[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombozytenaggregationshemmer wie Protonenpumpeninhibitoren (PPIs) gehören zu den am weitesten verbreiteten Medikamenten.
Die Therapie der koronaren Herzkrankheit (KHK) basiert neben interventionellen und chirurgischen Maßnahmen wesentlich auf
der medikamentösen Hemmung der Plättchenaggregation mittels ASS und P2Y12-Inhibitoren. Dem positiven Nutzen dieser Medikamente stehen ihre gastrointestinalen Risiken gegenüber, die im Wesentlichen
in gastroduodenalen Ulzera und möglichen Blutungskomplikationen bestehen. PPIs können diese signifikant reduzieren und wurden
bei der dualen Plättchenhemmung als Begleitmedikation empfohlen. In den letzten beiden Jahren wurde indessen über eine mögliche
Interaktion von Clopidogrel und PPIs berichtet, die zu intensiven Diskussionen geführt hat. Angesichts der Heterogenität der
Studienergebnisse und der großen klinischen Bedeutung dieses Themas haben die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten
und die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie ein Positionspapier verabschiedet, das klare Empfehlungen zum Umgang mit diesen
Substanzen ausspricht. Sie basieren auf dem individuellen kardiovaskulären und gastrointestinalen Risiko.
Inhibitors of platelet aggregation and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used drugs. Besides interventional and surgical
procedures treatment of coronary heart disease is mainly based on the antiplatelet effects of ASS and P2Y12 inhibitors. Their benefit has to be seen alongside their gastrointestinal risks such as gastroduodenal ulcers and potential
bleeding complications. PPIs have the potential to lower these gastrointestinal risks and have been recommended in the case
of clopidogrel added to ASS. However, a possible interaction between clopidogrel and PPIs has been reported recently giving
rise to intensive discussions. Considering the heterogeneity of the study results and the clinical importance of this topic,
the German Society for Digestive and Metabolic Diseases and the German Cardiac Society have developed this consensus report.
It recommends how to use these drugs depending on the individual cardiovascular and gastrointestinal risk.
KeywordsInhibitors of platelet aggregation-Proton pump inhibitors-Interaction-Treatment recommendations
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dual therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is recommended by most guidelines. However, there are warnings against combining PPIs with clopidogrel because of their interactions with cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 (CYP2C19).
The effects of the combined or separate intake of 20 mg of omeprazole and 75 mg of clopidogrel on the clopidogrel-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation were measured in four healthy subjects whose CYP2C19 exon sequences were determined. The effects of co-therapy with 10 mg of rabeprazole were also examined.
Two subjects showed the wild-type CYP2C19 sequence. The concurrent intake of omeprazole had no effect on clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition in these subjects. Two subjects were heterozygous for the *2 allele, with predicted reduced CYP2C19 activity. One of them was a clopidogrel non-responder. In the second heterozygous subject, omeprazole co-therapy reduced the clopidogrel anti-platelet effect when taken simultaneously or separately. However, the simultaneous intake of rabeprazole did not reduce the clopidogrel effect.
The clopidogrel-PPI interaction does not seem to be a PPI class effect. Rabeprazole did not affect the clopidogrel effect in a subject with a clear omeprazole-clopidogrel interaction. The separate intake of PPI and clopidogrel may not be sufficient to prevent their interaction.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · European journal of medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder with consequences for the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In Germany, few data are available on the impact of GERD on work-related productivity.
To study the impact of GERD on work productivity despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and the association between productivity and symptom duration, severity, and HRQoL.
Retrospective data from randomly selected patients with chronic GERD symptoms, treated by office-based general practitioners or general internists with routine clinical care, were analyzed together with information from self-administered instruments assessing work productivity (WPAI-GERD), symptoms (RDQ), and HRQoL (QOLRAD).
Reduced productivity was reported by 152 of 249 patients (61.0%), although 89.5% of them were treated with PPI. The reduction in work productivity was 18.5% in all patients and 30.3% in those with reduced productivity. Patients with impaired productivity showed a significantly lower HRQoL and more-severe symptoms of reflux disease. In all patients, the mean sick leave attributable to reflux symptoms was 0.6 hours in the previous seven days and 1.4 work days in the previous three months.
GERD has a substantial impact on work productivity in Germany, even in patients receiving routine clinical care and PPI therapy.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · European journal of medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is clinically defined by familial clustering of colorectal cancer and other associated tumours.
By thorough molecular and clinical evaluation of 41 families, two different groups were characterised: group 1, 25 families with truncating mutations in MLH1 or MSH2 (12 novel mutations); and group 2, 16 Amsterdam positive families without mutations in these genes and without microsatellite instability in their corresponding tumours.
Significant clinical differences between these two groups were found. Firstly, earlier age of onset for all colorectal cancers (median 41 v 55 years; p < 0.001) and all tumours (median 43 v 56 years; p = 0.022) was observed, comparing groups 1 and 2. Secondly, 68% of the index colorectal cancers were localised proximally of the splenic flexure in group 1 compared with 14% in group 2 (p < 0.010). Thirdly, more synchronous and metachronous colorectal (p = 0.017) and extracolorectal tumours (p < 0.001) were found in group 1. Fourthly, a higher colorectal adenoma/carcinoma ratio (p = 0.030) and a tendency towards more synchronous or metachronous adenomas in group 2 (p = 0.084) was observed, indicating a slower progression of adenomas to carcinomas. As three mutation negative tumours revealed chromosomal instability after comparative genomic hybridisation, these tumours may be caused by one or more highly penetrant disease alleles from the chromosomal instability pathway.
These data show that HNPCC includes at least two entities with clinical and molecular differences. This will have implications for surveillance programmes and for cancer research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant tumor syndrome predisposing to predominantly colorectal and endometrial cancer. In 90% of the cases, molecular analyses reveal microsatellite instabilities due to germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, mainly MLH1, MSH2, among these tumors.
Tumors from 40 HNPCC index patients (31 Amsterdam positive, 9 Bethesda positive; 21 females, 19 males; mean age 48.0 +/- 13.2 years) were examined. In contrast to the classical constellation, their tumors revealed only a microsatellite stable (MSS, n=31)--or low instable (MSI-L, n=9)--tumor phenotype following the international reference panel of 5 microsatellites. No MLH1 and MSH2 mutations were detectable. Complementary microsatellites (BAT40, D10S197, D13S153, D18S58, MYCL1) were investigated by PCR and fragment analysis to find other instabilities which might hint to the MIN-pathway of the tumors.
Due to ten microsatellites in total tumors were now reclassified in 4 MSI-H (10%), 24 MSI-L (60%) and 12 in MSS (30%) phenotypes. The mean age of onset for CRCs was the lowest in the MSI-H group with 45.7 +/- 9.6 years (vs. 48.7 +/- 14.3 and 49.0 +/- 12.9 years in MSI-L and MSS group). MSI-H-and MSI-L tumors were often localized in the proximal colon (50 and 52%), whereas MSS tumors were preferentially localized in the distal colon (77%). -
Complementary microsatellites help to subdive "non-classical" HNPCC in subgroups with different clinical appearance. It allows to detect occult MSI-H tumors with up to 10% and to confirm MSS tumors who seem to have a similar biological behaviour like sporadic CRC. Maybe that this genetic reclassification influence the decision of whether to offer patients chemotherapy or not, since it is known that patients with instable tumors do not benefit from chemotherapy as well as patients with microsatellite stable tumors.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · European journal of medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal permeability can be measured by the sugar absorption test. This test is based on determining the ratio of the urinary excretion of a large and a small carbohydrate after oral administration. The aim of this study was to determine which combination of carbohydrates used in the test gives the highest correlation with disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease. 26 patients with Crohn's disease, 21 patients with ulcerative colitis and 27 healthy control subjects were included in the study. The patients with inflammatory bowel disease had either minimal or highly active disease or were in remission. Two disaccharides (lactulose: L, and cellobiose: C) and two smaller carbohydrates (rhamnose:R, and mannitol:M) were given orally and the urinary excretion was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography followed by pulsed amperometric electrochemical detection on a gold electrode. The ratios C/R, L/R, C/M and L/M were used as indicators for intestinal permeability. - There were no side effects of oral sugar administration. All patients tolerated the test well. Lactulose, rhamnose and cellobiose concentrations are easily be measured in the urine whereas mannitol measurement requires the use of an anion exchanger. This produced inconsistent results. Patients with Crohn's disease or with ulcerative colitis had increased permeability indices in comparison to healthy controls, even in remission. The L/R ratio gave a better differentiation between the healthy controls and patients with active disease than the other agents. Changes in disease activity are best reflected by use of cellobiose/rhamnose excretion quotient.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · European journal of medical research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder predisposing to predominantly colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer frequently due to germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, mainly MLH1, MSH2 and also MSH6 in families seen to demonstrate an excess of endometrial cancer. As a consequence, tumors in HNPCC reveal alterations in the length of simple repetitive genomic sequences like poly-A, poly-T, CA or GT repeats (microsatellites) in at least 90% of the cases.
The study cohort consisted of 25 HNPCC index patients (19 Amsterdam positive, 6 Bethesda positive) who revealed a microsatellite stable (MSS)--or low instable (MSI-L)--tumor phenotype with negative mutation analysis for the MMR genes MLH1 and MSH2. An extended marker panel (BAT40, D10S197, D13S153, D18S58, MYCL1) was analyzed for the tumors of these patients with regard to three aspects. First, to reconfirm the MSI-L phenotype found by the standard panel; second, to find minor MSIs which might point towards an MSH6 mutation, and third, to reconfirm the MSS status of hereditary tumors. The reconfirmation of the MSS status of tumors not caused by mutations in the MMR genes should allow one to define another entity of hereditary CRC. Their clinical features were compared with those of 150 patients with sporadic CRCs.
In this way, 17 MSS and 8 MSI-L tumors were reclassified as 5 MSS, 18 MSI-L and even 2 MSI-H (high instability) tumors, the last being seen to demonstrate at least 4 instable markers out of 10. Among all family members, 87 malignancies were documented. The mean age of onset for CRCs was the lowest in the MSI-H-phenotyped patients with 40.5 +/- 4.9 years (vs. 47.0 +/- 14.6 and 49.8 +/- 11.9 years in MSI-L- and MSS-phenotyped patients, respectively). The percentage of CRC was the highest in families with MSS-phenotyped tumors (88%), followed by MSI-L-phenotyped (78%) and then by MSI-H-phenotyped (67%) tumors. MSS tumors were preferentially localized in the distal colon supposing a similar biologic behavior like sporadic CRC. MSH6 mutation analysis for the MSI-L and MSI-H patients revealed one truncating mutation for a patient initially with an MSS tumor, which was reclassified as MSI-L by analyzing the extended marker panel.
Extended microsatellite analysis serves to evaluate the sensitivity of the reference panel for HNPCC detection and permits phenotype confirmation or upgrading. Additionally, it confirms the MSS status of hereditary CRCs not caused by the common mutations in the MMR genes and provides hints to another entity of hereditary CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 70 kDa Heat shock proteins are involved in mucosal protecting reactions in the gut of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (PstI, nucleotide 1267) was associated with intestinal perforations and formation of abscesses and fistulas in Japanese patients with Crohn's disease. Our purpose was to evaluate this phenomenon in Caucasian patients with Crohn's disease and to verify the clinical importance of this polymorphism.
61 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease and 61 healthy control persons were examined. After DNA extraction and PCR amplification spanning the PstI-site, restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (RFLP) were performed. Homozygous and heterozygous genotypes (AA, AB, BB) were then correlated with the clinical characteristics of the patients, especially with their intestinal complications.
Intestinal perforations and formation of fistulas, abscesses and conglomerate tumors were significantly associated with allele B (p = 0.04). Patients with genotype BB showed the highest prevalence for surgical interventions (82%), whereas patients with genotype AA had the lowest prevalence (56%). Onset of disease, the need for immunosuppressive therapy and the occurrence of extraintestinal manifestations did not differ between the three genotypes. Allele A was significantly associated with combined involvement of ileum and colon.
Caucasian patients carrying the HSP70-2 PstI-polymorphism seem to have a more severe form of Crohn's disease (perforations, abscesses, fistulas, conglomerate tumors). Especially, the homozygous genotype (BB) predisposes for a clinical course with high risk of surgical intervention.
No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · European journal of medical research