Jeffrey A. Munn

United States Naval Observatory, Вашингтон, Maine, United States

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Publications (125)541.31 Total impact

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), one of the programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), has now completed its systematic, homogeneous spectroscopic survey sampling all major populations of the Milky Way. After a three year observing campaign on the Sloan 2.5-m Telescope, APOGEE has collected a half million high resolution (R~22,500), high S/N (>100), infrared (1.51-1.70 microns) spectra for 146,000 stars, with time series information via repeat visits to most of these stars. This paper describes the motivations for the survey and its overall design---hardware, field placement, target selection, operations---and gives an overview of these aspects as well as the data reduction, analysis and products. An index is also given to the complement of technical papers that describe various critical survey components in detail. Finally, we discuss the achieved survey performance and illustrate the variety of potential uses of the data products by way of a number of science demonstrations, which span from time series analysis of stellar spectral variations and radial velocity variations from stellar companions, to spatial maps of kinematics, metallicity and abundance patterns across the Galaxy and as a function of age, to new views of the interstellar medium, the chemistry of star clusters, and the discovery of rare stellar species. As part of SDSS-III Data Release 12, all of the APOGEE data products are now publicly available.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new proper motion catalog is presented, combining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with second epoch observations in the r band within a portion of the SDSS imaging footprint. The new observations were obtained with the 90prime camera on the Steward Observatory Bok 90 inch telescope, and the Array Camera on the U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 1.3 meter telescope. The catalog covers 1098 square degrees to r = 22.0, an additional 1521 square degrees to r = 20.9, plus a further 488 square degrees of lesser quality data. Statistical errors in the proper motions range from 5 mas/year at the bright end to 15 mas/year at the faint end, for a typical epoch difference of 6 years. Systematic errors are estimated to be roughly 1 mas/year for the Array Camera data, and as much as 2 - 4 mas/year for the 90prime data (though typically less). The catalog also includes a second epoch of r band photometry.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large fraction of white dwarfs (WDs) may host planets in their habitable zones. These planets may provide our best chance to detect bio-markers on a transiting exoplanet, thanks to the diminished contrast ratio between the Earth-sized WD and its Earth-sized planets. The JWST is capable of obtaining the first spectroscopic measurements of such planets, yet there are no known planets around WDs. Here we propose to take advantage of the unique capability of the Kepler spacecraft in the 2-Wheels mode to perform a transit survey that is capable of identifying the first planets in the habitable zone of a WD. We propose to obtain Kepler time-series photometry of 10,000 WDs in the SDSS imaging area to search for planets in the habitable zone. Thanks to the large field of view of Kepler, for the first time in history, a large number of WDs can be observed at the same time, which is essential for discovering transits. Our proposed survey requires a total of 200 days of observing time, and will find up to 100 planets in the WD habitable zone. This survey will maintain Kepler's spirit of searching for habitable Earths, but near new hosts. With few-day observations and minute-cadences per field, it will also open up a completely unexplored discovery space. In addition to planets, this survey is sensitive to pulsating WDs, as well as eclipsing short period stellar and substellar companions. These have important implications for constraining the double WD merger rate and their contribution to Type Ia supernovae and the gravitational wave foreground. Given the relatively low number density of our targets, this program can be combined with other projects that would benefit from high cadence and many-fields observations with Kepler, e.g. a transit survey of a magnitude-limited, complete sample of nearby M dwarfs or asteroseismology of variable stars (e.g. RR Lyrae) in the same fields.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) is a high-resolution infrared spectroscopic survey spanning all Galactic environments (i.e., bulge, disk, and halo), with the principal goal of constraining dynamical and chemical evolution models of the Milky Way. APOGEE takes advantage of the reduced effects of extinction at infrared wavelengths to observe the inner Galaxy and bulge at an unprecedented level of detail. The survey's broad spatial and wavelength coverage enables users of APOGEE data to address numerous Galactic structure and stellar populations issues. In this paper we describe the APOGEE targeting scheme and document its various target classes to provide the necessary background and reference information to analyze samples of APOGEE data with awareness of the imposed selection criteria and resulting sample properties. APOGEE's primary sample consists of ~100,000 red giant stars, selected to minimize observational biases in age and metallicity. We present the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of this sample and evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, and caveats of the selection and sampling algorithms. We also describe additional target classes that contribute to the APOGEE sample, including numerous ancillary science programs, and we outline the targeting data that will be included in the public data releases.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has been in operation since 2000 April. This paper presents the tenth public data release (DR10) from its current incarnation, SDSS-III. This data release includes the first spectroscopic data from the Apache Point Observatory Galaxy Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), along with spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) taken through 2012 July. The APOGEE instrument is a near-infrared R ~ 22,500 300-fiber spectrograph covering 1:514-1:696 ?m. The APOGEE survey is studying the chemical abundances and radial velocities of roughly 100,000 red giant star candidates in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. DR10 includes 178,397 spectra of 57,454 stars, each typically observed three or more times, from APOGEE. Derived quantities from these spectra (radial velocities, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities) are also included. DR10 also roughly doubles the number of BOSS spectra over those included in the ninth data release. DR10 includes a total of 1,507,954 BOSS spectra, comprising 927,844 galaxy spectra; 182,009 quasar spectra; and 159,327 stellar spectra, selected over 6373.2 deg2.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including all survey-quality data taken through 2004 June. The data release includes five-band photometric data for 180 million objects selected over 6670 deg2 and 673,280 spectra of galaxies, quasars, and stars selected from 4783 deg2 of those imaging data using the standard SDSS target selection algorithms. These numbers represent a roughly 27% increment over those of the Third Data Release; all the data from previous data releases are included in the present release. The Fourth Data Release also includes an additional 131,840 spectra of objects selected using a variety of alternative algorithms, to address scientific issues ranging from the kinematics of stars in the Milky Way thick disk to populations of faint galaxies and quasars.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) presents the first spectroscopic data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). This ninth data release (DR9) of the SDSS project includes 535,995 new galaxy spectra (median z=0.52), 102,100 new quasar spectra (median z=2.32), and 90,897 new stellar spectra, along with the data presented in previous data releases. These spectra were obtained with the new BOSS spectrograph and were taken between 2009 December and 2011 July. In addition, the stellar parameters pipeline, which determines radial velocities, surface temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities of stars, has been updated and refined with improvements in temperature estimates for stars with T_eff<5000 K and in metallicity estimates for stars with [Fe/H]>-0.5. DR9 includes new stellar parameters for all stars presented in DR8, including stars from SDSS-I and II, as well as those observed as part of the SDSS-III Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration-2 (SEGUE-2). The astrometry error introduced in the DR8 imaging catalogs has been corrected in the DR9 data products. The next data release for SDSS-III will be in Summer 2013, which will present the first data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) along with another year of data from BOSS, followed by the final SDSS-III data release in December 2014.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carollo et al. have recently resolved the stellar population of the Milky Way halo into at least two distinct components, an inner halo and an outer halo. This result has been criticized by Schönrich et al., who claim that the retrograde signature associated with the outer halo is due to the adoption of faulty distances. We refute this claim, and demonstrate that the Schönrich et al. photometric distances are themselves flawed because they adopted an incorrect main-sequence absolute magnitude relationship from the work of Ivezić et al. When compared to the recommended relation from Ivezić et al., which is tied to a Milky Way globular cluster distance scale and accounts for age and metallicity effects, the relation adopted by Schönrich et al. yields up to 18% shorter distances for stars near the main-sequence turnoff (TO). Use of the correct relationship yields agreement between the distances assigned by Carollo et al. and Ivezić et al. for low-metallicity dwarfs to within 6%-10%. Schönrich et al. also point out that intermediate-gravity stars (3.5 ≤log g < 4.0) with colors redder than the TO region are likely misclassified, with which we concur. We implement a new procedure to reassign luminosity classifications for the TO stars that require it. New derivations of the rotational behavior demonstrate that the retrograde signature and high velocity dispersion of the outer-halo population remain. We summarize additional lines of evidence for a dual halo, including a test of the retrograde signature based on proper motions alone, and conclude that the preponderance of evidence strongly rejects the single-halo interpretation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) started a new phase in August 2008, with new instrumentation and new surveys focused on Galactic structure and chemical evolution, measurements of the baryon oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies and the quasar Ly alpha forest, and a radial velocity search for planets around ~8000 stars. This paper describes the first data release of SDSS-III (and the eighth counting from the beginning of the SDSS). The release includes five-band imaging of roughly 5200 deg^2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, bringing the total footprint of the SDSS imaging to 14,555 deg^2, or over a third of the Celestial Sphere. All the imaging data have been reprocessed with an improved sky-subtraction algorithm and a final, self-consistent photometric recalibration and flat-field determination. This release also includes all data from the second phase of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Evolution (SEGUE-2), consisting of spectroscopy of approximately 118,000 stars at both high and low Galactic latitudes. All the more than half a million stellar spectra obtained with the SDSS spectrograph have been reprocessed through an improved stellar parameters pipeline, which has better determination of metallicity for high metallicity stars.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 126 cool white dwarfs (WDs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our sample includes high proper motion targets selected using the SDSS and USNO-B astrometry and a dozen previously known ultracool WD candidates. Our optical spectroscopic observations demonstrate that a clean selection of large samples of cool WDs in the SDSS (and the SkyMapper, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope data sets) is possible using a reduced proper motion diagram and a tangential velocity cut-off (depending on the proper motion accuracy) of 30 km s–1. Our near-infrared observations reveal eight new stars with significant absorption. We use the optical and near-infrared photometry to perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis. More than 80% of the stars in our sample are consistent with either pure hydrogen or pure helium atmospheres. However, the eight stars with significant infrared absorption and the majority of the previously known ultracool WD candidates are best explained with mixed hydrogen and helium atmosphere models. The age distribution of our sample is consistent with a Galactic disk age of 8 Gyr. A few ultracool WDs may be as old as 12-13 Gyr, but our models have problems matching the spectral energy distributions of these objects. There are only two halo WD candidates in our sample. However, trigonometric parallax observations are required for accurate mass and age determinations and to confirm their membership in the halo.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study Milky Way kinematics using a sample of 18.8 million main-sequence stars with r < 20 and proper-motion measurements derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and POSS astrometry, including ~170,000 stars with radial-velocity measurements from the SDSS spectroscopic survey. Distances to stars are determined using a photometric-parallax relation, covering a distance range from ~100 pc to 10 kpc over a quarter of the sky at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>20°). We find that in the region defined by 1 kpc <Z< 5 kpc and 3 kpc <R< 13 kpc, the rotational velocity for disk stars smoothly decreases, and all three components of the velocity dispersion increase, with distance from the Galactic plane. In contrast, the velocity ellipsoid for halo stars is aligned with a spherical coordinate system and appears to be spatially invariant within the probed volume. The velocity distribution of nearby (Z < 1 kpc) K/M stars is complex, and cannot be described by a standard Schwarzschild ellipsoid. For stars in a distance-limited subsample of stars (<100 pc), we detect a multi-modal velocity distribution consistent with that seen by HIPPARCOS. This strong non-Gaussianity significantly affects the measurements of the velocity-ellipsoid tilt and vertex deviation when using the Schwarzschild approximation. We develop and test a simple descriptive model for the overall kinematic behavior that captures these features over most of the probed volume, and can be used to search for substructure in kinematic and metallicity space. We use this model to predict further improvements in kinematic mapping of the Galaxy expected from Gaia and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.
    Full-text · Article · May 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of three nearby old halo white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including two stars in a common proper motion binary system. These candidates are selected from our 2800deg2 proper motion survey on the Bok and U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3 m telescopes, and they display proper motions of 04-05 yr–1. Follow-up MMT spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry demonstrate that all three objects are hydrogen-dominated atmosphere WDs with T eff 3700-4100 K. For average mass WDs, these temperature estimates correspond to cooling ages of 9-10 Gyr, distances of 70-80 pc, and tangential velocities of 140-200 km s–1. Based on the UVW space velocities, we conclude that they most likely belong to the halo. Furthermore, the combined main-sequence and WD cooling ages are 10-11 Gyr. Along with SDSS J1102+4113, they are the oldest field WDs currently known. These three stars represent only a small fraction of the halo WD candidates in our proper motion survey, and they demonstrate that deep imaging surveys like the Pan-STARRS and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find many old thick disk and halo WDs that can be used to constrain the age of the Galactic thick disk and halo.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A deep, wide-area proper motion survey is currently underway with the prime focus imaging camera on the Steward Observatory Bok Telescope and the CCD mosaic camera on the United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station 1.3m Telescope. The sky footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is being reimaged in r to a depth of r = 21. These new observations are then matched to the SDSS catalog, yielding proper motions with errors at the faint limit of the survey of roughly 20-30 mas/yr (for a typical epoch difference of 5 years). To date, 2800 square degrees of sky have been imaged. The primary goal of the survey is to generate greatly increased samples of cool disk white dwarfs, as well as thick disk and halo white dwarfs, with which to better constrain the star formation history of the disk, thick disk, and halo.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010
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    N. A. Bond · Z. Ivezic · B. Sesar · M. Juric · J. Munn
    Preview · Article · Aug 2009
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), marking the completion of the original goals of the SDSS and the end of the phase known as SDSS-II. It includes 11,663 deg^2 of imaging data, with most of the ~2000 deg^2 increment over the previous data release lying in regions of low Galactic latitude. The catalog contains five-band photometry for 357 million distinct objects. The survey also includes repeat photometry on a 120° long, 2°.5 wide stripe along the celestial equator in the Southern Galactic Cap, with some regions covered by as many as 90 individual imaging runs. We include a co-addition of the best of these data, going roughly 2 mag fainter than the main survey over 250 deg^2. The survey has completed spectroscopy over 9380 deg^2; the spectroscopy is now complete over a large contiguous area of the Northern Galactic Cap, closing the gap that was present in previous data releases. There are over 1.6 million spectra in total, including 930,000 galaxies, 120,000 quasars, and 460,000 stars. The data release includes improved stellar photometry at low Galactic latitude. The astrometry has all been recalibrated with the second version of the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog, reducing the rms statistical errors at the bright end to 45 milliarcseconds per coordinate. We further quantify a systematic error in bright galaxy photometry due to poor sky determination; this problem is less severe than previously reported for the majority of galaxies. Finally, we describe a series of improvements to the spectroscopic reductions, including better flat fielding and improved wavelength calibration at the blue end, better processing of objects with extremely strong narrow emission lines, and an improved determination of stellar metallicities.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Survey obtained ≈240,000 moderate-resolution (R ~ 1800) spectra from 3900 Što 9000 Šof fainter Milky Way stars (14.0 < g < 20.3) of a wide variety of spectral types, both main-sequence and evolved objects, with the goal of studying the kinematics and populations of our Galaxy and its halo. The spectra are clustered in 212 regions spaced over three quarters of the sky. Radial velocity accuracies for stars are \sigma (\rm RV) \sim 4 \:\rm km\; s^{-1} at g < 18, degrading to \sigma (\rm RV) \sim 15\rm \:km\; s^{-1} at g ~ 20. For stars with signal-to-noise ratio >10 per resolution element, stellar atmospheric parameters are estimated, including metallicity, surface gravity, and effective temperature. SEGUE obtained 3500 deg2 of additional ugriz imaging (primarily at low Galactic latitudes) providing precise multicolor photometry (sigma(g, r, i) ~ 2%), (sigma(u, z) ~ 3%) and astrometry (≈0farcs1) for spectroscopic target selection. The stellar spectra, imaging data, and derived parameter catalogs for this survey are publicly available as part of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · The Astronomical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Redshifts, four-band photometry (UBJRFIN), and astrometry are presented for faint galaxies in four widely separated fields. We provide the necessary information to enable well-defined, statistically complete subsamples of faint galaxies to be constructed from the master catalog. The redshift survey is 86% and 71% complete to RF ≤ 18.5 and RF ≤ 19, respectively, yielding 328 galaxies with reliable redshifts to RF ≤ 19, with a median redshift of 0.142. Adding the galaxies from the fainter statistical sample yields a total of 583 reliable redshifts with a median redshift of 0.202. An additional 156 redshifts in the same fields, but not part of the samples defined here, are also given. Of the 739 galaxy redshifts presented, 212 are for galaxies with RF > 20.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first parallax and luminosity measurements for an L subdwarf, the sdL7 2MASS J05325346+8246465. Observations conducted over 3 years by the USNO infrared astrometry program yield an astrometric distance of 26.7 ± 1.2 pc and a proper motion of 2.6241'' ± 0.0018'' yr−1. Combined with broadband spectral and photometric measurements, we determine a luminosity of log Lbol/L☉ = − 4.24 ± 0.06 and Teff = 1730 ± 90 K (the latter assuming an age of 5-10 Gyr), comparable to mid-type L field dwarfs. Comparison of the luminosity of 2MASS J05325346+8246465 to theoretical evolutionary models indicates that its mass is just below the sustained hydrogen-burning limit, and is therefore a brown dwarf. Its kinematics indicate a ~110 Myr, retrograde Galactic orbit that is both eccentric (3 kpc R 8.5 kpc) and extends well away from the plane (Δ Z = ± 2 kpc), consistent with membership in the inner halo population. The relatively bright J-band magnitude of 2MASS J05325346+8246465 implies significantly reduced opacity in the 1.2 μ m region, consistent with inhibited condensate formation as previously proposed. Its as yet unknown subsolar metallicity remains the primary limitation in constraining its mass; determination of both parameters would provide a powerful test of interior and evolutionary models for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a catalog of 100,563 unresolved, UV-excess (UVX) quasar candidates to g = 21 from 2099 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release One (DR1) imaging data. Existing spectra of 22,737 sources reveals that 22,191 (97.6%) are quasars; accounting for the magnitude dependence of this efficiency, we estimate that 95,502 (95.0%) of the objects in the catalog are quasars. Such a high efficiency is unprecedented in broadband surveys of quasars. This "proof-of-concept" sample is designed to be maximally efficient, but still has 94.7% completeness to unresolved, g 19.5, UVX quasars from the DR1 quasar catalog. This efficient and complete selection is the result of our application of a probability density type analysis to training sets that describe the four-dimensional color distribution of stars and spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the SDSS. Specifically, we use a nonparametric Bayesian classification, based on kernel density estimation, to parameterize the color distribution of astronomical sources—allowing for fast and robust classification. We further supplement the catalog by providing photometric redshifts and matches to FIRST/VLA, ROSAT, and USNO-B sources. Future work needed to extend this selection algorithm to larger redshifts, fainter magnitudes, and resolved sources is discussed. Finally, we examine some science applications of the catalog, particularly a tentative quasar number counts distribution covering the largest range in magnitude (14.2 < g < 21.0) ever made within the framework of a single quasar survey.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series

Publication Stats

27k Citations
541.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2013
    • United States Naval Observatory
      Вашингтон, Maine, United States
    • University of Michigan
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2012
    • Australian National University
      • Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 1994-2009
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      • • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2008
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002-2008
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, NJ, United States
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2005
    • Pedagogical University of Cracow
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2001-2003
    • University of Sussex
      • Astronomy Centre
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1991
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      Washington, West Virginia, United States