Mikio Oka

Kawasaki Medical University, Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (270)685.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: S-1, a novel oral fluoropyrimidine, is active in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, data on S-1 for elderly patients with NSCLC are insufficient. Methods: Eligibility criteria were no prior chemotherapy, stage IIIB or IV NSCLC, performance status 0-1, age >70 years, and adequate hematological, hepatic, and renal functions. Patients received S-1 (40 mg/m2 twice a day) for 28 consecutive days. This schedule was repeated every 6 weeks. The primary end point was the tumor response rate. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled and 31 patients were evaluable for response. The patients' median age was 80 years (range: 71-88). The response rate was 22.6% (95% CI: 11-38). Neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, and diarrhea of grade ≥3 occurred in 6, 6, 10, 3, and 3%, respectively. Conclusions: In elderly patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC, S-1 appears to be well tolerated and demonstrates encouraging activity.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Several cytotoxic anticancer drugs inhibit DNA replication and/or mitosis, while EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors inactivate EGFR signalling in cancer cell. Both types of anticancer drugs improve the overall survival of the patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although tumors often become refractory to this treatment. Despite several mechanisms by which the tumors become resistant having been described the effect of these compounds on anti-tumor immunity remains largely unknown. Methods This study examines the effect of the cytotoxic drug Gemcitabine and the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Gefitinib on the expression of NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligands as well as the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to the NK-mediated lysis. Results We demonstrate that Gemcitabine treatment leads to an enhanced expression, while Gefitinib downregulated the expression of molecules that act as key ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D and promote NK cell-mediated recognition and cytolysis. Gemcitabine activated ATM and ATM- and Rad-3-related protein kinase (ATR) pathways. The Gemcitabine-induced phosphorylation of ATM as well as the upregulation of the NKG2D ligand expression could be blocked by an ATM-ATR inhibitor. In contrast, Gefitinib attenuated NKG2D ligand expression. Silencing EGFR using siRNA or addition of the PI3K inhibitor resulted in downregulation of NKG2D ligands. The observations suggest that the EGFR/PI3K pathway also regulates the expression of NKG2D ligands. Additionally, we showed that both ATM-ATR and EGFR regulate MICA/B via miR20a. Conclusion In keeping with the effect on NKG2D expression, Gemcitabine enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity while Gefitinib attenuated NK cell killing in NSCLC cells.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of drug-induced interstitial pneumonia with Shofusan as the suspected cause. A 21-year-old woman treated with Shofusan and minocycline for cutaneous pruritus was admitted to our hospital because of complaints of dry cough and fever. The patient had had a fever and dry cough that had persisted for 2 weeks prior to admission. Chest roentgenography and computed tomography revealed a patchy pattern of ground-glass opacity in the bilateral lung fields, and laboratory findings showed peripheral blood eosinophilia with a high serum immunoglobulin E level. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed hypercellularity and increased lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy showed non-specific interstitial pneumonia with marked infiltration by lymphocytes. A drug lymphocyte-stimulating test yielded a positive result for Shofusan but not for minocycline. Taken together, the findings strongly suggested a case of drug-induced interstitial pneumonia caused by Shofusan. After oral corticosteroid therapy, her cough and fever improved and computed tomography revealed no ground-glass opacity. This is the first reported case of drug-induced interstitial pneumonia related to Shofusan.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: FoxP3(+) Tregs inhibit immune responses against tumors. KW-0761 is a humanized anti-human CCR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that has antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity. Depletion of CCR4-expressing FoxP3(+) CD4 Tregs by KW-0761 infusion was investigated in solid cancer patients. Experimental Design: We conducted a phase Ia clinical trial of KW-0761 infusion in 7 lung and 3 esophageal cancer patients. Toxicity, clinical efficacy, changes in lymphocyte subpopulations, including Tregs, and induction of immune responses were analyzed. Results: The results showed that KW-0761 infusion in a dose range between0.1mg/kg and 1.0mg/kgwas safe andwell tolerated. Nodose-limiting toxicitywas observed. Four of 10 patients showed stable disease during treatment and were long survivors. The monitoring of FoxP3(+) Tregs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells during treatment indicated efficient depletion of those cells, even at the lowest dose of 0.1 mg/kg used. The reduction in Th 1 CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells was limited, whereas a significant reduction was observed with Th 2 and Th 17 CD4 T cells. Immune responses to cancer/testis (CT) antigens and an autoantibody response to thyroid peroxidase were observed in some patients. Conclusions: The findings showed Tregs depletion and the possible occurrence of an immune response following KW-0761 infusion. Combined use of KW-0761 to deplete FoxP3(+) Tregs with other immunotherapies, such as cancer vaccines or checkpoint inhibitors, is a promising approach to augment immune responses. (C) 2015 AACR.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European Respiratory Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a β-galactoside-binding protein that exhibits various biological reactions, such as chemoattraction, cell aggregation, and apoptosis. Recent studies demonstrated that Gal-9 has a role as an immunomodulator in excessive immunological reactions by expanded regulatory T cells (Tregs). We examined the role of Gal-9 in the pathogenesis of one of the major idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) as compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Gal-9, transforming growth factor-β1, and interleukin (IL)-10 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with COP and IPF were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) expressing Tregs were evaluated by flow cytometry. The effect of Gal-9 on interactions between human lung fibroblast cells and hyarulonan was assessed in vitro. Gal-9 and IL-10 levels in the BALF were significantly higher in patients with COP than in patients with IPF. The number of CD4+Foxp3high+cells was significantly higher in the BALF of patients with COP than in those with IPF. Gal-9 levels significantly correlated with the absolute number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+cells or CD4+Foxp3high+cells, but not with the absolute number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3-cells, in the BALF of patients with COP. Gal-9 suppressed the CD44-dependent interaction of human lung fibroblast cells with hyarulonan in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that increased Gal-9 levels in the lung have a protective role against lung inflammation and fibrosis in patients with COP through the induction of Tregs in the lung and CD44-dependent inhibitory effects on lung fibroblast cells.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to analyze the characteristics of fever after cancer chemotherapy in order to reduce unnecessary medical care. Retrospectively, 1016 consecutive cycles of cancer chemotherapy were analyzed. Fever was defined as a temperature of ≥37.5 °C lasting for 1 h. Age, sex, tumor histology, the treatment regimen, the timing of fever onset, the number of days for which the fever persisted, the cause of the fever, the presence or absence of radiotherapy, and the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were examined. The patients included 748 males and 268 females (median age = 68, range = 29-88), of whom 949, 52, and 15 were suffering from lung cancer, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and other diseases, respectively. Fever was observed in 367 cycles (36 %), including 280 cycles (37 %) involving males and 87 cycles (32 %) involving females. Fever occurred most commonly in the first cycles and was higher than later cycles (41 vs. 30 %, p < 0.001). Fever occurred most frequently on posttreatment days 4 (8 %), 3 (7 %), and 12 (7 %), and the distribution of fever episodes exhibited two peaks on posttreatment days 3 and 4 and 10-14. Fever on posttreatment days 3 and 4 was most commonly observed in patients treated with gemcitabine (20 %) or docetaxel (18 %). The causes of fever included infection (47 %; including febrile neutropenia [24 %]), adverse drug effects (24 %), unknown causes (19 %), and tumors (7 %). Radiotherapy led to a significant increase in the frequency of fever (46 vs. 34 %, p < 0.001). Thirty-three percent of patients received G-CSF, and the incidence ratios of fever in patients who received G-CSF were higher than those who did not receive G-CSF (44 vs. 31 %, p < 0.001). The febrile episodes that occurred on posttreatment days 3 and 4 were considered to represent adverse drug reactions after cancer chemotherapy. Physicians should be aware of this feature of chemotherapy-associated fever and avoid unnecessary examination and treatments including prescribing antibiotics.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Supportive Care in Cancer
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    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Tuberculosis Research
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    ABSTRACT: Immune responses to tumor antigens have been reported in cancer patients. However, the relevance of such spontaneous immune responses to the clinical course has not been studied extensively. We showed that the overall survival of patients with antibodies against NY-ESO-1 or XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen was prolonged in gastric or lung cancer patients, respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · OncoImmunology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Tregs infiltrate tumors and inhibit immune responses against them. Methods: We investigated subpopulations of Foxp3 CD4 T cells previously defined by Miyara et al. (Immunity 30, 899-911, 2009) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in lung cancer. We also showed that Tregs in healthy donors that express CCR4 could be efficiently eliminated in vitro by cotreatment with antihuman (h) CCR4 mAb (KM2760) and NK cells. Results: In lung cancer, the number of activated/effector Tregs and non-Tregs, but not resting/naive Tregs, was increased in TILs compared with the number of those cells in PBMCs. The non-Treg population contained Th2 and Th17. CCR4 expression on activated/effector Tregs and non-Tregs in TILs was down-regulated compared with that on those cells in PBMCs. Chemokinetic migration of CD25 CD4 T cells containing the Treg population sorted from the PBMCs of healthy donors to CCL22/MDC was abrogated by pretreatment with anti-hCCR4 mAb (KM2760). The inhibitory activity of CD25 CD127 CD4 Tregs on the proliferative response of CD4 and CD8 T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 coated beads was abrogated by adding an anti-hCCR4 mAb (KM2760) and CD56 NK cells to the culture. Conclusions: The findings suggested the CCR4 on activated/effector Tregs and non-Tregs was functionally involved in the chemokinetic migration and accumulation of those cells to the tumor site. In vitro findings of efficient elimination of Tregs may give the basis for implementation of a clinical trial to investigate Treg depletion by administration of an anti-hCCR4 mAb to solid cancer patients.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The cancer/testis antigen XAGE1 (GAGED2a) is expressed in approximately 40% of advanced lung adenocarcinomas. We investigated the clinical relevance of the XAGE1 (GAGED2a) immune responses in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Experimental design: The XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen expression and EGFR mutation were determined with tumor tissues. The XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antibody and T-cell immune responses, as well as immune cell phenotypes, were analyzed with blood samples. Patients with EGFR wild-type (EGFRwt) tumors were treated with conventional platinum-based doublet chemotherapy and patients with EGFR-mutated (EGFRmt) tumors were treated with EGFR-TKI and conventional chemotherapy. The overall survival (OS) rates of the antibody-positive and -negative patients were investigated. Results: The results showed that the OS of antibody-positive patients was prolonged significantly compared with that of antibody-negative patients with either XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen-positive EGFRwt (31.5 vs. 15.6 months, P = 0.05) or EGFRmt (34.7 vs. 11.1 months, P = 0.001) tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of the XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antibody was a strong predictor for prolonged OS in patients with XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen-positive tumors and in patients with either EGFRwt or EGFRmt tumors. On the other hand, XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antigen expression was a worse predictor in patients with EGFRmt tumors. Phenotypic and functional analyses of T cells indicated immune activation in the antibody-positive patients. Conclusions: The findings suggest that production of the XAGE1 (GAGED2a) antibody predicts good prognosis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma as an immune biomarker and the protective effect of this naturally occurring immune response supports the concept of immunotherapy.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) are frequently heterogeneous and in approximately 70% of cases, NSCLCs are diagnosed and staged by small biopsies or cytology rather than by examination of surgically resected specimens. Thus, in most patients, the diagnosis is established based on examination of preoperative specimens alone. Recently, classification of NSCLC into pathologic subtypes has been shown to be important for selecting the appropriate systemic therapy, from both the point of view of treatment efficacy and prevention of toxicity. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients to compare the preoperative classification of the NSCLC subtype on biopsy specimens with the postoperative classification based on examination of the resected specimens, in order to compare the accuracy of the two for the diagnosis of various histological subtypes of NSCLC. In 169 of the 225 (75.1%) patients, the preoperative diagnosis was definite malignancy. Histologically, the final pathologic diagnosis made from the surgical specimens was adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 169 patients, and in 75.5% of these cases, the diagnosis was concordant with the preoperative diagnosis. Among the patients who had squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) in the preoperative specimens, the diagnosis was concordant with the preoperative diagnosis in 65.7% of cases. Misclassified preoperative biopsies included an even number of SQCs and ADCs, with all the misclassified biopsies being ADCs morphologically mimicking SQC due to solid growth. Significantly higher specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy were observed for the diagnosis of SQC. Our study suggested that the concordance rates for diagnosis of the NSCLC subtypes, especially the "squamous" or "non-squamous" histologies, between preoperative and surgical specimens were satisfactory, as compared with previous reports. Therefore, pretreatment diagnosis of lung cancer using small samples is reasonable for selecting the optimal treatment. However, in order not to lose the opportunity for selecting an effective treatment, we should be aware that the diagnosis in preoperative small samples might be different from that based on examination of the surgical specimens. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2032698427120488
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a β-galactoside-binding protein involved in various biologic processes, including cell aggregation, adhesion, chemoattraction, and apoptosis. Little is known, however, about the regulation mechanisms of Gal-9 production. Recent studies reported high plasma Gal-9 levels in humans infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 and dengue virus. Viral respiratory infections such as influenza are common human illnesses. A synthetic double-stranded RNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyIC), mimics the effects of viruses in various cell types and induces the expression of Gal-9 in endothelial cells. To examine the potential link between viral infection and Gal-9 expression, we measured plasma Gal-9 concentrations in patients with influenza. Subjects were 43 patients with influenza virus infection, 20 with pneumococcal pneumonia, and 20 healthy adults. Gal-9 concentrations in the plasma and in culture supernatants of human airway epithelial cells were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Gal-9 concentrations were higher in patients with influenza infection than in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia and healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Patients with influenza were effectively differentiated from those with pneumococcal pneumonia or healthy subjects, based on the plasma levels of Gal-9 (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, using a human airway epithelial cell line, we showed that the presence of PolyIC but not lipopolysaccharides increased the Gal-9 concentration in the culture medium (p < 0.05), suggesting that PolyIC enhanced Gal-9 production. These findings support our proposal that Gal-9 production is induced by influenza virus infection in humans. In conclusion, plasma Gal-9 could be a new biomarker for patients with influenza infection.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a clinical trial of an NY-ESO-1 cancer vaccine using 4 synthetic overlapping long peptides (OLP; peptides #1, 79-108; #2, 100-129; #3, 121-150; and #4, 142-173) that include a highly immunogenic region of the NY-ESO-1 molecule. Nine patients were immunized with 0.25 mg each of three 30-mer and a 32-mer long NY-ESO-1 OLP mixed with 0.2 KE Picibanil OK-432 and 1.25 mL Montanide ISA-51. The primary endpoints of this study were safety and NY-ESO-1 immune responses. Five to 18 injections of the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine were well tolerated. Vaccine-related adverse events observed were fever and injection site reaction (grade 1 and 2). Two patients showed stable disease after vaccination. An NY-ESO-1-specific humoral immune response was observed in all patients and an antibody against peptide #3 (121-150) was detected firstly and strongly after vaccination. NY-ESO-1 CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in these patients and their epitopes were identified. Using a multifunctional cytokine assay, the number of single or double cytokine-producing cells was increased in NY-ESO-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells after vaccination. Multiple cytokine-producing cells were observed in PD-1 (-) and PD-1 (+) CD4 T cells. In conclusion, our study indicated that the NY-ESO-1 OLP vaccine mixed with Picibanil OK-432 and Montanide ISA-51 was well tolerated and elicited NY-ESO-1-specific humoral and CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in immunized patients.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Immunotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: We established CD4 T-cell clones, Mz-1B7, and Ue-21, which recognized the NY-ESO-1 121-138 peptide from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of an esophageal cancer patient, E-2, immunized with an NY-ESO-1 protein and determined the NY-ESO-1 minimal epitopes. Minimal peptides recognized by Mz-1B7 and Ue-21 were NY-ESO-1 125-134 and 124-134, respectively, both in restriction to DRB1*08:03. Using a longer peptide, 122-135, and five other related peptides, including either of the minimal epitopes recognized by the CD4 T-cell clones, we investigated the free peptide/DR recognition on autologous EBV-B cells as APC and peptide/DR tetramer binding. The results showed a discrepancy between them. The tetramers with several peptides recognized by either Mz-1B7 or the Ue-21 CD4 T-cell clone did not bind to the respective clone. On the other hand, unexpected binding of the tetramer with the peptide not recognized by CD4 T-cells was observed. The clone Mz-1B7 did not recognize the free peptide 122-135 on APC, but the peptide 122-135/DRB1*08:03 tetramer bound to the TCR on those cells. The failure of tetramer production and the unexpected tetramer binding could be due to a subtly modified structure of the peptide/DR tetramer from the structure of the free peptide/DR molecule. We also demonstrated that the NY-ESO-1 123-135/DRB1*08:03 tetramer detected ex vivo CD4 T-cell responses in PBMCs from patients after NY-ESO-1 vaccination in immunomonitoring.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Vaccine

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: GM (γ marker) allotypes, genetic variants of immunoglobulin γ chains, have been reported to be strongly associated with susceptibility to lung cancer, but the mechanism(s) underlying this association is not known. One mechanism could involve their contribution to humoral immunity to lung tumor-associated antigens. Here, we aimed to determine whether particular GM and KM (κ marker) allotypes were associated with antibody responsiveness to XAGE-1b, a highly immunogenic lung tumor-associated cancer-testis antigen. Sera from 89 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were allotyped for 8 GM and 2 KM determinants and characterized for antibodies to a synthetic XAGE-1b protein. The distribution of various GM phenotypes was significantly different between XAGE-1b antibody positive and negative patients (p = 0.023) as well as in the subgroup of XAGE-1b antigen-positive advanced NSCLC (p = 0.007). None of the patients with the GM 1,17 21 phenotype was positive for the XAGE-1b antibody. In patients with the antigen-positive advanced disease, the prevalence of GM 1,2,17 21 was significantly higher in the antibody positive group than in those who lacked the XAGE-1b antibody (p = 0.026). This phenotype also interacted with a particular KM phenotype: Subjects with GM 1,2,17 21 and KM 3,3 phenotypes were almost four times (OR=3.8) as likely to be positive for the XAGE-1b antibody as the subjects who lacked these phenotypes. This is the first report presenting evidence for the involvement of immunoglobulin allotypes in immunity to a cancer-testis antigen, which has important implications for XAGE-1b-based immunotherapeutic interventions in lung adenocarcinoma.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Clinical & Experimental Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Viral respiratory infection is the most common cause of acute asthma exacerbation in patients with stable asthma. The replication of most respiratory viruses requires the generation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), resulting in the activation of host immune responses. Synthetic dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyIC), mimics the effects of viruses in various cell types. To evaluate new therapies for mite antigen-induced chronic asthma, we developed an acute exacerbation model of mouse chronic asthma using mite antigen and PolyIC. We also examined the preventive effects of recombinant galectin-9 (Gal-9) on acute asthma exacerbation in this model. Methods: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was examined to evaluate the exacerbation of chronic asthma. To analyze airway inflammation, the numbers of inflammatory cells and concentrations of cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were estimated by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Results: AHR was accelerated by intranasal administration of PolyIC in addition to mite antigen. Levels of cytokines that contribute to AHR, including interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and RANTES (CCR5), and of Gal-9 in the BALF were elevated in this acute asthma exacerbation mouse model. Intranasal administration of recombinant Gal-9 reduced the PolyIC-induced AHR and levels of these cytokines in the BALF. Further, Gal-9 suppressed the production of cytokines induced by PolyIC in the alveolar macrophages. CONCLUSIONS. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous Gal-9 suppressed dsRNA-induced AHR in an acute exacerbation model of chronic asthma in mice, and suggest that recombinant Gal-9 could be therapeutically effective for preventing acute asthma exacerbation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Experimental Lung Research

Publication Stats

4k Citations
685.95 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005-2015
    • Kawasaki Medical University
      • • Department of Respiratory Medicine
      • • Department of Acute Medicine
      Kurasiki, Okayama, Japan
  • 2007
    • Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Isahaya Hospital
      Isahara, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 2006
    • Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital
      Kawasaki, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 1992-2005
    • Nagasaki University Hospital
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 1996-2001
    • Nagasaki University
      • School of Medicine
      Nagasaki, Nagasaki, Japan
  • 1994-1995
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      베서스다, Maryland, United States