Michael L. McCaleb

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (15)56.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · ChemInform
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · ChemInform
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · ChemInform
  • M S Malamas · J Sredy · M McCaleb · I Gunawan · B Mihan · D Sullivan
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 1,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5-diones was synthesized and evaluated as oral antihyperglycemic agents in the obese insulin resistant db/db and ob/ob mouse - the two models for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The majority of the prepared methoxy- and ethoxy-linked oxazole 1,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5-diones normalized plasma glucose levels at the 100 mg kg(-1) oral dose in the db/db diabetic mouse model, and several amongst them reduced the glucose levels at the 20 mg kg(-1) oral dose. The most potent compounds in the db/db mouse model were also active in the ob/ob mouse model normalizing the plasma glucose levels at the 20 mg kg(-1) oral dose. The trifluoromethoxy analog 32 was the most active compound of the series, reducing significantly the plasma glucose levels at the 5 mg kg(-1) oral dose. Oxadiazole-tailed 1,2,4-oxadiazolidine-3,5-diones were also active in both the db/db and ob/ob diabetic mouse models normalizing plasma glucose levels at the 100 mg kg(-1) oral dose.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Novel 5-(3-aryl-2-propynyl)-5-(arylsulfonyl)thiazolidine-2,4-diones and 5-(3-aryl-2-propynyl)-5-(arylsulfanyl)thiazolidine-2,4-diones were prepared and evaluated as oral antihyperglycemic agents in the obese, insulin resistant db/db mouse model at 100 mg/kg and, if the analogue had sufficient potency, 20 mg/kg. The sulfonylthiazolidinediones, 2, were more potent than the corresponding sulfanylthiazolidinedione congeners, 1. With regard to substituent effects on the 3-propynyl phenyl ring (Ar') of 2, 4-halogen substitution generally resulted in the more potent analogues. Substituent effects on the phenylsulfonyl moiety (Ar) of 2 were less clear, although para-halogen substitution on Ar generally was preferable. 2-Pyridinesulfonyl derivatives (Ar = 2-pyridine in 2) also had good potency. Several compounds from series 2 were effective at lowering glucose and insulin in the obese, insulin resistant ob/ob mouse at the 50 mg/kg oral dose. Compound 20 significantly improved the glucose tolerance of obese, insulin resistant Zucker rats at the 20 mg/kg dose level and had no effect on plasma glucose or on glucose tolerance in normal rats fasted for 18 h at the 100 mg/kg level.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1998 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis, structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, and antidiabetic characterization of 1,2-dihydro-4-[[4-(methylthio)phenyl]methyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3H- pyrazol-3-one (as the hydroxy tautomer; WAY-123783, 4) are described. Substitution of 4-methylthio, methylsulfinyl, or ethyl to a benzyl group at C4, in combination with trifluoromethyl at C5 of pyrazol-3-one, generated potent antihyperglycemic agents in obese, diabetic db/db mice (16-30% reduction in plasma glucose at 2 mg/kg). The antihyperglycemic effect was associated with a robust glucosuria (> 8 g/dL) observed in nondiabetic mice. Chemical trapping of four of the seven possible tautomeric forms of the heterocycle by mono- and dialkylation at the acidic hydrogens provided several additional potent analogs (39-43% reduction at 5 mg/kg) of the lead 4 as well as a dialkylated pair of regioisomers that showed separation of the associated glucosuric effect produced by all of the active analogs in normal mice. Further pharmacological characterization of the lead WAY-123783 (ED50 = 9.85 mg/kg, po in db/db mice), in oral and subcutaneous glucose tolerance tests, indicated that unlike the renal and intestinal glucose absorption inhibitor phlorizin, pyrazolone 4 does not effectively block intestinal glucose absorption. SAR and additional pharmacological data reported herein suggest that WAY-123783 represents a new class of potent antihyperglycemic agents which correct hyperglycemia by selective inhibition of renal tubular glucose reabsorption.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1996 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Bioisosteric substitution was used as a tool to generate several new structural alternatives to the thiazolidine-2,4-dione and tetrazole heterocycles as potential antidiabetic agents. Among the initial leads that emerged from this strategy, a family of acidic azoles, isoxazol-3- and -5-ones and a pyrazol-3-one, showed significant plasma glucose-lowering activity (17-42% reduction) in genetically obese, diabetic db/db mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day x4. Structure-activity relationship studies determined that 5-alkyl-4-(arylmethyl)pyrazol-3-ones, which exist in solution as aromatic enol/iminol tautomers, were the most promising new class of potential antidiabetic agent (32-45% reduction at 20 mg/kg/d x4). Included in this work are convenient syntheses for several types of acidic azoles that may find use as new acidic bioisosteres in medicinal chemistry such as the antidiabetic lead 5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-3-one (hydroxy tautomer) and aza homologs of the pyrazolones, 1,2,3-triazol-5-ones (hydroxy tautomer) and 1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-one heterocycles. log P and pKa data for 15 potential acidic bioisosteres, all appended to a 2-naphthalenylmethyl residue so as to maintain a similar distance between the acidic hydrogen and arene nucleus, are presented. This new data set allows comparison of a wide variety of potential acid mimetics (pKa 3.78-10.66; log P -0.21 to 2.76) for future drug design.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1995 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Compounds from two novel series of spirosuccinimides were prepared. Analogs of series 2 possessed a spiro-fused isoindolone moiety while those of series 3 contained a spiro-fused benzisothiazole S,S-dioxide group. These compounds were evaluated as aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI) in vitro by their ability to inhibit glyceraldehyde reduction using a partially purified bovine lens aldose reductase preparation and in vivo as inhibitors of galactitol accumulation in the lens, sciatic nerve, and diaphragm of galactose-fed rats. Many members from the isoindolone series 2, particularly those containing an isoindolone N-methyl moiety, showed good in vitro and in vivo potency. The most potent member, the 6-chloro analog 32, was resolved, and aldose reductase activity was found to reside almost exclusively in the (+)-enantiomer. Compound 32 was approximately equipotent in the sciatic nerve of the galactose-fed rat to other cyclic imide ARI's of similar in vitro activity, namely sorbinil and ADN-138 and also to tolrestat, an acetic acid-based ARI (ED50's 4-8 mg/kg). Compounds from both series, 2 and 3, were also found to lower plasma glucose levels of genetically obese db/db and ob/ob mice with potency similar to that of ciglitazone. However, members from these series failed to lower insulin levels of the ob/ob mouse at the doses tested.
    No preview · Article · Dec 1992 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
  • Michael L. McCaleb · Janet Sredy
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    ABSTRACT: In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the metabolic profiles of lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker male rats at 4 to 8 months of age. Although all of the obese rats (N = 108) demonstrated glucose intolerance, most of the obese rats exhibited only mild elevations of fasted and fed plasma glucose. Only 14 of the obese rats were severely hyperglycemic, which resulted in substantial elevations of glycohemoglobin (GHb) levels. The nerve and lens levels of glucose, sorbitol, and fructose were elevated, and the myo-inositol was depleted in all hyperglycemic obese rats, but not in the euglycemic obese rats. With increasing duration of hyperglycemia, the neural myo-inositol level approached normal, while the lenses became cataractous. All obese rats had increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE), which was dependent on age (r = .45, P less than .02) and independent of hyperglycemia, glucosuria, and polyuria. In conclusion, although the euglycemic obese rats exhibited some diabetic abnormalities, the hyperglycemic obese Zucker rat more closely resembled the altered metabolic profile associated with type II diabetes mellitus.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1992 · Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: A series of substituted 3H-1,2,3,5-oxathiadiazole-2-oxides (6) was prepared and tested for antihyperglycemic activity in the db/db mouse, a model for type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. The oxathiadiazoles 6 were synthesized by a two-step sequence: treatment of a substituted acetonitrile (4) with hydroxylamine to give the corresponding amidoxime (5) and cyclization with thionyl chloride to yield 6. In terms of potency, the 2-naphthalenylmethyl group (as in compound 3) was found to be the optimal substituent in this series. Compound 3 was approximately 5 times more potent than ciglitazone (1).
    No preview · Article · May 1992 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: In a preliminary communication (J. Med. Chem. 1989, 32, 11-13) a series of perfluoro-N-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5ylmethyl)phenyl]alkana mides (perfluoro anilides I), designed as novel analogues of ciglitazone, were reported to possess oral antidiabetic activity in two genetic animal models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): obese (ob/ob) and diabetic (db/db) mice. In this report, the results from a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of the series I are described. Comprehensive statistical analysis among the 86 analogues screened for blood glucose lowering in ob/ob mice was achieved by a new application of a general statistical procedure which made it possible to make meaningful comparisons between more than 140 separate experiments (N = 2966). Perfluoro anilides I lowered plasma glucose in the hyperglycemic ob/ob and db/db mice but not in euglycemic normal rats. In the hyperinsulinemic ob/ob mouse, decreases in plasma insulin levels paralleled the decline in plasma glucose. Potency and efficacy in the series was shown to be dependent on the length of the perfluorocarbon chain (RF) of I. Optimal activity occurred with the C7 and C8 RF chains. The more extensive SAR studies reported here, indicated that the lipophilic RF chain is the most important structural element of I since neither the phenyl nor tetrazole rings present in anilides I were necessary for antihyperglycemic activity while medium length (C7-C8) RF chains, especially the C7F15 chain, were shown to confer antihyperglycemic activity in ob/ob mice to a wide variety of structures.
    No preview · Article · Apr 1992 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
  • M L McCaleb · M L McKean · T C Hohman · N Laver · W G Robison
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    ABSTRACT: The progressive increase in urinary albumin excretion, which precedes the development of diabetic nephropathy, can be prevented in diabetic rats if the aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, is administered at the initiation and throughout the duration of hyperglycaemia. We therefore determined the ability of tolrestat to intervene in the further progression of already established urinary albumin excretion of streptozotocin-diabetic female Wistar rats. Two months after streptozotocin injection, diabetic rats were grouped as low-urinary albumin excretion (0.2-1.0 mg albumin/day) or high-urinary albumin excretion (1.9-5.9 mg albumin/day), at which time tolrestat intervention (25 mg/kg per day) was begun for half of the diabetic rats in each urinary albumin excretion group. After six months of treatment tolrestat caused a significant reduction in the urinary albumin excretion rate of the low-urinary albumin excretion group only. The diabetes-induced rise of total urinary protein in both groups was significantly reduced by tolrestat. Furthermore, the diabetes-induced increase (49%) in the thickness of the basement membranes of retinal capillaries from the outer plexiform layer was significantly diminished by tolrestat administration. In conclusion, intervention therapy with the aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, can reduce the progression of urinary albumin excretion and retinal basement membrane thickening in long-term diabetic rats.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1991 · Diabetologia
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    ABSTRACT: One of the earliest histopathological signs of diabetic retinopathy is a selective loss of intramural pericytes from retinal capillaries. In the present study, the retinal vessels of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ Wistar) and rats with genetically-induced insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (BB Wistar) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (SHR/N-corpulent) were examined after 6 to 8 months duration for diabetes-related retinal microangiopathies. The SHR/N-corpulent (cp) rats were fed a 54% sucrose diet, whereas the STZ Wistar and BB Wistar rats were fed laboratory chow for 32 to 36 weeks. In all the diabetic rats, the retinal capillaries in enzyme-digested flat mounts exhibited an increase in periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and loss of pericytes compared to their respective euglycemic controls. Pericyte "ghosts", like those defined in human diabetes as intramural pockets lacking normal cell contents, were documented by high resolution micrographs in all the diabetic rats. Endothelial cell proliferation, capillary dilation, and varicose loop formation were noted in some of the diabetic rats. Hence, similar capillary lesions were found in very different groups of diabetic rats. The findings suggest that a chronic high tissue concentration of glucose is the underlying factor which triggers pathogenesis in the pericyte. Hyperglycemia-induced activation of endogenous aldose reductase of the polyol pathway is probably the initial insult, but other factors such as advanced glycosylation products may affect the final outcome.
    Full-text · Article · May 1991 · Current Eye Research
  • Arie Zask · Ivo Jirkovsky · James W. Nowicki · Michael L. McCaleb
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    ABSTRACT: A series of 5-(naphthalenylsulfonyl)-2,4-thiazolidinediones were synthesized and evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity in an insulin-resistant, genetically diabetic db/db mouse model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The sulfones could be synthesized by a novel, selective C-5 sulfonylation of dilithio-2,4-thiazolidinedione with appropriate sulfonyl chlorides. Within this series, naphthalene was found to be superior to other groups for eliciting antihyperglycemic activity, including the p-alkoxyphenyl group found in ciglitazone, a prototypical agent for this activity. Attachment of the 5-sulfonyl-2,4-thiazolidinedione moiety to the 2-naphthalene position led to optimum activity. Other linkers between the naphthalene and 2,4-thiazolidinedione rings, such as thio, methylene, oxy, and sulfinyl led to decreased antihyperglycemic activity. The best analogue, 5-(2-naphthalenylsulfonyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (AY-31,637) was equipotent to ciglitazone in two animal models of NIDDM.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1990 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
  • Michael L. McCaleb · Janet Sredy · Jane Millen · Denis M. Ackerman · Dushan Dvornik
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    ABSTRACT: Recent clinical data strongly suggest that elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) identifies diabetic subjects at risk of developing nephropathy. Elevated UAE is attributed to increased transglomerular pressure, which is associated with poor metabolic control in rats. Because excess glucose in diabetes is metabolized via the polyol pathway, we were interested in whether the diabetes-induced elevation in UAE in rats could be prevented by inhibiting aldose reductase (AR), the first enzyme in the polyol pathway, with the AR inhibitor tolrestat. In fact, in rats made diabetic with streptozocin (35 mg/kg IV), treatment for 6 months with tolrestat (25 mg/kg/day in the diet) prevented both sorbitol accumulation in the kidney and the increase in UAE. Sorbitol accumulation and the increased UAE were not associated with statistically significant mesangial expansion, and the thickening of glomerular basement membranes was not affected by tolrestat treatment. The authors conclude that the 4.7-fold elevation in UAE in chronically diabetic rats is linked to the increased flux of glucose through the polyol pathway since it was prevented by inhibiting aldose reductase with tolrestat.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1988 · Journal of Diabetic Complications

Publication Stats

570 Citations
56.01 Total Impact Points


  • 1992
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1991
    • National Eye Institute
      Maryland, United States