[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thylakoid membranes have a unique complement of proteins, most of which are nuclear encoded synthesized in the cytosol, imported into the stroma and translocated into thylakoid membranes by specific thylakoid translocases. Known thylakoid translocases contain core multi-spanning, membrane-integrated subunits that are also nuclear-encoded and imported into chloroplasts before being integrated into thylakoid membranes. Thylakoid translocases play a central role in determining the composition of thylakoids, yet the manner by which the core translocase subunits are integrated into the membrane is not known. We used biochemical and genetic approaches to investigate the integration of the core subunit of the chloroplast Tat translocase, cpTatC, into thylakoid membranes. In vitro import assays show that cpTatC correctly localizes to thylakoids if imported into intact chloroplasts, but that it does not integrate into isolated thylakoids. In vitro transit peptide processing and chimeric precursor import experiments suggest that cpTatC possesses a stroma-targeting transit peptide. Import time-course and chase assays confirmed that cpTatC targets to thylakoids via a stromal intermediate, suggesting that it might integrate through one of the known thylakoid translocation pathways. However, chemical inhibitors to the cpSecA-cpSecY and cpTat pathways did not impede cpTatC localization to thylakoids when used in import assays. Analysis of membranes isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking cpSecY or Alb3 showed that neither is necessary for cpTatC membrane integration or assembly into the cpTat receptor complex. These data suggest the existence of another translocase, possibly one dedicated to the integration of chloroplast translocases.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · The Plant Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tat systems transport completely folded proteins across ion-tight membranes. Three membrane proteins comprise the Tat machinery in most systems. In thylakoids, cpTatC and Hcf106 mediate precursor recognition, whereas Tha4 facilitates translocation. We used chimeric precursor proteins with unstructured peptides and folded domains to test predictions of competing translocation models. Two models invoke protein-conducting channels, whereas another model proposes that cpTatC pulls substrates through a patch of Tha4 on the lipid bilayer. The thylakoid system transported unstructured peptide substrates alone or when fused to folded domains. However, larger substrates stalled before completion, some with amino- and carboxyl-folded domains on opposite sides of the membrane. The length of the precursor that resulted in translocation arrest (20 to 30 nm) exceeded that expected for a single 'pull' mechanism, suggesting that a sustained driving force rather than a single pull moves the protein across the bilayer. Three different methods showed that stalled substrates were not stuck in a channel or even associated with Tat machinery. This finding favors the Tha4 patch model for translocation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temperature programmed co-pyrolysis of Turkish oil shales with LDPE was investigated. The aim of this research was to determine the volatile product distribution and product evolution rate of coprocessing of oil shale with LDPE. A series co-pyrolysis operation was performed with oil shale and LDPE using a 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 total carbon ratio of oil shale to plastic. A fixed bed reactor was used to pyrolyse small sample of oil shale and LDPE mixture under an inert gas flow (Argon). A special sampling technique was used for collecting organic products eluted from the reactor at different temperature and time intervals. The co-pyrolysis products were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and the total product evolution rate was investigated as a function of temperature and time. n-Paraffins and 1-olefins in aliphatic fraction of pyrolysis products were classified as a carbon number. In addition, the recovery of total organic carbon as a organic volatile products was determined. The assessments were based on incorporating the results on temperature-programmed pyrolysis of oil shale1,2 and LDPE. The effect of coprocessing of oil shale with LDPE was determined by calculating the difference between the experimental and the hypothetical mean value of conversion of total organic carbon into volatile products. The effect of kerogen type of oil shale on co-pyrolysis operation was also investigated. Conversion into volatile hydrocarbons was found lower with increasing LDPE ratio in oil shale-LDPE system while C16+ hydrocarbons and the amount of coke deposit were higher in the presence of LDPE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thylakoid Delta pH pathway is a protein transport system with unprecedented characteristics. To investigate its mechanism, the topology of precursor insertion was determined. A fusion protein comprising a large polypeptide domain fused to the amino terminus of pOE17 (a Delta pH pathway precursor) was efficiently processed by thylakoid membranes. The amino terminus, including the targeting peptide, remained on the cis side of the membrane. Mature OE17 was transported to the lumen. These experiments demonstrate that Delta pH directed precursors enter the thylakoid membrane in a loop, implying that the Delta pH pathway has evolved from an export-type protein translocation system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The thylakoid Delta pH pathway is a protein transport system with unprecedented characteristics. To investigate its mechanism, the topology of precursor insertion nas determined. A fusion protein comprising a large polypeptide domain fused to the amino terminus of pOE17 (a Delta pH pathway precursor) was efficiently processed by thylakoid membranes, The amino terminus, including the targeting peptide, remained on the cis side of the membrane, Mature OE17 was transported to the lumen, These experiments demonstrate that Delta pH directed precursors enter the thylakoid membrane in a loop, implying that the Delta pH pathway has evolved from an export-type protein translocation system. (C) 1998 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The SecA protein is an essential, azide-sensitive component of the bacterial protein translocation machinery. A SecA protein homolog (CPSecA) now identified in pea chloroplasts was purified to homogeneity. CPSecA supported protein transport into thylakoids, the chloroplast internal membrane network, in an azide-sensitive fashion. Only one of three pathways for protein transport into thylakoids uses the CPSecA mechanism. The use of a bacteria-homologous mechanism in intrachloroplast protein transport provides evidence for conservative sorting of proteins within chloroplasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Golgi apparatus is a dynamic organelle whose structure is sensitive to vesicular traffic and to cell cycle control. We have examined the potential role for rab1a, a GTPase previously associated with ER to Golgi and intra-Golgi transport, in the formation and maintenance of Golgi structure. Bacterially expressed, recombinant rab1a protein was microinjected into rat embryonic fibroblasts, followed by analysis of Golgi morphology by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Three recombinant proteins were tested: wild-type rab, mutant rab1a(S25N), a constitutively GDP-bound form (Nuoffer, C., H. W. Davidson, J. Matteson, J. Meinkoth, and W. E. Balch, 1994. J. Cell Biol. 125: 225-237), and mutant rab1a(N124I) defective in guanine nucleotide binding. Microinjection of wild-type rab1a protein or a variety of negative controls (injection buffer alone or activated ras protein) did not affect the appearance of the Golgi, as visualized by immunofluorescence of alpha-mannosidase II (Man II), used as a Golgi marker. In contrast, microinjection of the mutant forms promoted the disassembly of the Golgi stacks into dispersed vesicular structures visualized by immunofluorescence. When S25N-injected cells were analyzed by EM after immunoperoxidase labeling, Man II was found in isolated ministacks and large vesicular elements that were often surrounded by numerous smaller unlabeled vesicles resembling carrier vesicles. Golgi disassembly caused by rab1a mutants differs from BFA-induced disruption, since beta-COP remains membrane associated, and Man II does not redistribute to the ER. BFA can still cause these residual Golgi elements to fuse and disperse, albeit at a slower rate. Moreover, BFA recovery is incomplete in the presence of rab1 mutants or GTP gamma S. We conclude that GTP exchange and hydrolysis by GTPases, specifically rab1a, are required to form and maintain normal Golgi stacks. The similarity of Golgi disassembly seen with rab1a mutants to that occurring during mitosis, may point to a molecular basis involving rab1a for fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during cell division.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1994 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear encoded thylakoid lumen proteins are imported into the chloroplast storma and further directed across thylakoid membranes by lumen targeting domains. Recently, we showed that there are two protein-specific pathways for transport into the lumen. This was unexpected in that lumen targeting domains have similar properties, all containing bacterial signal peptide motifs. Nevertheless, sequence homology analysis suggests that pathway specificity is determined by elements in the lumen targeting domain. To test this, we constructed and analyzed chimeric proteins in which transit peptides from proteins transported by one pathway were fused to the mature domains of proteins directed by the other. We also investigated the transport characteristics of a previously unexamined protein whose pathway was predicted by sequence similarity analysis. Our results confirm that lumen targeting domains contain pathway sorting elements and further indicate that distinct energy and stroma requirements for transport are pathway characteristics, unrelated to the passenger protein. These findings suggest the operation of two mechanistically different translocators.
Full-text · Article · May 1994 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encystation of Giardia lamblia entails the appearance of a number of new antigens, as well as formation of a novel class of large encystation-specific secretory vesicles (ESV) that transport stage-specific proteins to the nascent cyst wall. The monoclonal antibody GCSA-1, which was raised against purified cyst walls, recognizes protein species of approximately 26-46 kDa that are regulated by exposure to bile (plus lactic acid) and alkaline pH, the factors that induce encystation. The GCSA-1 epitope is maximally expressed after approximately 14 hr of encystation and localizes to the interior, but not the membrane of the ESV as shown by frozen section immunoelectron microscopy. To further understand the process of encystation, we compared two sublines of strain WB that differ in their ability to encyst in vitro. Water-resistant cysts were not detected in subline A6 under conditions in which subline C6 formed approximately 2 x 10(5) cysts/ml. Moreover, subline A6 did not form ESV efficiently or detectably express antigens recognized by mAb GCSA-1 or by polyclonal anti-cyst sera. Finally, uptake of the bile salt taurocholate by A6 was reduced 4- to 20-fold, compared with that of C6, although transport by both strains was sodium-dependent and regulated by bile salt starvation. The decrease in bile salt uptake by A6 may be related to its defect in encystation.
No preview · Article · Jan 1994 · Experimental Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When transport between the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi complex is blocked by Brefeldin A (BFA) treatment or ATP depletion, the Golgi apparatus and associated transport vesicles undergo a dramatic reorganization. Because recent studies suggest that coat proteins such as beta-COP play an important role in the maintenance of the Golgi complex, we have used immunocytochemistry to determine the distribution of beta-COP in pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) in which ER to Golgi transport was blocked by BFA treatment or ATP depletion. In controls, beta-COP was associated with Golgi cisternae and transport vesicles as expected. Upon BFA treatment, PAC Golgi cisternae are dismantled and replaced by clusters of remnant vesicles surrounded by typical ER transitional elements that are generally assumed to represent the exit site of vesicular carriers for ER to Golgi transport. In BFA-treated PAC, beta-COP was concentrated in large (0.5-1.0 micron) aggregates closely associated with remnant Golgi membranes. In addition to typical ER transitional elements, we detected a new type of transitional element that consists of specialized regions of rough ER (RER) with ribosome-free ends that touched or extended into the beta-COP containing aggregates. In ATP-depleted PAC, beta-COP was not detected on Golgi membranes but was concentrated in similar large aggregates found on the cis side of the Golgi stacks. The data indicate that upon arrest of ER to Golgi transport by either BFA treatment or energy depletion, beta-COP dissociates from PAC Golgi membranes and accumulates as large aggregates closely associated with specialized ER elements. The latter may correspond to either the site of entry or exit for vesicles recycling between the Golgi and the RER.
Preview · Article · May 1993 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a procedure for isolating in high yield and at a high degree of purity the endothelial luminal plasmalemma from the microvasculature of the rat lung. The procedure relies on the modification of the density of the luminal plasmalemma obtained by coating it by perfusion in situ first, with cationized colloidal silica and then with Na polyacrylate. These steps generate a strongly adhering coat to the luminal plasmalemma that resists tissue homogenization to yield, upon repeated centrifugation through Nycodenz density gradients, a nearly homogeneous fraction of coated luminal plasmalemmal fragments still carrying their associated plasmalemmal vesicles. The fraction is enriched in the luminal plasmalemmal antigen, angiotensin converting enzyme, contains gp60, an antigen expected to occur on both plasmalemmal domains, is not enriched in either alkaline phosphatase or 5'-nucleotidase activity and is free of the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum antigens so far tested. This procedure, that can be extended--in principle--to any vascular bed, obviates the use of cultured cells for studying the biochemistry of the endothelium, at least as far as the luminal endothelial plasmalemma is concerned.
No preview · Article · Sep 1992 · European Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brefeldin A (BFA) blocks protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and causes dismantling of the Golgi cisternae with relocation of resident Golgi proteins to the ER in many cultured cell lines. We examined the effects of BFA on Golgi organization and the distribution of Golgi markers in the rat exocrine pancreas. Immediately after BFA addition, Golgi stacks began to disorganize and Golgi cisternae to vesiculate, and by 15 min no intact Golgi cisternae remained. However, even after prolonged BFA incubation, clusters of small vesicles surrounded by transitional elements of the ER persisted both in the Golgi region and dispersed throughout the apical cytoplasm. These vesicles were morphologically heterogeneous in the density of their content and in the presence of cytoplasmic coats. Immunogold labeling demonstrated that some vesicles within the clusters contained gp58, a cis Golgi marker, and some contained alpha-mannosidase II, a middle/trans Golgi marker in this cell type. Neither marker was detected in the rough ER by immunogold or immunofluorescence labeling. When AlF4- was added during BFA treatment some of the vesicles in the clusters appeared coated. When microsomes were subfractionated into Golgi (light) and rough ER (heavy) fractions on sucrose density gradients, greater than 65% of alpha-mannosidase II and galactosyltransferase activities were found in light fractions (1.14-1.16 g/ml) in both control and BFA-treated lobules. In both cases equally low enzyme activity was recovered in heavier fractions (1.2-1.23 g/ml) containing RNA and alpha-glucosidase activity. However, 5 to 8% of the total recovered RNA consistently codistributed with the Golgi enzyme peak. These results indicate that BFA rapidly inhibits secretion and causes dismantling of the Golgi stacks in pancreatic acinar cells, but clusters of vesicles consisting of bona fide Golgi remnants persist even with prolonged exposure to BFA. Many of the vesicles contain Golgi markers by immunolabeling. By cell fractionation Golgi membrane enzyme activities are recovered in equal amounts in light (Golgi) fractions in both controls and BFA-treated specimens. These findings indicate that in the exocrine pancreas there is a dissociation of BFA's effects on the exocytic pathway: there is a block in transport and Golgi organization is disrupted, but remnant Golgi vesicles and tubules persist and retain Golgi membrane antigens and enzyme activities.
No preview · Article · Sep 1992 · European Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giardia occupies a unique evolutionary position since it is considered to belong to the earliest known lineage to diverge from the eukaryotic line of descent. Although organelles of protein transport are thought to have evolved with the nuclear membrane, G. lamblia is reported to have no Golgi apparatus. Therefore, Frances Gillin, David Reiner and Michael McCaffery have investigated how it exports glycoproteins to the cyst wall during encystation and whether a Golgi might become evident during an active secretory phase. They have found both functional and morphological evidence of a Golgi in Giardia and have shown that trophozoites are capable of sophisticated protein recognition, sorting and trafficking. These studies suggest that membranous organelles of protein transport appeared early in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell.
No preview · Article · Jun 1991 · Parasitology Today
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) contains approximately 20,000 bases of positive-sense ssRNA, encapsidated by a coat protein of approximately 25,000 Mr that has previously been reported to consist of at least two size variants, cp1 and cp2. In the present study, a cDNA library of the T36 isolate of CTV was prepared in a protein expression vector and screened with a polyclonal antibody against the coat protein. Five immunopositive clones produced proteins in Escherichia coli that reacted with monoclonal as well as polyclonal antibodies to the CTV coat protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a region common to the five clones revealed the presence of a 669 nucleotide open reading frame flanked by numerous in-frame termination codons. The encoded protein has a predicted Mr of 24,909 and an amino acid composition consistent with that previously reported for the CTV coat protein. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the coat protein with the amino-terminal sequences of cp1 and cp2 indicated that these coat protein species arise from the same primary translation product, as a result of post-translational proteolysis at sites approximately 12 to 15 and 26 amino acids from the amino terminus respectively. These results are the first reported cloning and sequencing of a CTV gene and provide evidence that CTV may be translated using subgenomic RNA.
Full-text · Article · Jun 1991 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giardia lamblia, which belongs to the earliest identified lineage to diverge from the eukaryotic line of descent, is one of many protists reported to lack a Golgi apparatus. Our recent finding of a developmentally regulated secretory pathway in G. lamblia makes it an ideal organism with which to test the hypothesis that the Golgi may be more readily demonstrated in actively secreting cells. These ultrastructural studies now show that a regulated pathway of transport and secretion of cyst wall antigens via a novel class of large, osmiophilic secretory vesicles, the encystation-specific vesicles (ESV), is assembled during encystation of G. lamblia. Early in encystation, cyst antigens are localized in simple Golgi membrane stacks and concentrated within enlarged Golgi cisternae which appear to be precursors of ESV. This would represent an unusual mechanism of secretory vesicle biogenesis. Later in differentiation, cyst antigens are localized within ESV, which transport them to the plasma membrane and release them by exocytosis to the nascent cell wall. ESV are not observed after completion of the cyst wall. In contrast to the regulated transport of cyst wall proteins, we demonstrate a distinct constitutive lysosomal pathway. During encystation, acid phosphatase activity is localized in endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and small constitutive peripheral vacuoles which function as lysosomes. However, acid phosphatase activity is not detectable in ESV. These studies show that G. lamblia, an early eukaryote, is capable of carrying out Golgi-mediated sorting of proteins to distinct regulated secretory and constitutive lysosomal pathways.
No preview · Article · Nov 1990 · European Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the interactions between the parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia and its environment, we have cloned the gene that encodes the two major surface-labeled trophozoite protein species. Sequence analysis of this gene reveals a single open reading frame specifying a hydrophilic, cysteine-rich (11.8%) protein of 72.5-kDa molecular mass with an amino-terminal signal peptide and a postulated hydrophobic membrane-spanning anchor region near the carboxyl terminus. Most of the cysteine residues (58 of 84) are in the motif Cys-Xaa-Xaa-Cys, which is dispersed 29 times throughout the sequence. Antibodies against the recombinant protein react with the entire surface of live trophozoites, including flagella and adhesive disc. These antibodies inhibit trophozoite attachment, prevent growth, and immunoprecipitate the major approximately 66- and 85-kDa proteins from surface-labeled live trophozoites. The recombinant Escherichia coli also expresses polypeptides of approximately 66- and 85-kDa molecular mass, which are not fusion proteins. This suggests that the processing and/or conformational changes that lead to production of these two peptide species in E. coli reflect those that occur in Giardia. The abundance of cysteine residues suggests that the native proteins on the parasite surface may contain numerous disulfide bonds, which would promote resistance to intestinal fluid proteases and to the detergent activity of bile salts and would help to explain the survival of Giardia in the human small intestine.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1990 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences