \times 10^{13} L_{SUN}$). These objects show very high luminosities in the far infrared range (at the H/ULIRG levels) and very high rates of SF (SFR = 400-1400 $M_{SUN}$/y). Known their current SFR and their BH masses, we deduce that their host galaxies must be already very massive, or would not have time to get to the local relation between BH mass and bulge. Finally, we found evidence of a possible correlation between the column density of ionized gas detected in X-rays ($NH_{ion}$) and SFR, which would provide a link between AGN and SF processes.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of the stellar companions to binary pulsars is key to studying the evolution of the binary system and how this is influenced by the interactions between the two stars. For only a fraction of the known binary pulsars, the stellar companions have been identified. Here, we used 11 source catalogues available from multiwavelength (ultraviolet, optical, infrared) imaging sky surveys to search for the stellar companions of a sample of 144 field binary pulsars (i.e. not in globular clusters) selected from the Australia Telescope National Facility data base (version 1.48) and from the public list of gamma-ray pulsars detected by Fermi. We found positional associations in at least one source catalogue for 22 pulsars, of which 10 are detected in gamma-rays by Fermi, including 15 millisecond pulsars. For six pulsars in our compilation, we confirm their identifications. For another seven pulsars that had yet not been identified, we examine potential identifications. In particular, we identified a likely companion star candidate to PSR J2317+1439, whereas for both PSR B1953+29 and PSR J1935+1726 the companion star identification is more uncertain. Follow-up observations of these three pulsars are needed to settle the proposed identifications. For the remaining nine pulsars that had been already identified, we provide additional spectral information in at least one of the surveys' spectral bands, which we will use to better constrain the stars' spectral energy distributions.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Athena is designed to implement the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme selected by the European Space Agency for the second large mission of its Cosmic Vision program. The Athena science payload consists of a large aperture high angular resolution X-ray optics (2 m2 at 1 keV) and twelve meters away, two interchangeable focal plane instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) and the Wide Field Imager. The X-IFU is a cryogenic X-ray spectrometer, based on a large array of Transition Edge Sensors (TES), offering 2:5 eV spectral resolution, with ∼5" pixels, over a field of view of 50 in diameter. In this paper, we present the X-IFU detector and readout electronics principles, some elements of the current design for the focal plane assembly and the cooling chain. We describe the current performance estimates, in terms of spectral resolution, effective area, particle background rejection and count rate capability. Finally, we emphasize on the technology developments necessary to meet the demanding requirements of the X-IFU, both for the sensor, readout electronics and cooling chain.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present the most complete study to date of the X-ray emission from star formation in high-redshift (median z = 0.7; z < 1.5), IR-luminous (LIR = 1010–1013 L⊙) galaxies detected by Herschel's PACS and SPIRE instruments. For our purpose, we take advantage of the deepest X-ray data to date, the Chandra Deep Fields (North and South). Sources which host AGN are removed from our analysis by means of multiple AGN indicators. We find an AGN fraction of 18 ± 2 per cent amongst our sample and note that AGN entirely dominate at values of log [LX/LIR] > −3 in both hard and soft X-ray bands. From the sources which are star formation dominated, only a small fraction are individually X-ray detected and for the bulk of the sample we calculate average X-ray luminosities through stacking. We find an average soft X-ray to infrared ratio of log 〈LSX/LIR〉 = −4.3 and an average hard X-ray to infrared ratio of log 〈LHX/LIR〉 = −3.8. We report that the X-ray/IR correlation is approximately linear through the entire range of LIR and z probed and, although broadly consistent with the local (z < 0.1) one, it does display some discrepancies. We suggest that these discrepancies are unlikely to be physical, i.e. due to an intrinsic change in the X-ray properties of star-forming galaxies with cosmic time, as there is no significant evidence for evolution of the LX/LIR ratio with redshift. Instead, they are possibly due to selection effects and remaining AGN contamination. We also examine whether dust obscuration in the galaxy plays a role in attenuating X-rays from star formation, by investigating changes in the LX/LIR ratio as a function of the average dust temperature. We conclude that X-rays do not suffer any measurable attenuation in the host galaxy.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/PACS observations of the nearby (z = 0.1055) dwarf galaxy that has hosted the long gamma-ray burst (LGRB) 031203. Using the PACS data, we have been able to place constraints on the dust temperature, dust mass, total infrared (IR) luminosity and IR-derived star formation rate (SFR) for this object. We find that the GRB host galaxy (GRBH) 031203 has a total IR luminosity of 3 × 1010 L⊙ placing it in the regime of the IR-luminous galaxy population. Its dust temperature and specific SFR are comparable to that of many high-redshift (z = 0.3–2.5) IR-detected GRB hosts (Tdust > 40 K; sSFR > 10 Gyr−1); however, its dust-to-stellar mass ratio is lower than what is commonly seen in IR-luminous galaxies. Our results suggest that GRBH 031203 is undergoing a strong starburst episode and its dust properties are different to those of local dwarf galaxies within the same metallicity and stellar mass range. Furthermore, our measurements place it in a distinct class to the well-studied nearby host of GRB 980425 (z = 0.0085), confirming the notion that GRB host galaxies can span a large range in properties even at similar cosmological epochs, making LGRBs an ideal tool in selecting samples of star-forming galaxies up to high redshift.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    M. J. Page · R. Soria · S. Zane · K. Wu · R. L. C. Starling

    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We combine near-ultraviolet (NUV), optical and IR imaging of the nearby starburst galaxy M82 to explore the properties of the dust both in the interstellar medium of the galaxy and the dust entrained in the superwind. The three NUV filters of Swift-Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope enable us to probe in detail the properties of the extinction curve in the region around the 2175 Å bump. The NUV colour–colour diagram strongly rules out a ‘bump-less’ Calzetti-type law, which can either reflect intrinsic changes in the dust properties or in the star formation history compared to starbursts well represented by such an attenuation law. We emphasize that it is mainly in the NUV region where a standard Milky Way-type law is preferred over the Calzetti law. The age and dust distribution of the stellar populations is consistent with the scenario of an encounter with M81 in the recent ≲400 Myr. The radial variation of NUV/optical/IR photometry in the galaxy region – including the polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-dominated emission at 8 μm – confirms the central location of the star formation. The radial gradients of the NUV and optical colours in the superwind region supports the hypothesis that the emission in the wind cone is driven by scattering from dust grains entrained in the ejecta. The observed wavelength dependence, ∝λ−1.5, reveals either a grain size distribution n(a) ∝ a−2.5, or a flatter distribution with a maximum size cutoff, suggesting that only small grains are entrained in the supernova-driven wind.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: RE J2248−511 is one of only 14 non-blazar active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) by the ROSAT Wide Field Camera implying a large ultrasoft X-ray flux. This soft X-ray excess is strongly variable on year time-scales, a common property of narrow-line Seyfert 1s, yet its optical line widths classify this source as a broad-lined Seyfert 1 (BLS1). We use four nearly simultaneous optical–X-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs) spanning 7 yr to study the spectral shape and long-term variability of RE J2248−511. Here we show that the continuum SED for the brightest epoch data set is consistent with the mean SED of a standard quasar, and matches well to that from an XMM–Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample of AGN with 〈M/M⊙〉 ∼ 108 and 〈L/LEdd〉 ∼ 0.2. All the correlated optical and soft X-ray variability can be due entirely to a major absorption event. The only remarkable aspect of this AGN is that there is no measurable intrinsic X-ray absorption column in the brightest epoch data set. The observed FUV flux is determined by the combination of this and the fact that the source lies within a local absorption ‘hole’. RE J2248−511, whose variable, ultrasoft X-ray flux once challenged its BLS1 classification, demonstrates that characterization of such objects requires multi-epoch, multiwavelength campaigns.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the redshift z=7.084 quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The quasar is detected as a point source with both observatories. The Chandra observation provides a precise position, confirming the association of the X-ray source and the quasar, while sufficient photons are detected in the XMM-Newton observation to yield a meaningful X-ray spectrum. In the XMM-Newton observation the quasar has a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4.7 +- 0.9 times 10^44 ergs/s and a spectral slope alpha = 1.6 +0.4 -0.3 (where f_nu propto nu^-alpha). The very soft spectrum suggests that the quasar is accreting above the Eddington rate, which would help to reduce the discrepancy between the age of the quasar implied by the small size of the ionized near zone in which it sits (<10^7 years), and the characteristic e-folding time (2.5 times 10^7 years if L/L_Edd=2). Such super-Eddington accretion would also alleviate the challenging constraints on the seed black hole mass, and the remnant of an individual population III star is a plausible progenitor if an average L/L_Edd>1.46 has been maintained over the quasar's lifetime.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present a method for selecting z > 4 dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) using Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver 250/350/500 μm flux densities to search for red sources. We apply this method to 21 deg2 of data from the HerMES survey to produce a catalog of 38 high-z candidates. Follow-up of the first five of these sources confirms that this method is efficient at selecting high-z DSFGs, with 4/5 at z = 4.3-6.3 (and the remaining source at z = 3.4), and that they are some of the most luminous dusty sources known. Comparison with previous DSFG samples, mostly selected at longer wavelengths (e.g., 850 μm) and in single-band surveys, shows that our method is much more efficient at selecting high-z DSFGs, in the sense that a much larger fraction are at z > 3. Correcting for the selection completeness and purity, we find that the number of bright (S 500 μm ≥ 30 mJy), red Herschel sources is 3.3 ± 0.8 deg–2. This is much higher than the number predicted by current models, suggesting that the DSFG population extends to higher redshifts than previously believed. If the shape of the luminosity function for high-z DSFGs is similar to that at z ~ 2, rest-frame UV based studies may be missing a significant component of the star formation density at z = 4-6, even after correction for extinction.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,491.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2015
    • University College London
      • • Department of Space and Climate Physics
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University of Hertfordshire
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
    • Cardiff University
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011-2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Astronomy
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2006-2011
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005-2008
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1997
    • University of Southampton
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Southampton, England, United Kingdom