M Farina

University of Catania, Catania, Sicily, Italy

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Publications (37)51.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Problem: Chronic endometritis (CE) is a poorly investigated and probably underestimated pathology, which may cause abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), pain, and reproductive failures. Due to undefined symptoms and the normal presence of leukocytes in the endometrial mucosa, diagnosis may be missed. Fluid hysteroscopy is a reliable technique for diagnosing this pathology. Few data exist on the biochemical and paracrine alterations that occur in the endometrium of women diagnosed with CE. The aim of the study was to find molecular modification in endometrium related to CE. Method of study: Sixteen women with hysteroscopic and histological diagnosis of CE and 10 healthy women as controls were enrolled. We compared the endometrial expression profile of 25 genes encoding proteins involved in the inflammatory response, proliferation, and apoptosis in endometrium during implantation window, using high-throughput real-time RT-PCR. Results: In women with CE, the endometrial expression of some genes was significantly altered. In particular, IGFBP1, BCL2, and BAX were up-regulated, while IL11, CCL4, IGF1, and CASP8 were down-regulated. Conclusion: The altered gene endometrial expression may explain the impaired endometrial receptivity and the finding of endometrial hyperplastic lesions in women affected by CE.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The case we describe reports the early sonographic findings of sirenomelia with oligodactylia at 9 weeks of gestation by transvaginal two-dimensional color Doppler ultrasonography imaging and its confirmation by hysteroscopic embryoscopy at 12 weeks to further characterize the findings. The embryo showed increased nuchal translucency and fused lower limbs with a large intra-abdominal vessel and two-vessel umbilical cords. The pregnancy was terminated by medical abortion induction after the patient viewed the embryoscopic images. Diagnosis is commonly made later in the second trimester of pregnancy, oligohydramnios being a warning signal, which usually makes the diagnosis difficult. Survival, only possible in the absence of renal agenesis, is extremely rare. In view of the extremely poor prognosis, early diagnosis allows for earlier counseling and less traumatic therapeutic termination of pregnancy.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Sexologies
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    ABSTRACT: Hirusutism, acne/seborrhoea and alopecia are androgen-dependent conditions responding to various treatments. Oral contraceptives (OCs) are largely used to treat hyperandrogenic women, but are often characterized for side effects, lowering the compliance. Drospirenone (DRSP) appears able in minimizing these effects, amplifying the peripheral antiandrogenic results. Our study objective was to evaluate efficacy and safety of long-term administratign of EE/DRSP in hyperandrogenism therapy and to compare the results with the ones obtained using EE/desogestrel (DSG). Study design was based on two randomized trials: Protocol A compared the clinical performance of an OC containing EE 30 μg/DRSP 3 mg (Group A) with one containing EE 40-30 pg/DSG 25-125 μg (Group B) in the treatment of mild-moderate hyperandrogenism; Protocol B compared the same EE/DRSP pill (Group A) with one containing EE 20 μg/DSG 150 μg (Group B) in maintaining the clinical remission obtained with other specific antiandrogenic drugs in moderate-severe hyperandrogenism. Sixty women in Protocol A (mean age 23.6±5.8 years) received EE/DRSP (Group A) or biphasic EE/DSG (Group B); 60 women in Protocol B (25.4±3.3 years) received EE/DRSP (Group A) or EE/DSG (Group B). Complete blood essays and hormonal evaluation, complete physical and instrumental gynaecological examination, acne/seborrhoea and hirsutism assessment have been performed. Side effects and blood loss have been recorded, to evaluate variations in different groups. In Protocol A a significant reduction was observed in hirsutism with EE/ DRSP after 6 cycles and with biphasic EE/DSG after 9 cycles. Acne/ seborrhoea reduced starting from 6 months in both groups. In Protocol B a control of the symptoms was achieved with EE/DRSP while a light reprise was observed after 9 months with EE/DSG. No reprise of acne/ seborrhoea was reported in both groups. Concluding, EE/DRSP is effective in ameliorating the clinical and hormonal features and the compliance in hyperandrogenic patients, being able and more effective than EE/DSG in maintaining the clinical regression of hyperandrogenic symptoms in patients affected by severe hyperandrogenic symptomatology, previously treated with specific drugs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Italian Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • M. Farina · I.R. Tomaselli · A. Cianci

    No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Giornale Italiano di Ostetricia e Ginecologia
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the changes, if any, on the sexual behavior of women using an oral contraceptive containing 30 microg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3 mg drospirenone (DRSP). Eighty healthy volunteer women (age range, 19-31 years), with regular menstrual cycle length (mean 27.6+/-3.1) and ovulation, participated in this prospective study. Sexual behavior was assessed using the self-administered Personal Experience Questionnaire, at baseline and at 3, 6 and 9 cycles of pill use. Women reported increased (i) sexual enjoyment (p < .001), (ii) orgasm frequency (p < .05) and (iii) satisfaction with sexual activity (p < .05) during all periods of pill intake with respect to baseline. Both arousal and frequency of sexual activity improved at the sixth and ninth cycle of pill use (p < .05) with respect to baseline. Moreover, women reported decreased genital pain associated with intercourse during pill intake (p < .05). Desire did not change during the use of the pill (p = NS). The mild dose of EE may have improved vaginal lubrication, sexual arousal and decreased dyspareunia. Consequently, women may have experienced increased sexual performance. In addition, improved sexual activity could have been the result of the effects of DRSP, with its antimineralocorticoid effects which could improve pill compliance, with a more satisfied sexual life.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on olfactory sensitivity in post-menopausal women. Forty-six naturally post-menopausal women underwent rhinomanometric and olfactometric measurements to compare nasal airflow resistance values and olfactometric thresholds during the eighth month of HT treatment with baseline levels prior to starting HT. Eighteen women used an oral HT regimen, and twenty-eight women used transdermal patch HT. Rhinomanometric values during HT were statistically differ from those at baseline (P < 0.001). Olfactometric threshold data indicated a higher sensitivity during the HT treatment than at baseline (P < 0.001). Finally, no statistically significant difference was observed among women using oral or patch HT administration on rhinomanometric and olfactometric values. Our study demonstrates that 8 months of treatment with estrogen and progestogens in HT preparations has an effect on nasal airflow resistance and the olfactory thresholds to odours. We believe that estrogens could influence neuronal plasticity, and the neuronal conduction time into the olfactory system. Our findings confirm that gonadal steroids such as estrogen have an influence on non-genital targets; this relationship might have a beneficial impact on sensorineural communication and emotional behaviour.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Human Reproduction
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective study was performed to investigate the changes in nasal cytology that occur in healthy premenopausal women throughout the menstrual cycle. Eighty-eight women with an ovulatory menstrual cycle underwent nasal sampling with a cytobrush by direct vision of the middle and inferior nasal turbinates during the follicular, periovular, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and the specimens were evaluated with the maturation index. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed the cytologic aspects of the nasal respiratory epithelium and of vaginal smears according to the three different phases of the menstrual cycle. Along with the vaginal cells, the nasal respiratory epithelium is an ovarian steroid target.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
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    ABSTRACT: To verify whether apomorphine SL is effective in premenopausal women affected by arousal disorder with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Sixty-two volunteer women, aged 26 to 45 years, affected by arousal disorders and hypoactive sexual desire disorder participated in the study, which consisted of two parts. The first was 4 weeks of a taken-as-needed, open-label, dose-escalation regimen starting at 2 or 3 mg of apomorphine SL. The second part of the study was for the nonresponders, who were randomly allocated to treatment in one of six possible sequences of three 2-week double-blind, crossover study periods with apomorphine 2 mg or 3 mg, washout, and placebo. Efficacy was assessed with the Personal Experiences Questionnaire using the 5-point Likert scale. The Personal Experiences Questionnaire quantified subjective arousal, desire, orgasm, enjoyment, and frequency of sexual relationships. Fifty women completed the 4-week "as required" drug regimen, and 6 of them benefited from this treatment regimen (P <0.05). The 44 women who reported no change with respect to baseline participated in the double-blind crossover part of the study. Six women stopped taking the drug because of a fear of problems (two each during the 2-mg apomorphine, 3-mg apomorphine, and placebo periods). Adverse events were mild or moderate, both occurred during the "as required" part (10 patients) and during daily usage (6 patients) and were mainly nausea, vomiting, dizziness, or headache. However, during the placebo period, 2 women had adverse events, mainly headache. The daily intake of the drug was effective with both the 2-mg and 3-mg dosages compared with placebo for arousal and desire (P <0.05). The effects of 3 mg of apomorphine were better than those obtained with 2 mg (P <0.05). The orgasm, enjoyment, and satisfied by frequency scores improved during treatment with daily apomorphine compared with baseline and placebo. The results of our study suggest that daily apomorphine SL may improve the sexual life of women affected by sexual difficulties. Additional studies are needed to define the daily use of apomorphine SL in large subgroups of women on the basis of etiology and the severity of sexual dysfunction.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the administration of raloxifene and veralipride in postmenopausal women with high osteoporosis risk and hot flushes in whom hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was contraindicated. A group of early postmenopausal women (n = 29) (mean age 51.8 +/- 4.1), complaining of severe vasomotor symptoms and with a bone mineral density (BMD) T-score between -1.5 and -2.5 were evaluated. They were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: raloxfene (60 mg/day) continuously in association with veralipride (100 mg/day) on alternate days (n = 17); or on alternate months (n = 12). BMD, serum prolactin concentration and endometrial thickness were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of therapy. Kupperman Index and hot flushes were assessed before and after 3 and 6 months of therapy. BMD was significantly higher at the end of therapy with an increase of 1.1%. Kupperman Index was significantly reduced after 3 months and a further decrease at 6 months was observed with both protocols. Both treatments led to a significant reduction of hot flushes after 3 and 6 months. No signifcant changes of prolactin levels were observed in either protocol. We found that the combined raloxifene-veralipride treatment, both every other day and every other month, led to a significant improvement in bone density and was effective in hot flushes and other menopause-associated symptoms. These protocols could represent a new way to administer raloxifene in early postmenopausal women at high osteoporosis risk with HRT contraindication.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · Gynecological Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this prospective study was to assess the effects of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) containing 15 microg ethinylestradiol and 60 microg gestodene on sexuality. Forty-eight healthy volunteers (age range, 18-35 years), having regular menstrual cycles with ovulation, participated in the study. Sexual behavior was assessed using the self-administered Personal Experience Questionnaire, at baseline, and at 3, 6 and 9 months of pill use. Women reported decreased sexual desire (p < 0.005) and sexual activity (p < 0.05) at the 9th month of pill use, and diminished sexual arousal at the 3rd month of pill intake (p < 0.05), with respect to baseline. The frequency of orgasm did not change during OC use (p = NS). Moreover, sexual enjoyment was worse at the 3rd, 6th and 9th month with respect to baseline (p < 0.001). The low dose of ethinylestradiol could cause decreased vaginal lubrication, and diminished sexual arousal could be due to hypoandrogenism. Women may expect increased sexual performance when they take the pill, as compared to before starting contraception. Consequently, they could have an unexpected effect with pill use, though sexuality may remain the same.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Contraception
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of the "daily" use of apomorphine SL compared with the "on demand" administration of the drug in patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED) and mild hyperprolactinemia who were nonresponders to apomorphine administered "on demand." In this open-label prospective study, 34 patients with mild-to-moderate ED and mild hyperprolactinemia were screened. The subjects answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire and underwent follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, free testosterone, and prolactin plasma testing, and Doppler sonography at the 2-week screening period to define the ED severity and etiology, at the end of a 4-week "as required" dose-escalation regimen of 2 mg/3 mg apomorphine SL, and at the end of a 4-week period of daily administration of the drug to assess the efficacy of each treatment modality. Twenty patients (age range 27 to 46 years) were included in the study. Eighteen subjects completed the 4-week "as required" drug intake period, and three (16.7%) benefited from this modality of treatment (P <0.05). Fifteen nonresponder patients participated in the 4-week daily apomorphine SL use, and 13 (86%) reported satisfaction with the treatment (P <0.05). The 3-mg daily administration was more effective than the 2-mg daily administration for erectile function (P <0.02) but not for other sexual domains scored with IIEF. Adverse events were of mild or moderate severity, either during the "as required" drug intake (4 patients) or during daily use (3 subjects) and were mainly nausea, dizziness, or headache. Data from the clinical evaluation of symptomatic apomorphine SL use have always shown a poor success rate, probably because it is used "as sildenafil." Using apomorphine SL as a treatment of ED, we observed a significant improvement in both subjective and objective aspects scored with the IIEF. The increase of prolactin could influence the erective mechanisms, and it cannot be excluded that a subgroup of men with ED may have an impairment of central dopaminergic function. Moreover, additional studies need to define the daily use of apomorphine SL in large subgroups of men on the basis of ED etiology and severity.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Urology
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the changes, if any, on female sexual pathways using sildenafil (primary outcome), and to verify the safety of this drug (second outcome). Following previous research on symptomatic women, we wanted to study the effects of sildenafil on asymptomatic women. We would like to make it clear from the outset that this study is part of an ongoing line of research and this drug, and others of its type, should be used under strict medical supervision only on symptomatic patients. A randomized double-blind cross-over, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Family Planning Centre of the Group for Sexological Research, Department of Microbiological and Gynecological Science, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Italy. Sixty-eight healthy volunteer women aged 19-38 years, asymptomatic for sexual disorders, were enrolled. The study consisted of 4 weeks sildenafil, 2 weeks washout, and 4 weeks placebo, by two possible sequences: sildenafil 50 mg, washout, placebo; or placebo, washout, sildenafil 50 mg. Efficacy of sildenafil was assessed by the Personal Experiences Questionnaire (PEQ) based on the 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire quantified subjective sexual aspects at baseline, during washout, after treatments, and at the follow-ups. Statistical analysis was done with the Wilcoxon's rank-sum test and Student's t-test. 50/68 women completed the study at the first follow-up, and 38 women reached the second follow-up. Six women withdrew because of adverse events. Sildenafil improved arousal (P<0.001), orgasm (P<0.05), and enjoyment (P<0.001) with respect to placebo. Significant differences were noted during sildenafil usage with respect to the baseline for arousal (P<0.01), orgasm (P<0.001), and sexual enjoyment (P<0.001). The adverse events were transient and mild or moderate. Our study suggests that sildenafil acts on the different sexual pathways in healthy women, improving their sexual experience. This study could help to understand the physiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of female sexuality. In comparison with current psychosexual therapies, which are long-term, compliance would be improved with use of this drug. Additional studies are required to define the use of sildenafil in a clinical setting.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Recent years have been characterized by progressive optimization of postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy. More physiological therapeutic protocols have been, in fact, proposed to control the possible symptomatology and to prevent the associated risks, with estro-progestinic compounds characterized by lower effective dosages and suitable for the single patient need. However this therapy is not widely accepted by the women from our country for the fears and the inconvenience raised around such side effects as abnormal uterine bleeding and spotting. Aim: to obtain a good compliance and clinical benefits a continuous administration protocol of the hormonal replacement therapy, alternatively to the sequential one has been proposed. Our research group has been observing a sample of 42 patients for 12 months, taking oral 17-b-estradiol 1 mg/noretisterone 0.5 mg in continuous administration. All of them were aged from 42 to 63 years and had been in symptomatic menopause for at least 3 months. The characteristics, the onset and the trend of vaginal bleeding were registered in appropriate monthly diaries. Endometrial thickness was evaluated by transvaginal sonography before starting the administration, not exceeding 4 mm in all the women considered. The incidence of bleeding (calculated as a percent of women who experienced a vaginal bleeding for al least a day during a menstrual cycle) was from 26% to 32% in the 1st trimester, reducing during the following months. At 6 months of therapy only 5% of women reported evident vaginal bleeding; at 12 months 90% of women complained with absence of bleeding or spotting. At 12 months no women showed an endometrial thickness over 6 mm. This observational study suggests that the majority of treated patients proved to be positively responsive to the treatment and that the 17-b-estradiol 1 mg/noretisterone 0.5 mg association reduces the incidence of bleeding and spotting with a sufficient endometrial protection from hyperplasia.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Minerva ginecologica
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of the new monophasic oral contraceptives on the audiological system in premenopausal women. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was measured in 94 women during the follicular, periovular and luteal phases of one menstrual cycle in which ovulation was confirmed using sonography and serum progesterone concentration. The latencies for waves I, III and V were determined, and the inter-peak intervals were calculated for waves I-III, I-V and III-V. All 94 women began taking oral contraceptives: 23 women used 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) plus 150 microg desogestrel, 24 women used 30 microg EE plus 75 microg gestodene, and 47 women used 15 microg EE plus 60 microg gestodene. During the third month of contraceptive intake, each subject was again tested for ABR, as above. The wave latencies and inter-peak intervals showed shorter values during the periovular phase with respect to the luteal phase (P < 0.05), the follicular phase for wave I and for inter-peak interval I-V (P < 0.05) of the menstrual cycle. All of the ABR results in pill users were statistically different from those of the periovular phase (P < 0.05), though similar to those of both the luteal and follicular phases (P = NS). ABR seems to depend on the variations of ovarian steroids during the menstrual cycle and during oral contraceptive intake.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Human Reproduction
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    ABSTRACT: In the last 10 years an impressive increase in the frequency of food disorders (bulimia and anorexia) in teenagers has been recorded. Food disorders, present especially in girls, (part of more complex relational-familiar disorders) cause progressive repercussions on the general endocrine structure and in particular on the reproductive system of the subject. The most visible effect of this endocrine perturbation is the block of the ovarian function with secondary amenorrhoea and low levels of gonadotropins and estrogens due to the food disorder. In fact the qualitative and quantitative food deficit is responsible for the interruption of the normal hypothalamic and pituitary pulses regulating the correct monthly process of follicular growth. As in the physiological postmenopausal period, very low plasma levels of 17-b-estradiol (<30 pg/ml) can start the bone resorption with bone loss and/or osteoporosis related to the amount and the time of exposure to low levels of estrogens. Objectives: in our study we evaluate the influence of anorexia and amenorrhoea on bone mineral density. We evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) with computerised bone mineralometry (MOC), a dual-energy-X-Ray (DEXA), in 18 women with anorexia nervosa and weight loss, 9-12 months amenorrhoea and with low plasma levels of 17-b-estradiol. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and on total body in all subjects enrolled for this study. All the patients showed a decrease on the lumbar BMD with bone loss (49%) or osteoporosis (51%). On the other side the values of total body BMD were around the normal levels (86%) or showed bone loss (14%). Our data support the hypothesis that lower estrogenic levels associated with anorexia nervosa have an impact on BMD, especially at lumbar level, with early incidence for quantitative and qualitative lower food intake.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2002 · Minerva ginecologica
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    ABSTRACT: Fetal stem cells transplants depend on nucleated cells from fetal blood. This study was a prospective randomized trials to compare the collection of fetal blood by gravity into a bag containing anticoagulant, before and after delivery of the placenta. The obstetric and the newborn characteristics in the two group were not significantly different. The mean volume of fetal blood collected while the placental was still in utero was 74.93+/-7.1 ml as against 35.78+/-3.6 ml for collection of fetal blood after delivery of the placenta.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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    Full-text · Article · Sep 2002 · Annals of Saudi medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic agreement between quantitative sonography of the calcaneum (QUS) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) of the spine and femur. 153 women enrolled in our study and were divided in three groups. Group A was composed of women aged between 45 and 55, Group B of women of 56-66 and Group C of women 67-77. Mean height cm 164+/-2.8; mean weight kg 68+/-3.2. The most concordant results were obtained in group B. This suggests that QUS screening for osteoporosis may be suitable for the "younger" perimenopausal patient.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the role of quantitative ultrasonography (QUS) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in the assessment of osteoporosis. From June 1999 to November 2001, 596 women who have not been diagnosed osteoporosis and without previous history of pathologic fractures were enrolled in this study. They had a mean age of 58.7+/-8.5 years, a mean height of 166+/-3.5 cm and a mean weight of 66+/-4.1 kg. According to the age, women were divided into three groups: group A included women between 45 and 55 years; group B women between 56 and 66 years and group C women between 67 and 77 years. Each patient underwent to both methods to determine the presence of osteoporosis. QUS resulted in a greater number of women of group A at risk of osteoporosis, whereas DEXA indicated that more women of group C were at increased osteoporotic risk. QUS and DEXA gave concordant results only in women of group B. These results suggested that QUS screening for osteoporosis may be more suitable for 'younger' postmenopausal women.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Maturitas