M Duran

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (474)

  • Marli Dercksen · Marinus Duran · Lodewijk IJlst · [...] · Ronald J. A Wanders
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) plays a key role in the removal of ammonia via the urea cycle by catalyzing the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), the obligatory cofactor in the carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 reaction. Enzymatic analysis of NAGS in liver homogenates has remained insensitive and inaccurate, which prompted the development of a novel method. Methods: UPLC-MS/MS was used in conjunction with stable isotope (N-acetylglutamic-2,3,3,4,4-d5 acid) dilution for the quantitative detection of NAG produced by the NAGS enzyme. The assay conditions were optimized using purified human NAGS and the optimized enzyme conditions were used to measure the activity in mouse liver homogenates. Results: A low signal-to-noise ratio in liver tissue samples was observed due to non-enzymatic formation of N-acetylglutamate and low specific activity, which interfered with quantitative analysis. Quenching of acetyl-CoA immediately after the incubation circumvented this analytical difficulty and allowed accurate and sensitive determination of mammalian NAGS activity. The specificity of the assay was validated by demonstrating a complete deficiency of NAGS in liver homogenates from Nags -/- mice. Conclusion: The novel NAGS enzyme assay reported herein can be used for the diagnosis of inherited NAGS deficiency and may also be of value in the study of secondary hyperammonemia present in various inborn errors of metabolism as well as drug treatment.
    Article · Oct 2016 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    M Dercksen · W Kulik · L J Mienie · [...] · M Duran
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives: Nutritional deficiencies are frequently observed when treating patients with inborn errors of metabolism due to an unbalanced diet. Thus far, patients with isovaleric acidemia (IVA) who adhere to a restricted protein diet have not been investigated in this respect. We hypothesize that these patients may have a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency, leading to potential clinical complications. Subjects/methods: We examined the nutritional status by reporting on potential deficiencies in PUFAs in treated IVA patients. A general clinical chemistry work-up as well as gas chromatography flame ionization detector analysis was performed to determine PUFAs in the plasma of 10 IVA patients. Results: The general clinical chemistry tests did not indicate severe hematological abnormalities or nutritional insufficiencies. We identified a significant reduction in plasma PUFA levels, especially in omega-3 (all acids, P<0.001) and omega-6 (in particular 20:3n-6 P<0.0001 and 20:4n-6 P=0.0005) fatty acids. In addition, an elevation in omega-9 fatty acids, with the exception of 20:3n-9 and C22:1n-9, was not suggestive of complete essential fatty acid deficiency but rather indicative of isolated and/or combined omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid depletion. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the potential nutritional insufficiencies that may occur because of therapeutic intervention in IVA.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 22 June 2016; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.100.
    Full-text available · Article · Jun 2016 · European journal of clinical nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria is an autosomal recessive inborn error of lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan degradation. To date, DHTKD1 mutations have been reported in two alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria patients. We have now sequenced DHTKD1 in nine patients diagnosed with alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria as well as one patient with isolated alpha-aminoadipic aciduria, and identified causal mutations in eight. We report nine novel mutations, including three missense mutations, two nonsense mutations, two splice donor mutations, one duplication, and one deletion and insertion. Two missense mutations, one of which was reported before, were observed in the majority of cases. The clinical presentation of this group of patients was inhomogeneous. Our results confirm that alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria is caused by mutations in DHTKD1, and further establish that DHTKD1 encodes the E1 subunit of the alpha-ketoadipic acid dehydrogenase complex.
    Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
  • Stephen I. Goodman · Marinus Duran
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first subject described with a novel inborn error is almost invariably examined because of clinical disease, and it is only with the passage of time that the association between the biochemical and clinical phenotypes become better understood. This chapter will describe several biochemical phenotypes whose clinical relevance is now in question.
    Chapter · Jan 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic emergencies need to be recognized early, and the initiation of appropriate treatment without any delay determines the overall outcome. A significant proportion of patients with inborn errors of metabolism are at risk of developing a metabolic emergency at some time of their life, particularly those children affected by an inborn error of metabolism that manifests as an acute intoxication. These patients usually present as a neonate – typically after an initial symptom-free interval of some days – in an emergency situation. Treatment needs to be initiated immediately even without having arrived at the exact diagnosis.
    Chapter · Jan 2014
  • Article · Jan 2014
  • K. Michael Gibson · Marinus Duran
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of rapid qualitative tests (colorimetric, dipstick, precipitate, color and smell, etc.) are useful in both specialist and nonspecialist laboratories to assist in the differential diagnosis of inherited metabolic disorders. Most are limited by some level of interference, yet these tests still have important utility, especially in emergency situations.
    Chapter · Jan 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective antiepileptic drug that may induce progressive microvesicular steatosis. The impairment of mitochondrial function may be an important metabolic effect of VPA treatment with potential adverse consequences. To investigate the influence of VPA on the activity of GTP- and ATP-specific succinate:CoA ligases (G-SUCL and A-SUCL). The GTP- and ATP-specific SUCL activities were measured in human fibroblasts in the reverse direction, i.e. the formation of succinyl-CoA. These were assessed at different concentrations of succinate in the presence of VPA, valproyl-CoA and zinc chloride, an established inhibitor of the enzymes. Activities were measured using an optimized HPLC procedure. Valproyl-CoA (1 mM) inhibited the activity of A-SUCL and G-SUCL by 45-55 % and 25-50 %, respectively. VPA (1 mM) had no influence on the activity of the two enzymes. Valproyl-CoA appears to affect the activity of SUCL, especially with the ATP-specific enzyme. Considering the key role of SUCL in the Krebs cycle, interference with its activity might impair the cellular energy status. Moreover, A-SUCL is bound to the nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), which is responsible for the mitochondrial (deoxy)nucleotide synthesis. An inhibition of A-SUCL might influence the activity of NDPK inducing an imbalance of nucleotides in the mitochondria and eventually mitochondrial DNA depletion. This may account for the potential liver failure associated with valproate therapy, reported in patients with deficiencies within the mitochondrial DNA replicase system such as polymerase gamma 1.
    Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An infant carrying a heterozygous c.43_46delACTA and a heterozygous c.668 G>A mutation in the ALPL gene with hypophosphatasia in the absence of bone deformities presented with therapy-resistant seizures. Pyridoxal phosphate was extremely high in CSF and plasma. Pyridoxine treatment had only a transient effect and the severe encephalopathy was fatal. Repeated brain MRIs showed progressive cerebral damage. The precise metabolic cause of the seizures remains unknown and pyridoxine treatment apparently does not cure the epilepsy.
    Article · Sep 2013 · Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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    Marli Dercksen · Gerhard Koekemoer · Marinus Duran · [...] · J Reinecke
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isovaleric acidemia (IVA, MIM 248600) can be a severe and potentially life-threatening disease in affected neonates, but with a positive prognosis on treatment for some phenotypes. This study presents the first application of metabolomics to evaluate the metabolite profiles derived from urine samples of untreated and treated IVA patients as well as of obligate heterozygotes. All IVA patients carried the same homozygous c.367 G > A nucleotide change in exon 4 of the IVD gene but manifested phenotypic diversity. Concurrent class analysis (CONCA) was used to compare all the metabolites from the original complete data set obtained from the three case and two control groups used in this investigation. This application of CONCA has not been reported previously, and is used here to compare four different modes of scaling of all metabolites. The variables important in discrimination from the CONCA thus enabled the recognition of different metabolic patterns encapsulated within the data sets that would not have been revealed by using only one mode of scaling. Application of multivariate and univariate analyses disclosed 11 important metabolites that distinguished untreated IVA from controls. These included well-established diagnostic biomarkers of IVA, endogenous detoxification markers, and 3-hydroxycaproic acid, an indicator of ketosis, but not reported previously for this disease. Nine metabolites were identified that reflected the effect of treatment of IVA. They included detoxification products and indicators related to the high carbohydrate and low protein diet which formed the hallmark of the treatment. This investigation also provides the first comparative metabolite profile for heterozygotes of this inherited metabolic disorder. The detection of informative metabolites in even very low concentrations in all three experimental groups highlights the potential advantage of the holistic mode of analysis of inherited metabolic diseases in a metabolomics investigation.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2013 · Metabolomics
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    M Dercksen · L Ijlst · M Duran · [...] · R J A Wanders
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperammonemia is a frequent finding in various organic acidemias. One possible mechanism involves the inhibition of the enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), by short-chain acyl-CoAs which accumulate due to defective catabolism of amino acids and/or fatty acids in the cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various acyl-CoAs on the activity of NAGS in conjunction with the formation of glutamate esters. NAGS activity was measured in vitro using a sensitive enzyme assay with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) product analysis. Propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA proved to be the most powerful inhibitors of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) formation. Branched-chain amino acid related CoAs (isovaleryl-CoA, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA) showed less pronounced inhibition of NAGS whereas the dicarboxylic short-chain acyl-CoAs (methylmalonyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, glutaryl-CoA) had the least inhibitory effect. Subsequent work show that the most powerful inhibitors also proved to be the best substrates in the formation of N-acylglutamates. Furthermore, we identified N-isovalerylglutamate, N-3-methylcrotonylglutamate and N-isobutyrylglutamate, (the latter two in trace amounts), in the urines of patients with different organic acidemias. Collectively, these findings explain one of the contributing factors to secondary hyperammonemia, which lead to the reduced in vivo flux through the urea cycle in organic acidemias and result in the inadequate elimination of ammonia.
    Full-text available · Article · May 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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    Sander M Houten · Heleen Te Brinke · Simone Denis · [...] · Marinus Duran
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Hyperlysinemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of L-lysine degradation. To date only one causal mutation in the AASS gene encoding α-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase has been reported. We aimed to better define the genetic basis of hyperlysinemia. Methods We collected the clinical, biochemical and molecular data in a cohort of 8 hyperlysinemia patients with distinct neurological features. Results We found novel causal mutations in AASS in all affected individuals, including 4 missense mutations, 2 deletions and 1 duplication. In two patients originating from one family, the hyperlysinemia was caused by a contiguous gene deletion syndrome affecting AASS and PTPRZ1. Conclusions Hyperlysinemia is caused by mutations in AASS. As hyperlysinemia is generally considered a benign metabolic variant, the more severe neurological disease course in two patients with a contiguous deletion syndrome may be explained by the additional loss of PTPRZ1. Our findings illustrate the importance of detailed biochemical and genetic studies in any hyperlysinemia patient.
    Full-text available · Article · Apr 2013 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible conversion of acyl-CoAs into acylcarnitine esters. This family includes the mitochondrial enzymes carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (CPT2) and carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). CPT2 is part of the carnitine shuttle that is necessary to import fatty acids into mitochondria and catalyzes the conversion of acylcarnitines into acyl-CoAs. In addition, when mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation is impaired, CPT2 is able to catalyze the reverse reaction and converts accumulating long- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs into acylcarnitines for export from the matrix to the cytosol. However, CPT2 is inactive with short-chain acyl-CoAs and intermediates of the branched-chain amino acid oxidation pathway (BCAAO). In order to explore the origin of short-chain and branched-chain acylcarnitines that may accumulate in various organic acidemias, we performed substrate specificity studies using purified recombinant human CrAT. Various saturated, unsaturated and branched-chain acyl-CoA esters were tested and the synthesized acylcarnitines were quantified by ESI-MS/MS. We show that CrAT converts short- and medium-chain acyl-CoAs (C2 to C10-CoA), whereas no activity was observed with long-chain species. Trans-2-enoyl-CoA intermediates were found to be poor substrates for this enzyme. Furthermore, CrAT turned out to be active towards some but not all the BCAAO intermediates tested and no activity was found with dicarboxylyl-CoA esters. This suggests the existence of another enzyme able to handle the acyl-CoAs that are not substrates for CrAT and CPT2, but for which the corresponding acylcarnitines are well recognized as diagnostic markers in inborn errors of metabolism.
    Full-text available · Article · Feb 2013 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Newborn screening (NBS) for long-chain 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency does not discriminate between isolated LCHAD deficiency, isolated long-chain keto acyl-CoA (LCKAT) deficiency and general mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency. Therefore, screening for LCHAD deficiency inevitably comprises screening for MTP deficiency, which is much less amenable to treatment. Furthermore, absence of a clear classification system for these disorders is still lacking. Materials and methods: Two newborns screened positive for LCHAD deficiency died at the age of 10 and 31 days, respectively. One due to severe necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), cardiomyopathy and multiorgan failure and the other due to severe infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (Keto)-acylcarnitine concentration and enzymatic analysis of LCHAD and LCKAT suggested MTP deficiency in both patients. Mutation analysis revealed a homozygous HADHB c.357+5delG mutation in one patient and a homozygous splice-site HADHB mutation c.212+1G>C in the other patient.Data on enzymatic and mutation analysis of 40 patients with presumed LCHAD, LCKAT or MTP deficiency were used to design a classification to distinguish between these disorders. Discussion: NEC as presenting symptom in MTP deficiency has not been reported previously. High expression of long-chain fatty acid oxidation enzymes reported in lungs and gut of human foetuses suggests that the severe NEC and IRDS observed in our patients are related to the enzymatic deficiency in these organs during crucial stages of development.Furthermore, as illustrated by the cases we propose a classification system to discriminate LCHAD, LCKAT and MTP deficiency based on enzymatic analysis.
    Article · Feb 2013
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by cognitive and locomotor regression and stereotypic hand movements. The disorder is caused by mutations in the X chromosomal MECP2 a gene encoding methyl CpG-binding protein. It has been associated with disturbances of cerebral folate homeostasis, as well as with speculations on a compromised DNA-methylation. Folinic acid is the stable form of folate. Its derived intermediate 5-MTHF supports the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, the precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). This in turn donates its methyl group to various acceptors, including DNA, thereby being converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). The SAM/SAH ratio reflects the methylation potential. The goal of our study was to influence DNA methylation processes and ameliorate the clinical symptoms in Rett syndrome. Therefore we examined the hypothesis that folinic acid supplementation, besides increasing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-MTHF (p = 0.003), influences SAM and SAH and their ratio. In our randomized, double-blind crossover study on folinic acid supplementation, ten female Rett patients received both folinic acid and placebo for 1 year each. It was shown that both SAM and SAH levels in the CSF remained unchanged following folinic acid administration (p = 0.202 and p = 0.097, respectively) in spite of a rise of plasma SAM and SAH (p = 0.007; p = 0.009). There was no significant change in the SAM/SAH ratio either in plasma or CSF. The apparent inability of Rett patients to upregulate SAM and SAH levels in the CSF may contribute to the biochemical anomalies of the Rett syndrome. Our studies warrant further attempts to promote DNA methylation in the true region of interest, i.e. the brain.
    Full-text available · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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    Saskia B Wortmann · Marinus Duran · Yair Anikster · [...] · Ron A Wevers
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased urinary 3-methylglutaconic acid excretion is a relatively common finding in metabolic disorders, especially in mitochondrial disorders. In most cases 3-methylglutaconic acid is only slightly elevated and accompanied by other (disease specific) metabolites. There is, however, a group of disorders with significantly and consistently increased 3-methylglutaconic acid excretion, where the 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is a hallmark of the phenotype and the key to diagnosis. Until now these disorders were labelled by roman numbers (I-V) in the order of discovery regardless of pathomechanism. Especially, the so called "unspecified" 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type IV has been ever growing, leading to biochemical and clinical diagnostic confusion. Therefore, we propose the following pathomechanism based classification and a simplified diagnostic flow chart for these "inborn errors of metabolism with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria as discriminative feature". One should distinguish between "primary 3-methylglutaconic aciduria" formerly known as type I (3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency, AUH defect) due to defective leucine catabolism and the-currently known-three groups of "secondary 3-methylglutaconic aciduria". The latter should be further classified and named by their defective protein or the historical name as follows: i) defective phospholipid remodelling (TAZ defect or Barth syndrome, SERAC1 defect or MEGDEL syndrome) and ii) mitochondrial membrane associated disorders (OPA3 defect or Costeff syndrome, DNAJC19 defect or DCMA syndrome, TMEM70 defect). The remaining patients with significant and consistent 3-methylglutaconic aciduria in whom the above mentioned syndromes have been excluded, should be referred to as "not otherwise specified (NOS) 3-MGA-uria" until elucidation of the underlying pathomechanism enables proper (possibly extended) classification.
    Full-text available · Article · Jan 2013 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphohydroxylysinuria has been described in two patients with neurological symptoms, but the deficient enzyme or mutated gene has never been identified. In the present work, we tested the hypothesis that this condition is due to mutations in the AGXT2L2 gene, recently shown to encode phosphohydroxylysine phospholyase. DNA analysis from a third patient, without neurological symptoms, but with an extreme hyperlaxicity of the joints, shows the existence of two mutations, p. Gly240Arg and p.Glu437Val, both in the heterozygous state. Sequencing of cDNA clones derived from fibroblasts mRNA indicated that the two mutations were allelic. Both mutations replace conserved residues. The mutated proteins were produced as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and HEK293T cells and shown to be very largely insoluble, whereas the wild-type one was produced as a soluble and active protein. We conclude that phosphohydroxylysinuria is due to mutations in the AGXT2L2 gene and the resulting lack of activity of phosphohydroxylysine phospholyase in vivo. The finding that the nul alleles of p.Gly240Arg and p.Glu437Val are present at low frequencies in the European and/or North American population suggests that this condition is more common than previously thought. The diversity of the clinical symptoms described in three patients with phosphohydroxylysinuria indicates that this is most likely not a neurometabolic disease.
    Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
  • Wendela P Hoen · Jeroen G Lijmer · Marinus Duran · [...] · Lieuwe de Haan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in schizophrenia have been reported, however there is substantial variation in the findings. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis for docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA). We identified 18 studies which compared PUFA in the erythrocyte cell-membrane between patients with schizophrenia and controls. A total of 642 patients (169 were antipsychotic-naïve) and 574 controls participated in these studies. We found suggestive evidence that the levels of DPA (C22:5n3) and DHA (C22:6n3) are decreased both in patients on current use of antipsychotic medication as well as antipsychotic-naïve patients. Our findings furthermore suggest that the levels of LA (C18:2n6) are decreased in the medicated subgroup, but not in the antipsychotics-naïve group. Finally, we found decreased levels of AA (C20:4n6), most convincingly in antipsychotic naive patients. Taken together, there is substantial evidence that decreased levels of DPA (C22:5n3), DHA (C22:6n3), and AA (C20:4n6) are associated with the schizophrenia syndrome, apart from a possible influence of antipsychotic medication. Given the large heterogeneity in results, these conclusions should be interpreted cautiously.
    Article · Oct 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: White matter (WM) abnormalities have been implicated in schizophrenia, yet the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not fully understood. Several lines of evidence suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a role in myelination, and there is substantial evidence documenting decreased PUFA concentrations in schizophrenia. We therefore hypothesized that lower membrane PUFA concentrations may be related to reduced WM integrity in schizophrenia and related disorders. Methods: In 30 male patients with a recent-onset psychotic disorder, erythrocyte membrane PUFA concentrations were assessed and diffusion tensor imaging was performed with voxelwise analysis. Results: Lower total PUFA concentration was associated with lower fractional anisotropy (FA) throughout the corpus callosum and bilateral parietal, occipital, temporal and frontal WM (P < .05, corrected). Of the individual PUFAs, lower arachidonic acid concentration, and to a lesser extent, lower nervonic acid, linoleic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid concentration were significantly associated with lower FA. PUFA concentrations were inversely associated with radial diffusivity but showed little association with axial diffusivity. Greater severity of negative symptoms was associated with lower nervonic acid concentration and lower FA values. Conclusions: Membrane PUFA concentrations appear to be robustly related to brain WM integrity in early phase psychosis. These findings may provide a basis for studies to investigate the effects of PUFA supplementation on WM integrity and associated symptomatology in early psychosis.
    Article · Aug 2012 · Schizophrenia Bulletin
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    M Dercksen · M Duran · L Ijlst · [...] · R J A Wanders
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is one of the most common organic acidemias found in South Africa. Since 1983, a significant number of IVA cases have been identified in approximately 20,000 Caucasian patients screened for metabolic defects. IVA is caused by an autosomal recessive deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD) resulting in the accumulation of isovaleryl-CoA and its metabolites. In total, 10 IVA patients and three carriers were available for phenotypic and genotypic investigation in this study. All patients were found to be homozygous for a single c.367 G > A (p.G123R) mutation. The amino acid substitution of a glycine to arginine resulted in a markedly reduced steady-state level of the IVD protein, which explains the nearly complete lack of IVD enzyme activity as assessed in fibroblast homogenates. Despite the genetic homogeneity of this South African IVA group, the clinical presentation varied widely, ranging from severe mental handicap and multiple episodes of metabolic derangement to an asymptomatic state. The variation may be due to poor dietary intervention, delayed diagnosis or even epigenetic and polygenetic factors of unknown origin.
    Full-text available · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease

Publication Stats

10k Citations

Institutions

  • 1990-2015
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Department of Paediatrics
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2003
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Philipps University of Marburg
      Marburg, Hesse, Germany
  • 1996
    • University of Freiburg
      Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1985
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Pediatrics
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 1980-1985
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands