[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MPV17 is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein whose dysfunction causes mitochondrial DNA abnormalities and disease by an unknown mechanism. Perturbations of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools are a recognized cause of mitochondrial genomic instability; therefore, we determined DNA copy number and dNTP levels in mitochondria of two models of MPV17 deficiency. In Mpv17 ablated mice, liver mitochondria showed substantial decreases in the levels of dGTP and dTTP and severe mitochondrial DNA depletion, whereas the dNTP pool was not significantly altered in kidney and brain mitochondria that had near normal levels of DNA. The shortage of mitochondrial dNTPs in Mpv17-/- liver slows the DNA replication in the organelle, as evidenced by the elevated level of replication intermediates. Quiescent fibroblasts of MPV17-mutant patients recapitulate key features of the primary affected tissue of the Mpv17-/- mice, displaying virtual absence of the protein, decreased dNTP levels and mitochondrial DNA depletion. Notably, the mitochondrial DNA loss in the patients’ quiescent fibroblasts was prevented and rescued by deoxynucleoside supplementation. Thus, our study establishes dNTP insufficiency in the mitochondria as the cause of mitochondrial DNA depletion in MPV17 deficiency, and identifies deoxynucleoside supplementation as a potential therapeutic strategy for MPV17-related disease. Moreover, changes in the expression of factors involved in mitochondrial deoxynucleotide homeostasis indicate a remodeling of nucleotide metabolism in MPV17 disease models, which suggests mitochondria lacking functional MPV17 have a restricted purine mitochondrial salvage pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and high saturated fat intake increase the risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. The molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that physiologic levels of saturated fat could increase mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes, leading to abnormalities of calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function. We investigated the effect of saturated fat on mitochondrial function and calcium homeostasis in isolated ventricular myocytes. The saturated fatty acid palmitate causes a decrease in mitochondrial respiration in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate, but not the monounsaturated fatty acid oleate, causes an increase in both total cellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Palmitate depolarizes the mitochondrial inner membrane and causes mitochondrial calcium overload by increasing sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak. Inhibitors of PKC or NOX2 prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and the increase in ROS, demonstrating that PKC-NOX2 activation is also required for amplification of palmitate induced-ROS. Cardiomyocytes from mice with genetic deletion of NOX2 do not have palmitate-induced ROS or mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that palmitate induces mitochondrial ROS that is amplified by NOX2, causing greater mitochondrial ROS generation and partial depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane. The abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak caused by palmitate could promote arrhythmia and heart failure. NOX2 inhibition is a potential therapy for heart disease caused by diabetes or obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been proposed as treatment for mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, a rare fatal autosomal recessive disease due to TYMP mutations that result in thymidine phosphorylase deficiency. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all known patients suffering from mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy who underwent allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2011. Twenty-four patients, 11 males and 13 females, median age 25 years (range 10–41 years) treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from related (n = 9) or unrelated donors (n = 15) in 15 institutions worldwide were analysed for outcome and its associated factors. Overall, 9 of 24 patients (37.5%) were alive at last follow-up with a median follow-up of these surviving patients of 1430 days. Deaths were attributed to transplant in nine (including two after a second transplant due to graft failure), and to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy in six patients. Thymidine phosphorylase activity rose from undetectable to normal levels (median 697 nmol/h/mg protein, range 262–1285) in all survivors. Seven patients (29%) who were engrafted and living more than 2 years after transplantation, showed improvement of body mass index, gastrointestinal manifestations, and peripheral neuropathy. Univariate statistical analysis demonstrated that survival was associated with two defined pre-transplant characteristics: human leukocyte antigen match (10/10 versus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. At present, nineteen autosomal dominant loci for HSP have been mapped. We ascertained an American family of European descent segregating an autosomal dominant HSP associated with peripheral neuropathy.
A genome wide scan was performed with 410 microsatellite repeat marker (Weber lab screening set 16) and following linkage and haplotype analysis, fine mapping was performed. Established genes or loci for HSP were excluded by direct sequencing or haplotype analysis.
All established loci for HSP were excluded. Fine mapping suggested a locus on chromosome 21q22.3 flanked by markers D21S1411 and D21S1446 with a maximum LOD score of 2.05 and was supported by haplotype analysis. A number of candidate genes in this region were analyzed and no disease producing mutations were detected.
We present the clinical and genetic analysis of an American family with autosomal dominant HSP with axonal sensory motor polyneuropathy mapping to a novel locus on chromosome 21q22.3 designated SPG56.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · The International journal of neuroscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The purpose of this statement is to review the literature regarding mitochondrial disease and to provide recommendations for optimal diagnosis and treatment. This statement is intended for physicians who are engaged in diagnosing and treating these patients.
The Writing Group members were appointed by the Mitochondrial Medicine Society. The panel included members with expertise in several different areas. The panel members utilized a comprehensive review of the literature, surveys, and the Delphi method to reach consensus. We anticipate that this statement will need to be updated as the field continues to evolve.
Consensus-based recommendations are provided for the diagnosis and treatment of mitochondrial disease.
The Delphi process enabled the formation of consensus-based recommendations. We hope that these recommendations will help standardize the evaluation, diagnosis, and care of patients with suspected or demonstrated mitochondrial disease.Genet Med 17 9, 689-701.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A member of the four-and-a half-LIM (FHL) domain protein family, FHL1 is highly expressed in human adult skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations in FHL1 have been associated with diverse X-linked muscle diseases: scapuloperoneal (SP) myopathy, reducing body myopathy, X-linked myopathy with postural muscle atrophy, rigid spine syndrome (RSS), and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. In 2008, we identified a missense mutation in the second LIM domain of FHL1 (c.365 G>C, p.W122S) in a family with SP myopathy. We generated a knock-in mouse model harboring the c.365 G>C Fhl1 mutation and investigated the effects of this mutation at 3 time points (3-5 months, 7-10 months, and 18-20 months) in hemizygous male and heterozygous female mice. Survival was comparable in mutant and wild-type animals. We observed decreased forelimb strength and exercise capacity in adult hemizygous male mice starting from 7-10 months of age. Western blot analysis showed absence of Fhl1 in muscle at later stages. Thus, adult hemizygous male, but not heterozygous female, mice showed a slowly progressive phenotype similar to humans patients with late-onset muscle weakness. In contrast to SP myopathy patients with the FHL1 W122S mutation, mutant mice did not manifest cytoplasmic inclusions (reducing bodies) in muscle. Because muscle weakness was evident prior to loss of Fhl1 protein and without reducing bodies, our findings indicate that loss of function is responsible for the myopathy in the Fhl1 W122S knock-in mice.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Human Molecular Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited ataxias are heterogeneous
disorders affecting both children and adults, with over 40 different causative genes, making molecular genetic diagnosis challenging. Although recent advances in next-generation sequencing have significantly improved mutation detection, few treatments exist for patients with inherited ataxia. In two patients with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency in muscle, whole exome sequencing revealed mutations in ANO10, which encodes anoctamin 10, a member of a family of putative calcium-activated chloride channels, and the causative gene for autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-10 (SCAR10). Both patients presented with slowly progressive ataxia and dysarthria leading to severe disability in the sixth decade. Epilepsy and learning difficulties were also present in one patient, while retinal degeneration and cataract were present in the other. The detection of mutations in ANO10 in our patients indicate that ANO10 defects cause secondary low CoQ10 and SCAR10 patients may benefit from CoQ10 supplementation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00415-014-7476-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
A 61-year-old woman with a 5-year history of progressive muscle weakness and atrophy had a muscle biopsy characterized by a combination of dystrophic features (necrotic fibers and endomysial fibrosis) and mitochondrial alterations [ragged-red, cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers].
Sequencing of the whole mtDNA, assessment of the mutation load in muscle and accessible nonmuscle tissues, and single fiber polymerase chain reaction.
Muscle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing revealed a novel heteroplasmic mutation (m.4403G>A) in the gene (MTTM) that encodes tRNA(Met). The mutation was not present in accessible nonmuscle tissues from the patient or 2 asymptomatic sisters.
The clinical features and muscle morphology in this patient are very similar to those described in a previous patient with a different mutation, also in MTTM, which suggests that mutations in this gene confer a distinctive "dystrophic" quality. This may be a diagnostic clue in patients with isolated mitochondrial myopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous syndrome which has been associated with 5 major clinical phenotypes: (1) encephalomyopathy, (2) severe infantile multisystemic disease, (3) nephropathy, (4) cerebellar ataxia, and (5) isolated myopathy. Of these phenotypes, cerebellar ataxia and syndromic or isolated nephrotic syndrome are the most common. CoQ10 deficiency predominantly presents in childhood. To date, causative mutations have been identified in a small proportion of patients, making it difficult to identify a phenotype-genotype correlation. Identification of CoQ10 deficiency is important because the disease, in particular muscle symptoms and nephropathy, frequently responds to CoQ10 supplementation.