[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Since China has a unique system of delivering HIV care that includes all patients' records. The factors related to CD4+ T-cell recovery and viral suppression in patients who have low CD4+ T cell counts at the initiation of HAART are understudied in the China despite subsequent virological suppression (viral load < 50 copies/mL) is unknown.
The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the national HIV treatment sub-database of Zhejiang province to identify records of HIV+ patients. Patient records were included if they were ≥ 16 years of age, had an initial CD4 count < 100 cells/μL, were on continuous HAART for at least one year by the end of December 31, 2014; and achieved and maintained continued maximum virological suppression (MVS) (< 50 copies/ml) by 9 months after starting HAART. The primary endpoint for analysis was time to first CD4+ T cell count recovery (≥ 200, 350, 500 cells/μL). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify the risk factors for CD4+ T cell count recovery to key thresholds (200-350, 350-500, ≥ 500 cells/μL) by the time of last clinical follow-up (whichever occurred first), key thresholds (follow-up date for analysis), with patients still unable to reach the endpoints being censored by the end December 31, 2014 (follow-up date for analysis).
Of the 918 patients who were included in the study, and the median CD4+ T cell count was 39 cells/μL at the baseline. At the end of follow-up, 727 (79.2%), 363 (39.5%) and 149 (16.2%) patients had return to ≥ 200, 350, and 500 cells/μL, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the rate of patients with CD4+ count recovery to ≥ 200, 350, and 500 cells/μL after 1 year on HAART was 43.6, 8.6, and 2.5%, respectively, after 3 years on treatment was 90.8, 46.3, and 17.9%, respectively, and after 5 years on HAART was 97.1, 72.2, and 36.4%, respectively. The median time to return to 200-350, 350-500, ≥ 500cells/μL was 1.11, 3.33 and 6.91 years, respectively. Factors of age (aHR = 0.77, 95%CI 0.61-0.97), baseline CD4+ count (aHR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.37-1.86), initial regimens, changes in regimen (aHR = 0.58, 95%CI 0.49-0.69), and inclusion of a cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (aHR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.51-0.85) were associated with CD4+ T cell count recovery.
The proportion of patients with initially low CD4 counts after nine months of treatment and that achieved continuous virological suppression was greater than 70% for persons with CD4+ count ≥ 350. Conversely, only 35% of patients recovered to levels of 500 cells/μL after 5 years of treatment, and levels continued to rise significantly with further long-term HAART. Early HAART intervention will be necessary for achieving effective CD4+ T cell responses and optimal immunological function in HIV+ patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
To understand the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis and hepatitis C infection and related risk behaviors among club drug users in Zhejiang province.
The drug users were interviewed with questionnaires in 2011 to collect the information about their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, drug use behaviors and the utilization of intervention services. Blood samples were collected from them to detect HIV, syphilis and HCV antibodies.
A total of 3 253 drug users were surveyed, in which 1 298 were club drug users, accounted for 39.9%. The proportion of club drug users was high in northern and central Zhejiang, in females, in age group≤25 years, in local residents and in those having commercial sexual behaviors during previous 12 months. Of the 1 298 club drug users, 91.2% were methamphetamine users, 0.1% were infected with HIV (95% CI: 0.0%-0.2%), 8.1% suffered from syphilis (95% CI: 6.6%-9.6%), 17.3% were infected with HCV (95% CI: 15.2%-19.4%). Among the interviewed club drug users, 12.7% were aware of AIDS, 9.2% had injecting drug use histories, 29.6% reported having commercial sex during the previous 12 months, only 33.4% received free condom and counsel, 14.0% received HIV test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that living in central and southern Zhejiang was associated with syphilis prevalence, HCV infection and injecting drug use behavior, being female was associated with syphilis prevalence. Injecting drug use and commercial sex during the previous 12 months were associated with HCV infection, and injecting drug use and commercial sex during the previous 12 months were associated with each other. Among the 1 285 club drug users, males, local residents in Zhejiang and those who never received free condom or counsel were more likely to have commercial sex.
The prevalence of syphilis and HCV infection are high and unprotected sexual behaviors are common among the club drug users in Zhejiang, but less intervention services were received by them, suggesting that more attention should be paid to the prevention and control of HIV, HCV infections and syphilis in club drug users by taking effective intervention measures and increasing intervention coverage.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: There are divergences between neuropathic pain and visceralgia in terms of the duration, location, and character of hyperalgesia. It is generally recognized that nociceptive receptors, including P2X receptors, may play different roles in nociceptive mechanisms. The different roles of P2X1-7 receptors have not been fully understood both in neuropathic pain and visceral hyperalgesia. In order to explore the different expressions of P2X1-7 receptors in these two hyperalgesia models, the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from rat sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) model and neonatal colorectal distention (NCRD) model were studied (both the primary nociceptive neuron afferents of those two models projected to the same segment of spinal cord). Both immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique and real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology were applied to analyze the protein expression levels and nucleic acid of P2X1-7 receptors. We found that except P2X2 and P2X3, the expression levels of P2X1 and P2X5 receptors increased in neuropathic pain while those expression levels of P2X4, P2X6, and P2X7 receptors increased in visceral pain. Our results also suggested that in addition to P2X2/3 heteromeric, other P2X subunits may also involved in generation heteromeric such as P2X1/5 and/or P2X2/5 in neuropathic pain and P2X4/6 and/or P2X4/7 in visceral pain.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Purinergic Signalling
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The objective of this study was to determine the rate of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Zhejiang province and to identify specific factors associated with progression of this disease.
This study utilized a retrospective cohort to identify the specific factors involved in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to AIDS. We collected data of patients existing in care between 2008 and 2012 from the national surveillance system databases. We performed our analyses using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model.
This study included 9216 HIV-positive patients (75.6 % male), which yielded 12,452 person-years (py) of follow-up-data. The AIDS progression rates were 33.9 % (2008), 33.6 % (2009), 38.1 % (2010), 30.6 % (2011) and 25.9 % (2012). We observed a significant reduction in the rate of progression Of HIV to AIDS post-2010 (Pearson χ(2) = 4341.9, P < 0.001). The cumulative AIDS progression incidence rates were 33.4, 35.4, 36.4, 37.0 and 37.04 per 100 py in 1 each of the 5 years of follow-up. This study found that age was an independent risk factor for the progression of HIV to AIDS. Compared with patients infected with HIV by homosexual transmission, patients infected with HIV by heterosexuals transmission or blood transfusion had a reduced hazard ratio (HR) for progression to AIDS (heterosexual transmission: HR = 0.695, 0.524, P = 0.007; blood transfusion: HR = 0.524, P = 0.015). Diagnosed with HIV from 2011 to 2012 and having a higher CD4+ cell count (350-500 cells/mm(3); or >500 cells/mm(3)) at baseline were independently associated with lower rates of HIV progression to AIDS [HR = 0.382, 0.380, 0.187, P < 0.001]. Patients with a CD+ T-cell count of 200-350 cells/mm(3) or greater than 350 cells/mm(3) were less likely to develop AIDS following HIV diagnosis than were those patients without HAART treatment.
This study found a high progression rate from HIV to AIDS in HIV patients residing within Zhejiang province from 2008 to 2010. This rate decreased after 2010, which coincided with the new criteria for HAART treatment, which likely contributed to the observed reduction in the rate of progression. Initiation of HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell count may reduce rate of AIDS progression. Based on our results, we conclude that efficient strategies for HIV screening, as well as early diagnosis and treatment are necessary to reduce the progression of HIV to AIDS.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · AIDS Research and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
The Brief COPE instrument has been utilized to conduct research on various populations, including people living with HIV (PLWH). However, the questionnaire constructs when applied to PLWH have not been subjected to thorough factor validation.
A total of 258 PLWH were recruited from two provinces of China. They answered questions involving the scales of three instruments: the Brief COPE, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Perceived Discrimination Scale for PLWH. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted.
The CFA found a poor goodness of fit to the data. The subsequent EFA identified six preliminary factors, forming subscales with Cronbach's alphas, which ranged from 0.61 to 0.80. Significant correlation coefficients between the subscales and measures of perceived social support and perceived discrimination were reported, giving preliminary support to the validity of the new empirical factor structure.
This study showed that the original factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument, when applied to PLWH in China, did not fit the data. Thus, the Brief COPE should be applied to various populations and cultures with caution. The new factor structure established by the EFA is only preliminary and requires further validation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the predominant lung cells responsible for both ingestion and clearance of inhaled particulate matter (PM). The aims of this study were (1) to examine effects of fine PM on rat NR8383 cell line apoptosis, and (2) to determine whether NR8383 cell functions are further affected when exposed to fine PM in the presence of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Standard Reference Material 2786 (SRM 2786) for fine PM was used to measure the following parameters: cytotoxicity, apoptotic rate, Bax/Bcl-2 expression, nitric oxide (NO) production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in NR8383 cells. Data showed that SRM 2786 alone induced damage and apoptosis in NR8383 cells in a concentration-dependent manner as demonstrated by significant decrease in expression of Bcl-2 and increase in expression of Bax, suggesting fine PM might trigger apoptosis involving a mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway. In addition, there was elevated production of free radicals, such as NO and ROS, suggesting oxidative stress plays a role in the observed apoptotic responses. Further, LPS pretreatment enhanced apoptosis of NR8383 cells induced by SRM 2786. Consequently, data indicate that SRM 2786 triggered cell apoptosis in NR8383 cells, probably by mechanisms involving oxidative stress, as evidenced by elevated NO and ROS levels, while the degree of apoptosis was further aggravated by inflammation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Multiple subtypes were found epidemic in Shenzhen MSM population, which always predict the emergence of unique recombinant. In 2012, CRF55_01B was first reported, which was later proved to originate in MSMs in Shenzhen city. In this study, we reported a unique recombinant form (URF) of HIV-1 identified in a man who has sex with men in Shenzhen city. The strain showed similar genomic schematic map to CRF55_01B with subtype C segments inserted in the gag and pol genes. The full-length genome was amplified in two halves with the 1kb overlap regions. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Recombination detection program showed that two subtype C fragments and two subtype B fragments were inserted into CRF01_AE backbone genome in gag and pol region. In phylogenetic tree, the subtype C fragments clustered with CRF07_BC variants, the other segments grouped with CRF55_01B strains except one segment clustered with CRF01_AE. Similar breakpoints between our strain and CRF65_cpx were also observed. The data suggested that the URF strain might be the recombinant form of CRF55_01B, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC. This is the first report of third generation of recombination of HIV-1 originated from CRF55_01B in China. The identification of the URF suggested the severe situation of HIV in Shenzhen MSM and urgent the epidemiology surveillance of new recombination.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background: Female sex workers (FSWs) are highly vulnerable to HIV but make little use of HIV-related intervention services provided by the Chinese government. Determinants of the low uptake of HIV services by FSWs in Shenzhen, Guangdong province were investigated. Methods: FSWs were recruited by venue-based sampling; 1656 FSWs were interviewed about sociodemographics, behaviours and uptake of HIV-related intervention services. Determinants of no uptake of HIV testing, condom promotion, and peer education were determined through logistic regression. The association between uptake of HIV-related services, condom use and HIV-related knowledge was also assessed. Results: The overall uptake of HIV testing, condom promotion, and peer education by FSWs was 21.5%, 47.8% and 28.0%, respectively. Young age and shorter duration of working in Shenzhen were statistically significantly correlated with no uptake of all three interventions. Uptake of these services was positively associated with consistent condom use and good HIV-related knowledge. Conclusions: The uptake of HIV-related intervention services by FSWs is low in Shenzhen. As their uptake is positively associated with condom use and HIV-related knowledge, it is necessary to intensify promotion of these, focusing on young and recently started FSWs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To explore the association of the phenotype of ATP-activated current with the genotype of P2X1-6 subunits in nociceptors, we developed a method that allows us to label nociceptive neurons innervating tooth-pulp in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons using a retrograde fluorescence-tracing method, to record ATP-activated current in freshly isolated fluorescence-labeled neurons, and then to conduct single cell immunohistochemical staining for P2X1-6 subunits in the same neuron. We found that fast application of 100 μM ATP to fluorescence-traced TG neurons produced robust inward current in 87% (96/110) of cells tested. The diameter of cells varied from 16 to 56 μm. Three types of ATP-activated current (F, I and S) were recorded with distinct rise times of the current (R10–90, P < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the cell diameter and the value of R10–90 (P < 0.05): the value of R10-90 increased with increases in the cell diameter. Cells responsive to ATP with the type F current mainly showed positive staining for P2X3 and P2X5, but negative staining for P2X2; cells responsive to ATP with the type I current showed positive staining for P2X1-3 and P2X5, but negative staining for P2X4; and cells responsive to ATP with the type S current showed positive staining for P2X1-5, but negative staining for P2X6. The present findings suggest that in addition to P2X3 subunits, P2X5 subunits are also involved in the generation of the F type of ATP-activated current in small-sized nociceptive neurons. In addition to the P2X2/3 subunit-containing channels, more complex uncharacterized combinations of P2X1-5 subunits exist in native medium-sized nociceptive neurons exhibiting the I and S types of ATP-activated current. In addition, the P2X6 subunit is not a main subunit involved in the nociceptive signal in rat TG neurons innervating tooth-pulp.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence has proved that potassium channels (K+ channels) are involved in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the precise cellular mechanisms are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of quinidine, a commonly used voltage‑gated K+ channel blocker, on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human glioma U87‑MG cells. We found that quinidine significantly inhibited the proliferation of U87‑MG cells and induced apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner. The results of caspase colorimetric assay showed that the mitochondrial pathway was the main mode involved in the quinidine‑induced apoptotic process. Furthermore, the concentration range of quinidine, which inhibited voltage‑gated K+ channel currents in electrophysiological assay, was consistent with that of quinidine inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. In U87‑MG cells treated with quinidine (100 µmol/l), 11 of 2,042 human microRNAs (miRNAs) were upregulated and 16 were downregulated as detected with the miRNA array analysis. The upregulation of miR‑149‑3p and downregulation of miR‑424‑5p by quinidine treatment were further verified by using quantitative real‑time PCR. In addition, using miRNA target prediction program, putative target genes related to cell prolif-eration and apoptosis for two differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. Taken together, these data suggested that the anti‑proliferative and pro‑apoptosis effect of voltage‑gated K+ channel blocker quinidine in human glioma cells was mediated at least partly through regulating expression of miRNAs, and provided further support for the mechanisms of voltage‑gated K+ channels in mediating cell proliferation and apoptosis.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To analyze the polymorphism of IL-22 gene in Han Chinese, and to evaluate the influence of IL-22 polymorphism on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.MethodsIL-22 gene polymorphism was analyzed in 73 healthy blood samples. The influence of the genotype and allele distribution of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2227484, rs2227485, and rs2227513) of IL-22 on HIV infection was evaluated in 619 HIV seropositive patients and 619 healthy controls. To determine the association between rs2227513 genotype and IL-22 levels in plasma, we randomly selected 29 HIV seropositive blood samples and 15 healthy blood samples, and measured the levels of IL-22.ResultsNine SNPs loci (rs2227484, rs2227485, rs2227491, rs2227508, rs2227513, rs1179249, rs1179250, rs1179251, and rs1182844) of IL-22 gene were found. Stratified analysis (by gender) showed a higher association of HIV infection and A/G genotype and G allele at rs2227513 in females but not in males (A/G genotype: OR=5.24, 95% CI 1.13-24.27; allele G: OR=5.27, 95% CI 1.15-24.23). rs2227513 A/G genotype was also associated with significantly higher levels of plasma IL-22, regardless of whether HIV seropositive or seronegative.Conclusion
Our results suggested that IL-22 production in blood might act as a pathogenic factor in HIV infection.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a key population for HIV control and prevention in China. It is difficult to acquire representative samples of this hidden population. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), based on peer referral, and time-location sampling (TLS) based on random selection of venue-day-time periods, are among the most commonly used sampling methods. However, differences in HIV-related characteristics of MSM recruited by these two methods have not been fully evaluated. We compared sociodemographics, risk behaviors, utilization of HIV-related intervention services, and HIV/syphilis infection rates between samples of 621 RDS MSM and 533 TLS MSM in Shenzhen, China in 2010. We found that the HIV prevalence was comparable in RDS and TLS MSM. TLS recruited larger proportions of more marginalized MSM than RDS: MSM recruited by TLS were older, less educated and more likely to be migrants (without Shenzhen hukou registration), to be non-gay identified and to engage in risky sexual behaviors. On the other hand, MSM recruited by TLS were more likely to have been covered by HIV-related intervention services. To conclude, in Shenzhen, TLS is more effective to reach the marginalized population of MSM. But because TLS can only reach MSM who physically attend venues and HIV-related intervention services are already commonly available at gay venues in Shenzhen, RDS is more informative for allocating prevention efforts than TLS. Furthermore, researchers and public health authorities should take into account the different sample compositions of RDS and TLS and apply sampling methods consistently when evaluating trends over time.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Archives of Sexual Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previous investigations have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) has many actions including antitumor, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, Rg3 exists as 2 stereoisomeric pairs, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(S)-Rg3] and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(R)-Rg3], which have disparate pharmacological actions because of their different chemical structures. In this study, the 2 epimers were compared for their effects on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma H22 transplanted tumors and the immune function of H22-bearing mice. In vivo efficacy study showed that the growth of H22 transplanted tumors was significantly inhibited when treated with 20(S)-Rg3 and 20(R)-Rg3 (P < 0.05), and the inhibition rate of tumor growth was 23.6% and 40.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the cellular immunity of H22-bearing mice was remarkably enhanced after Rg3 treatment (P < 0.05), which may be due to stimulation of ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation and augmentation of Th1-type cytokines interleukin-2 and interferon-γ levels in mice. Interestingly, the effects of 20(R)-Rg3 were significantly greater than those of the S-form (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that Rg3 inhibits H22 tumor growth in vivo at least partly by improving the host's cellular immunity in a stereospecific manner, and 20(R)-Rg3 is more potent for treating cancers or other immune-mediated diseases clinically.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Food Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Repeating administration of methamphetamine (METH) can result in locomotor sensitization, a progressive increase in their psychomotor activating effects. l-Stepholidine (l-SPD), an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia, is the first compound known to exhibit mixed dopamine D1 receptor agonist/D2 antagonist properties and is a potential medication for the treatment of drug addiction. Therefore, the effects of l-SPD on the hyperactivity, development and expression of METH-induced locomotor sensitization were investigated. The results indicated that l-SPD dose-dependently inhibited hyperlocomotion induced by acute METH and prevented the sensitized motor behavior induced by chronic METH administration. l-SPD likely acts as a D1 partial agonist and a D2 antagonist to produce its in vivo effects and may be a promising agent for treatment of METH addiction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Given the problems associated with the escalation in methamphetamine (METH) use, the identification of more effective treatment strategies is essential. l-stepholidine (l-SPD) is an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia with dopamine D1 receptor partial agonistic and D2 receptor antagonistic dual actions. The unique pharmacological profile of l-SPD suggests that l-SPD may be effective for the treatment of METH addiction. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of l-SPD on METH self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule. We found that 5 and 10 mg/kg of l-SPD attenuated METH self-administration behavior. These results demonstrate that l-SPD which possesses dual actions on dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, attenuates METH self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have reported the association between fine particle matter (PM) and lung diseases. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the key lung cells with strong capability of eliminating external particle pollutant. Therefore the prevention of AM from apoptosis induced by fine PM is vital for clinical treatment of increased pulmonary diseases. This study aims to investigate the ultrastructural changes in cultured AM induced by fine PM, which can directly reflect the effect of fine PM on AM apoptosis. In addition, Standard Reference Material for fine PM (SRM 2786) was used in current study due to its relative uniform composition. The results in this study suggested that SRM 2786 induced morphology changes in AM in a dose-dependent manner by transmission electron microscope observation, including nuclear fragmentation, chromatin aggregation, increased numbers of lysosomes and so forth. Consequently, this study provides reliable evidence for us to further investigate the apoptotic mechanism of AM induced by fine PM treatment in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (20S-Rg3) could effectively inhibit tumor cell proliferation as well as K+ channel currents expressed in xenopus oocytes. However, the effect of 20S-Rg3 on the growth of human glioma cells and the ion channels expressed in tumor cells was rarely reported in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the effect and the underlying mechanism of 20S-Rg3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human glioma U87-MG cells. In vitro results exhibited that 20S-Rg3 had potent cytotoxic effect and significantly inhibited the proliferation of U87-MG cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Typical arrest at G2/M phase was induced, and the apoptosis rate of U87-MG cells was significantly higher in the 20S-Rg3 treatment group than in the control group. Electrophysiological results showed that 80 μmol/L 20S-Rg3 substantially inhibited voltage-gated K+ currents of U87-MG cells. Together, these results suggest that the suppression of voltage-gated K+ currents might play an important role in the 20S-Rg3-induced cell death, and these new findings provide useful data for further study of the antitumor effect of 20S-Rg3.