M. S. Kim

Imperial College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (206)667.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report an experimental realization of Maxwell’s demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the few-photons level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of an equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We propose an interferometric scheme based on an untrapped nano-object subjected to classical gravity. The center of mass (CM) of the free object is coupled to its internal spin system magnetically, and a free flight scheme is developed in which the matter wave of the test object is split and merged in a double slit interferometry fashion. It shows the capability of generating a large spatially separated superposition of the composite system and consequently evidencing it via a Ramsey interferometry that reveals a gravity induced dynamical phase accrued solely on the spin. We find a remarkable immunity to the motional noise in the CM so that our scheme would work for a thermal initial state with moderate cooling. The mass independence of our scheme makes it viable for nano-object ensembles with a high mass variability. The $100$ nm scale of spatial separation of the superposed components, as well as the high visibility of the resulting Ramsey interference over $100 \mu$s provides a route to test postulated modifications of quantum theory such as continuous spontaneous localisation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) center in a nanodiamond, levitated in high vacuum, has recently been proposed as a probe for demonstrating mesoscopic center-of-mass superpositions \cite{Scala2013, Zhang2013} and for testing quantum gravity \cite{Albrecht2014}. Here, we study the behavior of optically levitated nanodiamonds containing NV$^-$ centers at sub-atmospheric pressures and show that while they burn in air, this can be prevented by replacing the air with nitrogen. However, in nitrogen the nanodiamonds graphitize below $\approx 10$ mB. Exploiting the Brownian motion of a levitated nanodiamond, we extract its internal temperature ($T_i$) and find that it would be detrimental to the NV$^-$ center's spin coherence time \cite{Toyli2012}. These values of $T_i$ make it clear that the diamond is not melting, contradicting a recent suggestion \cite{Neukirch2015}. Additionally, using the measured damping rate of a levitated nanoparticle at a given pressure, we propose a new way of determining its size.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report an experimental realisation of Maxwell's demon in a photonic setup. We show that a measurement at the single-photon level followed by a feed-forward operation allows the extraction of work from intense thermal light into an electric circuit. The interpretation of the experiment stimulates the derivation of a new equality relating work extraction to information acquired by measurement. We derive a bound using this relation and show that it is in agreement with the experimental results. Our work puts forward photonic systems as a platform for experiments related to information in thermodynamics.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The scheme recently proposed in [M. Scala et al., Phys Rev Lett 111, 180403 (2013)], where a gravity-dependent phase shift is induced on the spin of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in a trapped nanodiamond by the interaction between its magnetic moment and the quantized motion of the particle, provides a way to detect spatial quantum superpositions by means of spin measurements only. Here, the effect of unwanted coupling with other motional degrees of freedom is considered and we show that it does not affect the validity of the scheme. Both this coupling and the additional error source due to misalignment between the quantization axis of the NV center spin and the trapping axis are shown not to change the qualitative behavior of the system, so that a proof-of- principle experiment can be neatly performed. Our analysis, which shows that the scheme retains the important features of not requiring ground state cooling and of being resistant to thermal fluctuations, can be useful for the several schemes which have been proposed recently for testing macroscopic superpositions in trapped microsystems.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    L Latmiral · C Di Franco · P L Mennea · M S Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Spin-chain models have been widely studied in terms of quantum information processes, for instance for the faithful transmission of quantum states. Here, we investigate the limitations of mapping this process to an equivalent one through a bosonic chain. In particular, we keep in mind experimental implementations, which the progress in integrated waveguide circuits could make possible in the very near future. We consider the feasibility of exploiting the higher dimensionality of the Hilbert space of the chain elements for the transmission of a larger amount of information, and the effects of unwanted excitations during the process. Finally, we exploit the information-flux method to provide bounds to the transfer fidelity.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum theory is based on a mathematical structure totally different from conventional arithmetic. Due to the symmetric nature of bosonic particles, annihilation or creation of single particles translates a quantum state depending on how many bosons are already in the given quantum system. This proportionality results in a variety of non-classical features of quantum mechanics including the bosonic commutation relation. The annihilation and creation operations have recently been implemented in photonic systems. However, this feature of quantum mechanics does not preclude the possibility of realizing conventional arithmetic in quantum systems. We implement conventional addition and subtraction of single phonons for a trapped \Yb ion in a harmonic potential. In order to realize such operations, we apply the transitionless adiabatic passage scheme on the anti-Jaynes-Cummings coupling between the internal energy states and external motion states of the ion. By performing the operations on superpositions of Fock states, we realize the hybrid computation of classical arithmetic in quantum parallelism, and show that our operations are useful to engineer quantum states. Our single-phonon operations are nearly deterministic and robust against parameter changes, enabling handy repetition of the operations independently from the initial state of the atomic motion. We demonstrate the transform of a classical state to a nonclassical one of highly sub-Poissonian phonon statistics and a Gaussian state to a non-Gaussian state, by applying a sequence of the operations. The operations implemented here are the Susskind-Glogower phase operators, whose non-commutativity is also demonstrated.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Utilizing the tools of quantum optics to prepare and manipulate quantum states of motion of a mechanical resonator is currently one of the most promising routes to explore non-classicality at a macroscopic scale. An important quantum optomechanical tool yet to be experimentally demonstrated is the ability to perform complete quantum state reconstruction. Here, after providing a brief introduction to quantum states in phase space, we review and contrast the current proposals for state reconstruction of mechanical motional states and discuss experimental progress. Furthermore, we show that mechanical quadrature tomography using back-action-evading interactions gives an $s$-parameterized Wigner function where the numerical parameter $s$ is directly related to the optomechanical measurement strength. We also discuss the effects of classical noise in the optical probe for both state reconstruction and state preparation by measurement.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Annalen der Physik
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    Se-Wan Ji · M. S. Kim · Hyunchul Nha
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    ABSTRACT: It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and we here address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by a $N$-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Physics A Mathematical and Theoretical
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    ABSTRACT: Phase estimation, at the heart of many quantum metrology and communication schemes, can be strongly affected by noise, whose amplitude may not be known, or might be subject to drift. Here we investigate the joint estimation of a phase shift and the amplitude of phase diffusion at the quantum limit. For several relevant instances, this multiparameter estimation problem can be effectively reshaped as a two-dimensional Hilbert space model, encompassing the description of an interferometer phase probed with relevant quantum states-split single-photons, coherent states or N00N states. For these cases, we obtain a trade-off bound on the statistical variances for the joint estimation of phase and phase diffusion, as well as optimum measurement schemes. We use this bound to quantify the effectiveness of an actual experimental set-up for joint parameter estimation for polarimetry. We conclude by discussing the form of the trade-off relations for more general states and measurements.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: We study quantum non-Markovianity in the early stage of the emission process of a two-level atom coupled to a semi-infinite waveguide, where the waveguide termination behaves as a perfect mirror. Specifically, we restrict to the analysis of the process for times shorter than twice the time delay t_d, where t_d is the duration of a round trip along the atom-mirror path. We show the emergence of a threshold in the parameters space separating the Markovian and non-Markovian regions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Physica Scripta
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    ABSTRACT: Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment illustrates vividly that the observer plays a central role in quantum physics by demonstrating that complementarity or wave-particle duality can be enforced even after the photon has already entered the interferometer. The delayed-choice quantum eraser experiment further demonstrates that complementarity can be enforced even after detection of a quantum system, elucidating the foundational nature of complementarity in quantum physics. However, the applicability of the delayed-choice method for practical quantum information protocols continues to be an open question. Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the delayed-choice decoherence suppression protocol, in which the decision to suppress decoherence on an entangled two-qubit state is delayed until after the decoherence and even after the detection of a qubit. Our result suggests a new way to tackle Markovian decoherence in a delayed manner, applicable for practical entanglement distribution over a dissipative channel.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the emission of a polaritonic system, where the coupling between a large number of two-level emitters and a single-mode cavity field is non-adiabatically switched on. Counter-rotating terms as well as the so-called $A^2$ term are included in the light-matter interaction, where ${\bf A }$ is the vector potential. We find that the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule enforces qualitative constraints on the quantum statistics of the system radiation, which consists of two spectrally resolved output modes. For ideal two-level emitters the populations of the two modes are always found equal. This result cannot be recovered if $A^2$ is neglected, or even if it is included perturbatively via renormalization of the cavity frequency. We then extend our study to imperfect two-level emitters, featuring residual couplings to higher levels, and find that a naive application of the two-level approximation alters these predictions incorrectly. We discuss how a refined two-level approximation may be obtained by rescaling the $A^2$ term.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: We address the problem of continuous-variable quantum phase estimation in the presence of linear disturbance at the Hamiltonian level, by means of Gaussian probe states. In particular we discuss both unitary and random disturbance, by considering the parameter which characterizes the unwanted linear term present in the Hamiltonian as fixed (unitary disturbance) or random with a given probability distribution (random disturbance). We derive the optimal input Gaussian states at fixed energy, maximizing the quantum Fisher information over the squeezing angle and the squeezing energy fraction, and we discuss the scaling of the quantum Fisher information in terms of the output number of photons $n_{out}$. We observe that in the case of unitary disturbance the optimal state is a squeezed vacuum state and the quadratic scaling is conserved. As regards the random disturbance, we observe that the optimal squeezing fraction may not be equal to one, and, for any non-zero value of the noise parameter, the quantum Fisher information scales linearly with the average number of photons. We finally discuss the performance of homodyne measurement, comparing the achievable precision with the ultimate limit posed by the quantum Cram\'er-Rao bound.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: The superposition principle is at the heart of quantum mechanics and at the root of many paradoxes arising when trying to extend its predictions to our everyday world. Schroedinger's cat is the prototype of such paradoxes and here, in contrast to many others, we choose to investigate it from the operational point of view. We experimentally demonstrate a universal strategy for producing an unambiguously distinguishable type of superposition, that of an arbitrary pure state and its orthogonal. It relies on only a limited amount of information about the input state to first generate its orthogonal one. Then, a simple change in the experimental parameters is used to produce arbitrary superpositions of the mutually orthogonal states. Constituting a sort of Schroedinger's black box, able to turn a whole zoo of input states into coherent superpositions, our scheme can produce arbitrary continuous-variable optical qubits, which may prove practical for implementing quantum technologies and measurement tasks.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a general framework to effectively "open" a high-Q resonator, that is, to release the quantum state initially prepared in it in the form of a traveling electromagnetic wave. This is achieved by employing a mediating mode that scatters coherently the radiation from the resonator into a one-dimensional continuum of modes such as a waveguide. The same mechanism may be used to "feed" a desired quantum field to an initially empty cavity. Switching between an open and "closed" resonator may then be obtained by controlling either the detuning of the scatterer or the amount of time it spends in the resonator. First, we introduce the model in its general form, identifying (i) the traveling mode that optimally retains the full quantum information of the resonator field and (ii) a suitable figure of merit that we study analytically in terms of the system parameters. Then, we discuss two feasible implementations based on ensembles of two-level atoms interacting with cavity fields. In addition, we discuss how to integrate traditional cavity QED in our proposal using three-level atoms.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Physical Review Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We address detection of quantum non-Gaussian states, i.e. nonclassical states that cannot be expressed as a convex mixture of Gaussian states, and present a method to derive a new family of criteria based on generic linear functionals. We then specialise this method to derive witnesses based on $s$-parametrized quasiprobability functions, generalising previous criteria based on the Wigner function. In particular we discuss in detail and analyse the properties of Husimi Q-function based witnesses and prove that they are often more effective than previous criteria in detecting quantum non-Gaussianity of various kinds of non-Gaussian states evolving in a lossy channel.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: We report direct evidence of the bosonic nature of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a scattering-based beamsplitter. A parametric down-conversion source is used to produce two indistinguishable photons, each of which is converted into a SPP on a metal-stripe waveguide and then made to interact through a semi-transparent Bragg mirror. In this plasmonic analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment, we measure a coincidence dip with a visibility of 72%, a key signature that SPPs are bosons and that quantum interference is clearly involved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Physical Review Applied
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    K. R. McEnery · M. S. Tame · S. A. Maier · M. S. Kim
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the integration of quantum emitters into a negative permeability metamaterial design in order to introduce tunability as well as nonlinear behavior. The unit cell of our metamaterial is a ring of metamolecules, each consisting of a metal nanoparticle and a two-level semiconductor quantum dot (QD). Without the QDs, the ring of the unit cell is known to act as an artificial optical magnetic resonator. By adding the QDs we show that a Fano interference profile is introduced into the magnetic field scattered from the ring. This induced interference is shown to cause an appreciable effect in the collective magnetic resonance of the unit cell. We find that the interference provides a means to tune the response of the negative permeability metamaterial. The exploitation of the QD's inherent nonlinearity is proposed to modulate the metamaterial's magnetic response with a separate control field.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Physical Review A
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    ABSTRACT: We consider a quantum emitter ("atom") radiating in a one-dimensional (1D) photonic waveguide in the presence of a single mirror. This setup can be implemented in a variety of platforms, such as quantum dots emitting in a terminated 1D photonic crystal/nanowire, or even in free space by means of a standard mirror and an ion trapped at the focus of high-numerical-aperture lenses. It is known that the feedback mechanism introduced by the mirror gives rise to a complex emission process that can feature significant memory effects. Here, we carry out a systematic analysis of the non-Markovian (NM) character of such process in terms of refined, recently developed notions of quantum non-Markovianity such as indivisibility and information back-flow. NM effects are quantified as a function of the time delay and phase shift associated with the atom-mirror optical path. We find, in particular, that unless an atom-photon bound state is formed a finite time delay is always required in order for NM effects to be exhibited. This identifies a finite threshold in parameter space, separating the Markovian and non-Markovian regimes.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Physical Review A

Publication Stats

6k Citations
667.17 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987-2015
    • Imperial College London
      • Section of Statistics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000-2011
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • School of Mathematics and Physics
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2006-2008
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering (AMSE)
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1994-2007
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Physics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002-2006
    • Kyungpook National University
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 1992-1994
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Physics
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia