[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Biomarkers that can be used to accurately assess the residual risk of disease recurrence in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer are clinically valuable. We evaluated the prognostic value of the Breast Cancer Index (BCI), a continuous risk index based on a combination of HOXB13:IL17BR and molecular grade index, in women with early breast cancer treated with either tamoxifen alone or tamoxifen plus octreotide in the NCIC MA.14 phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00002864; registered 1 November 1999). Methods: Gene expression analysis of BCI by real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed blinded to outcome on RNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples of 299 patients with both lymph node-negative (LN-) and lymph node-positive (LN+) disease enrolled in the MA.14 trial. Our primary objective was to determine the prognostic performance of BCI based on relapse-free survival (RFS). MA.14 patients experienced similar RFS on both treatment arms. Association of gene expression data with RFS was evaluated in univariate analysis with a stratified log-rank test statistic, depicted with a Kaplan-Meier plot and an adjusted Cox survivor plot. In the multivariate assessment, we used stratified Cox regression. The prognostic performance of an emerging, optimized linear BCI model was also assessed in a post hoc analysis. Results: Of 299 samples, 292 were assessed successfully for BCI for 146 patients accrued in each MA.14 treatment arm. BCI risk groups had a significant univariate association with RFS (stratified log-rank p = 0.005, unstratified log-rank p = 0.007). Adjusted 10-year RFS in BCI low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups was 87.5%, 83.9%, and 74.7%, respectively. BCI had a significant prognostic effect [hazard ratio (HR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-4.11; p = 0.004], although not a predictive effect, on RFS in stratified multivariate analysis, adjusted for pathological tumor stage (HR 2.22, 95% CI 1.22-4.07; p = 0.01). In the post hoc multivariate analysis, higher linear BCI was associated with shorter RFS (p = 0.002). Conclusions: BCI had a strong prognostic effect on RFS in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen alone or with tamoxifen and octreotide. BCI was prognostic in both LN- and LN+ patients. This retrospective study is an independent validation of the prognostic performance of BCI in a prospective trial.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · Breast cancer research: BCR
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This phase I/II neoadjuvant trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00066443) determined maximally-tolerated doses (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities, response-to-therapy, and explored the role of novel response biomarkers. MA.22 accrued T3N0, any N2 or N3, and T4 breast cancer patients. Treatment was 6 cycles of 3-weekly (Schedule A; N = 47) or 8 cycles of 2-weekly (Schedule B; N = 46) epirubicin/docetaxel chemotherapy in sequential phase I/II studies, with growth factor support. In phase I of each schedule, MTDs were based on DLT. In phase II, clinical responses (CR/PR) and pathologic complete responses (pCR) were assessed. Tumor biopsy cores were obtained pre-, mid-, and post-treatment: 3 for pathologic assessment; 3 for microarray studies. DLT for Schedule A was febrile neutropenia at 105 mg/m2 epirubicin and 75 mg/m2 docetaxel; for schedule B, it was fatigue at 75 mg/m2 for both agents. Phase II doses were 90 mg/m2 epirubicin/75 mg/m2 docetaxel for Schedule A and 60 mg/m2 (both agents) for Schedule B. Schedule A CR/PR and pCR rates were 90 and 10 %, with large reductions in tumor RNA content and integrity following treatment; Schedule B results were 93 and 0 %, with smaller reductions in RNA quality. Pre-treatment expression of several genes was associated with clinical response, including those within a likely amplicon at 17q12 (ERBB2, TCAP, GSDMB, and PNMT). The combination regimens had acceptable toxicity, good clinical response, induction of changes in tumor RNA content and integrity. Pre-treatment expression of particular genes was associated with clinical responses, including several near 17q12, which with ERBB2, may better identify chemoresponsiveness.
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The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40064-015-1392-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome instability (CIN) in solid tumours results in multiple numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumour types. Recent evidence demonstrated CEP17 duplication, a CIN marker, is a predictive marker of anthracycline benefit. An analysis of the BR9601 and MA.5 clinical trials was performed to test the role of existing CIN gene expression signatures as predictive markers of anthracycline sensitivity in breast cancer.Univariate analysis demonstrated, high CIN25 expression score was associated with improved distant relapse free survival (DRFS) (HR: 0.74, 95% CI 0.54-0.99, p = 0.046). High tumour CIN70 and CIN25 scores were associated with aggressive clinicopathological phenotype and increased sensitivity to anthracycline therapy compared to low CIN scores. However, in a prospectively planned multivariate analysis only pathological grade, nodal status and tumour size were significant predictors of outcome for CIN25/CIN70. A limited gene signature was generated, patients with low tumour CIN4 scores benefited from anthracycline treatment significantly more than those with high CIN4 scores (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.20-0.56, p = 0.001). In multivariate analyses the treatment by marker interaction for CIN4/anthracyclines demonstrated hazard ratio of 0.35 (95% CI 0.15-0.80, p = 0.012) for DRFS. This data shows CIN4 is independent predictor of anthracycline benefit for DRFS in breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NCIC CTG MA.14 and NSABP B-29 trials examined the addition of Octreotide LAR (OCT) to 5 years of tamoxifen (TAM). Gallbladder toxicity led to B-29 discontinuation of OCT, and MA.14 OCT administration shortened to 2 years. Median follow-up was 9.8 years for 667 MA.14 patients and 6.8 years for 893 B-29 patients. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS), defined as time from randomization to time of breast cancer recurrence; second primary cancer other than squamous or basal cell skin carcinoma, cervical carcinoma in situ, or lobular breast carcinoma in situ; or death. The primary statistical test was a univariable pooled stratified log-rank test; multivariable assessment was with Cox regression. For MA.14, 97 % of patients were ≥50 years; for B-29, 62 %. MA.14 patients were 53 % lymph node negative (LN-) while B-29 were 100 % LN-; 33 % of MA.14 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, 2 % concurrently, while B-29 had 53 % concurrent chemotherapy. MA.14 patients were 90% hormone receptor positive; B-29, 100 %. MA.14 patients experienced 5-year DFS of 80 % with TAM, 76 % with TAM + OCT; B-29 patients had 5-year DFS of 88 % for both arms. Pooled univariable TAM + OCT to TAM hazard ratio (HR) was 0.99 (95% CI 0.81-1.20; p = 0.69): for MA.14, HR = 0.94 (0.73-1.20; p = 0.50); for B-29, HR = 1.09 (0.80-1.50; p = 0.59). Multivariable pooled HR = 0.98 (0.81-1.20; p = 0.84). Older patients (p < 0.001), with higher T stage (p < 0.001), and LN + (p < 0.001) had shorter DFS. Addition of OCT to TAM did not significantly improve DFS; gallbladder toxicity shortened the additional administration of OCT. This does not negate targeting the insulin-IGF-I receptor family with less toxic therapeutics.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a prior substudy of the CAN-NCIC-MA.22 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00066443), we observed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduced tumor RNA integrity in breast cancer patients, a phenomenon we term "RNA disruption." The purpose of the current study was to assess in the full patient cohort the relationship between mid-treatment tumor RNA disruption and both pCR post-treatment and, subsequently, disease-free survival (DFS) up to 108 months post-treatment. To meet these objectives, we developed the RNA disruption assay (RDA) to quantify RNA disruption and stratify it into 3 response zones of clinical importance. Zone 1 is a level of RNA disruption inadequate for pathologic complete response (pCR); Zone 2 is an intermediate level, while Zone 3 has high RNA disruption. The same RNA disruption cut points developed for pCR response were then utilized for DFS. Tumor RDA identified >fourfold more chemotherapy non-responders than did clinical response by calipers. pCR responders were clustered in RDA Zone 3, irrespective of tumor subtype. DFS was about 2-fold greater for patients with tumors in Zone 3 compared to Zone 1 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves corroborated these findings that high tumor RNA disruption was associated with increased DFS. DFS values for patients in zone 3 that did not achieve a pCR were similar to that of pCR recipients across tumor subtypes, including patients with hormone receptor positive tumors that seldom achieve a pCR. RDA appears superior to pCR as a chemotherapy response biomarker, supporting the prospect of its use in response-guided chemotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TLE3, a nuclear transcriptional repressor downstream of WNT signalling pathways, has been hypothesised as predictive of benefit from adjuvant taxane.
MA.21 tissue microarrays were constructed from 1097 out of 2104 (52%) patients. TLE3 staining by immunohistochemistry used validated methodology. Continuous TLE3+ (percentage of cells staining positive) was assessed with both visual and automated scoring. The primary objective was to test the predictive effect of TLE3 on relapse-free survival using the MA.21 EC/T and CEF arms and the previously defined cut-point of 30% of cells staining positive in ⩾1 core/tumour.
MA.21 patients had 83.2% TLE3 positive (TLE3+) tumours by visual score and 80.6% TLE3+ by automated image analysis while the previously observed rate of TLE3+ cases was 58.6%. TLE3 expression was significantly associated with ER expression (91.2% of ER-positive tumours were TLE3+; P<0.0001). At median 8-year follow-up, there was no evidence of a predictive effect of TLE3 expression with respect to taxane benefit using the established 30% or exploratory quartile cut-points.
Proportionately more MA.21 patient tumours than expected were TLE3+. The pre-specified TLE3+ cut-point of 30% was not predictive of taxane benefit. TLE3 expression does not represent a viable biomarker for taxane benefit in breast cancer.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 18 August 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2015.271 www.bjcancer.com.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with poor breast cancer outcomes in observational studies. We examined the association of vitamin D blood levels with relapse-free survival (RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) in the MA.21 randomized clinical trial. Fasting blood was collected pre-chemotherapy in 934/2104 (44.4 %) of subjects; 25 hydroxy vitamin D was measured (radioimmunoassay, Diasorin) in one batch. Vitamin D was assessed as a transformed continuous factor, and categorically (quartiles and clinical classifications). Univariate and multivariate prognostic analyses (adjusted for treatment, stratification factors, and baseline imbalances) were performed using Cox models. Most patients were young (median 47.8 years), white (91.6 %) and premenopausal (69.4 %) with grade III (52 %), HER2 negative or missing (89.5 %), ER positive (61.9 %), T1-2 (89.4 %), N + (72.7 %) breast cancer. Compared to the full population, those with vitamin D levels were more likely to be white, PS 1 or 2, to have undergone mastectomy, and to have an ER + tumor. Mean vitamin D was 69.7 nmol/L (27.9 ng/ml) and did not vary by tumor subtype. The majority (80.5 %) had levels >50 nmol/L (20 ng/ml), considered adequate by Institute of Medicine. Continuous vitamin D was not multivariately associated with RFS, BCSS, or OS (p = 0.36, 0.26, 0.33, respectively); categorical vitamin D was also not associated with outcome. Vitamin D associations with RFS did not differ within ER/HER2 subgroups. There was no evidence that vitamin D blood level was associated with RFS, BCSS, and OS in MA.21; the majority of subjects had adequate vitamin D levels at study entry.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Metformin may improve metabolic factors (insulin, glucose, leptin, highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) associated
with poor breast cancer outcomes. The NCIC Clinical Trials Group (NCIC CTG) MA.32 investigates effects of metformin vs placebo
on invasive disease-free survival and other outcomes in early breast cancer. Maintaining blinding of investigators to outcomes,
we conducted a planned, Data Safety Monitoring Committee–approved, analysis of the effect of metformin vs placebo on weight
and metabolic factors at six months, including examination of interactions with baseline body mass index (BMI) and insulin,
in the first 492 patients with paired blood samples.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PAM50-defined breast cancer intrinsic subtypes and risk-of-relapse (ROR) scores are prognostic and predictive of endocrine therapy and some chemotherapy. We investigated the prognostic and predictive effect of PAM50 classifications by chemotherapy type. NCIC CTG MA.21 randomized 2,104 patients to doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel (AC/T); dose-intense cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and flurouracil (CEF); or dose-dense, dose-intense epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel (EC/T). Patients were ≤60 years, with node-positive or high-risk node-negative disease, with median 8-year follow-up. Intrinsic subtypes and ROR were determined from RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections by the NanoString PAM50 test. Univariate effects on relapse-free survival (RFS) were assessed with stratified log-rank test; multivariate analyses utilized stratified Cox regression. Among 1094 cases completing PAM50 intrinsic subtyping, 27 % were classified
as luminal A, 23 % luminal B, 18 % HER2E, and 32 % basal-like. CEF and EC/T were superior to AC/T (p = 0.01). Higher continuous ROR was multivariately associated with worse RFS (p = 0.03), although categorical ROR was neither prognostic nor predictive. Intrinsic subtypes had a significant multivariate prognostic effect on RFS (p = 0.002). Compared with luminal A, hazard ratios were luminal B = 1.48 (95 % CI 0.92–2.37); HER2E = 2.68 (95 % CI 1.60–4.48); and basal-like = 1.97 (95 % CI 1.10–3.53). Intrinsic subtypes were not predictive of treatment benefit (AC/T vs. EC/T + CEF); however, subgroup analysis indicated subtypes (non-luminal vs. luminal) was predictive of taxane benefit (EC/T vs. CEF; p = 0.05). Both NanoString PAM50 subtypes and continuous ROR had significant prognostic effects on RFS for breast cancer patients treated with CEF, EC/T, and AC/T. Non-luminal tumors differentially responded to EC/T (with taxane) over CEF.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment