Logan C Walker

University of Otago, Taieri, Otago, New Zealand

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Publications (39)163.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Many BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutations are known to result in an elevated breast cancer risk. Routine BRCA1/2 gene screening is offered to patients thought to have an increased risk of carrying a deleterious mutation. 5-10% of genetic tests identify a variant of unknown clinical significance (VUCS), creating significant challenges to health care providers. Recent advances in sequencing technologies allow more genes to be screened in an increasing number of individuals and at an ever decreasing cost. Significantly more VUCS will be identified, adding to the uncertainty of how to manage these patients. The addition of splicing assays to current variant classification tools may be instrumental towards understanding the disease risk of these variants and improve the reliability of these assays.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The New Zealand medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Findings of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and breast cancer vary, making it difficult to determine whether either, both, or neither virus is causally associated with breast cancer. We investigated CMV and EBV in paired samples of breast cancer and normal breast tissue from 70 women using quantitative PCR. A serum sample from each woman was tested for CMV and EBV IgG. To place our results in context, we reviewed the existing literature and performed a meta-analysis of our results together with previous PCR studies of EBV, CMV, and breast cancer. Of the serology samples, 67 of 70 (96%) were EBV IgG positive and 49 of 70 (70%) were CMV IgG positive. QPCR detected EBV in 24 (34%) of the tumour and 9 (13%) of the paired normal specimens and CMV in 0 (0%) of the tumour and 2 (3%) of the paired normal specimens. Our findings, together with earlier results summarised in the meta-analysis, suggest several possibilities: variable findings may be due to limitations of molecular analyses; 'hit and run' oncogenesis may lead to inconsistent results; one or both viruses has a role at a later stage in breast cancer development; infection with multiple viruses increases breast cancer risk; or neither virus has a role. Future studies should focus on ways to investigate these possibilities, and should include comparisons of breast cancer tissue samples with appropriate normal tissue samples.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: AimsThe proliferation marker Ki67 has been extensively investigated as a prognostic factor in breast cancer, but has not gained widespread clinical acceptance. Phosphohistone H3 is a new immunohistochemical marker for quantifying mitoses, however there is limited information on its prognostic value in breast cancer. In this study, we performed a head-to-head comparison of Ki67 and phosphohistone H3 to establish the marker of greatest prognostic value.Methods and resultsTissue microarrays from 108 breast cancer patients were immunohistochemically stained for Ki67 and phosphohistone H3. Our results show that phosphohistone H3 had a greater prognostic value than Ki67 in a multivariable model that adjusted for traditional prognostic variables in breast cancer. Phosphohistone H3 staining was a strong predictor of survival at 5-years after diagnosis (HR=4.35, P<10-5) compared to Ki67 (HR=2.44, P=0.004), and better separated the risk of death in patients over 45 years of age. Importantly, phosphohistone H3 consistently showed strong unequivocal staining compared to the variable staining intensities associated with Ki67.Conclusion Our study suggests that phosphohistone H3 staining is a stronger and more robust prognostic indicator than Ki67 staining in breast cancer patients and has the potential for use in routine diagnostic laboratories.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Histopathology
  • Logan Walker · Nigel Willis
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    ABSTRACT: Tibiofibular transfixation of Weber C injuries using a diastasis screw is the current method of fixation. However, controversy remains regarding the screw size and number, number of cortices engaged, and the interval to screw removal. The present study reviewed the current practice in the Wellington Region. A retrospective audit of patients with documented Weber C injuries in the Capital & Coast District Health Board from June 2012 to December 2013 was performed. The clinical medical records and radiographs were reviewed, and the patient demographics, surgeon details, screw number, size, cortices engaged, screw removal period, and documented complications were recorded. A total of 36 operations were documented, of which 27 (75%) cases also required fibula plating. Of the 36 cases, 25 (69.44%) used a single diastasis screw, 33 (91.67%) used 4.5-mm screws, and 18 (50%) engaged 3 cortices. Surgical practice did not vary with the experience level. Of the 36 patients, 29 (80.56%) underwent routine screw removal at a median of 20 (25th to 75th quartile range 16 to 22) weeks. Also, 9 (25%) cases of screw fracture occurred, with a median documented interval to fracture of 18 (25th to 75th quartile range 15 to 20) weeks. The surgical management of Weber C injuries is consistent with current practice. The routine removal of diastasis screws by 20 weeks postoperatively was not different from the documented interval of screw removal when screw fractures had occurred. The timing of screw removal needs to be weighed against the fracture risk, patient symptoms, and the risk of secondary procedure complications. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Journal of foot and ankle surgery: official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological cancer in women, and relatively little is known about inherited risk factors for this disease. This is the first genome-wide study to explore the role of common and rare germline copy number variants (CNVs) in predisposition to endometrial cancer. CNVs were called from germline DNA of 1,209 endometrioid endometrial cancer cases and 528 cancer-unaffected female controls. Overall CNV load of deletions or DNA gains did not differ significantly between cases and controls (P > 0.05), but cases presented with an excess of rare germline deletions overlapping likely functional genomic regions including genes (P = 8 × 10(-10)), CpG islands (P = 1 × 10(-7)) and sno/miRNAs regions (P = 3 × 10(-9)). On average, at least one additional gene and two additional CpG islands were disrupted by rare deletions in cases compared to controls. The most pronounced difference was that over 30 sno/miRNAs were disrupted by rare deletions in cases for every single disruption event in controls. A total of 13 DNA repair genes were disrupted by rare deletions in 19/1,209 cases (1.6 %) compared to one gene in 1/528 controls (0.2 %; P = 0.007), and this increased DNA repair gene loss in cases persisted after excluding five individuals carrying CNVs disrupting mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 (P = 0.03). There were 34 miRNA regions deleted in at least one case but not in controls, the most frequent of which encompassed hsa-mir-661 and hsa-mir-203. Our study implicates rare germline deletions of functional and regulatory regions as possible mechanisms conferring endometrial cancer risk, and has identified specific regulatory elements as candidates for further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods: Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results: The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion: There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact: Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention
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    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function germline mutations in BRCA1 (MIM #113705) confer markedly increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. The full-length transcript codifies for a protein involved in DNA repair pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. Several BRCA1 splicing isoforms have been described in public domain databases, but the physiological role (if any) of BRCA1 alternative splicing remains to be established. An accurate description of ‘naturally occurring’ alternative splicing at this locus is a prerequisite to understand its biological significance. However, a systematic analysis of alternative splicing at the BRCA1 locus is yet to be conducted. Here, the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germ-Line Mutant Alleles consortium combines RT-PCR, exon scanning, cloning, sequencing and relative semi-quantification to describe naturally occurring BRCA1 alternative splicing with unprecedented resolution. The study has been conducted in blood-related RNA sources, commonly used for clinical splicing assays, as well as in one healthy breast tissue. We have characterized a total of 63 BRCA1 alternative splicing events, including 35 novel findings. A minimum of 10 splicing events (Δ1Aq, Δ5, Δ5q, Δ8p, Δ9, Δ(9,10), Δ9_11, Δ11q, Δ13p and Δ14p) represent a substantial fraction of the full-length expression level (ranging from 5 to 100%). Remarkably, our data indicate that BRCA1 alternative splicing is similar in blood and breast, a finding supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based in vitro splicing assays. Overall, our data suggest an alternative splicing model in which most non-mutually exclusive alternative splicing events are randomly combined into individual mRNA molecules to produce hundreds of different BRCA1 isoforms.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Human Molecular Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting. Methods: We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design. Results: PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Δ19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1G>T Δ5q and Δ3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp). Conclusions: We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Clinical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Splicing assays are commonly undertaken in the clinical setting to assess the clinical relevance of sequence variants in disease predisposition genes. A 5-tier classification system incorporating both bioinformatic and splicing assay information was previously proposed as a method to provide consistent clinical classification of such variants. Members of the ENIGMA Consortium Splicing Working Group undertook a study to assess the applicability of the scheme to published assay results, and the consistency of classifications across multiple reviewers. Splicing assay data was identified for 235 BRCA1 and 176 BRCA2 unique variants, from 77 publications. At least six independent reviewers from research and/or clinical settings comprehensively examined splicing assay methods and data reported for 22 variant assays of 21 variants in four publications, and classified the variants using the 5-tier classification scheme. Inconsistencies in variant classification occurred between reviewers for 17 of the variant assays. These could be attributed to a combination of ambiguity in presentation of the classification criteria, differences in interpretation of the data provided, non-standardised reporting of results, and the lack of quantitative data for the aberrant transcripts. We propose suggestions for minimum reporting guidelines for splicing assays, and improvements to the 5-tier splicing classification system to allow future evaluation of its performance as a clinical tool. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported molecular karyotype analysis of invasive breast tumour core needle biopsies by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) (Walker et al, Genes Chromosomes Cancer, 2008 May;47(5):405-17). That study identified frequently recurring gains and losses involving chromosome bands 8q22 and 8p21, respectively. Moreover, these data highlighted an association between 8q22 gain and typically aggressive grade 3 tumors. Here we validate and extend our previous investigations through FISH analysis of tumor touch imprints prepared from excised breast tumor specimens. Compared to post-surgical tumor excisions, core needle biopsies are known to be histologically less precise when predicting tumor grade. Therefore investigating these chromosomal aberrations in tumor samples that offer more reliable pathological assessment is likely to give a better overall indication of association. A series of 60 breast tumors were screened for genomic copy number changes at 8q22 and 8p21 by dual-color FISH. Results confirm previous findings that 8p loss (39%) and 8q gain (74%) occur frequently in invasive breast cancer. Both absolute quantification of 8q22 gain across the sample cohort, and a separate relative assessment by 8q22:8p21 copy number ratio, showed that the incidence of 8q22 gain significantly increased with grade (p = 0.004, absolute and p = 0.02, relative). In contrast, no association was found between 8p21 loss and tumor grade. These findings support the notion that 8q22 is a region of interest for invasive breast cancer pathogenesis, potentially harboring one or more genes that, when amplified, precipitate the molecular events that define high tumor grade.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accurate evaluation of unclassified sequence variants in cancer predisposition genes is essential for clinical management and depends on a multifactorial analysis of clinical, genetic, pathologic, and bioinformatic variables and assays of transcript length and abundance. The integrity of assay data in turn relies on appropriate assay design, interpretation, and reporting.METHODS: We conducted a multicenter investigation to compare mRNA splicing assay protocols used by members of the ENIGMA (Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium. We compared similarities and differences in results derived from analysis of a panel of breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene variants known to alter splicing (BRCA1: c.135-1G>T, c.591C>T, c.594-2A>C, c.671-2A>G, and c.5467+5G>C and BRCA2: c.426-12_8delGTTTT, c.7988A>T, c.8632+1G>A, and c.9501+3A>T). Differences in protocols were then assessed to determine which elements were critical in reliable assay design.RESULTS: PCR primer design strategies, PCR conditions, and product detection methods, combined with a prior knowledge of expected alternative transcripts, were the key factors for accurate splicing assay results. For example, because of the position of primers and PCR extension times, several isoforms associated with BRCA1, c.594-2A>C and c.671-2A>G, were not detected by many sites. Variation was most evident for the detection of low-abundance transcripts (e.g., BRCA2 c.8632+1G>A Delta19,20 and BRCA1 c.135-1G>T Delta5q and Delta3). Detection of low-abundance transcripts was sometimes addressed by using more analytically sensitive detection methods (e.g., BRCA2 c.426-12_8delGTTTT ins18bp).CONCLUSIONS: We provide recommendations for best practice and raise key issues to consider when designing mRNA assays for evaluation of unclassified sequence variants.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2013

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · European Journal of Cancer
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    Logan C Walker · Lutz Krause · Amanda B Spurdle · Nic Waddell
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    ABSTRACT: A characteristic of sporadic and familial breast tumours is genomic instability, resulting from either inherited mutations in genes that control genome integrity or mutations that are acquired in somatic cells during development. It is well established that abnormal chromosome number and structural changes to chromosomes play an important role in the cause and progression of breast cancer. Familial BRCA1 breast tumours are characterised by basal-like phenotype and high-histological grade which are typically associated with increased genomic instability. Consistent with previous studies, the genomes with the greatest number of base pairs covered by copy number change were typically found in basal-like and/or high-histological grade breast tumours within our cohort. Moreover, we show that luminal A tumours that are high grade had significantly less copy number variant (≥NV) coverage than the more clinically aggressive high-grade luminal B tumours, suggesting that chromosomal instability rather than cellular differentiation contributes to the aggressive nature of luminal B tumours. It has previously been proposed that germline CNVs may contribute to somatically acquired chromosome changes in the tumour, but this is the first study to address this idea in breast cancer. By comparing germline CNVs and tumour-specific CNVs in matched breast tumour and normal tissue using data from the Illumina Human CNV370 duo beadarray, we provide evidence that germline CNVs do not tend to act as a foundation on which larger chromosome copy number aberrations develop in tumour cells. Further studies are required with increased sequence resolution that will detect smaller CNVs and define CNV breakpoints to comprehensively assess the relationship between inherited genomic variation and genome evolution in breast cancer. © The Author(s) 2012. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical management of breast cancer families is complicated by identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequence alterations of unknown significance. Molecular assays evaluating the effect of intronic variants on native splicing can help determine their clinical relevance. Twenty-six intronic BRCA1/2 variants ranging from the consensus dinucleotides in the splice acceptor or donor to 53 nucleotides into the intron were identified in multiple-case families. The effect of the variants on splicing was assessed using HSF matrices, MaxEntScan and NNsplice, followed by analysis of mRNA from lymphoblastoid cell lines. A total of 12 variants were associated with splicing aberrations predicted to result in production of truncated proteins, including a variant located 12 nucleotides into the intron. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was estimated using a multifactorial likelihood approach, and provided a pathogenic or likely pathogenic classification for seven of the 12 spliceogenic variants. The apparent disparity between experimental evidence and the multifactorial predictions is likely due to several factors, including a paucity of likelihood information and a nonspecific prior probability applied for intronic variants outside the consensus dinucleotides. Development of prior probabilities of pathogenicity incorporating bioinformatic prediction of splicing aberrations should improve identification of functionally relevant variants and enhance multifactorial likelihood analysis of intronic variants.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. To identify genetic variants associated with endometrial cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association study involving 1,265 individuals with endometrial cancer (cases) from Australia and the UK and 5,190 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared genotype frequencies in cases and controls for 519,655 SNPs. Forty seven SNPs that showed evidence of association with endometrial cancer in stage 1 were genotyped in 3,957 additional cases and 6,886 controls. We identified an endometrial cancer susceptibility locus close to HNF1B at 17q12 (rs4430796, P = 7.1 × 10(-10)) that is also associated with risk of prostate cancer and is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Nature Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in DNA repair are good candidates to be tested as phenotypic modifiers for carriers of mutations in the high-risk susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. The base excision repair (BER) pathway could be particularly interesting given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the pathway, PARP1, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In this study, we have evaluated the XRCC1 gene that participates in the BER pathway, as phenotypic modifier of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Three common SNPs in the gene, c.-77C>T (rs3213245) p.Arg280His (rs25489) and p.Gln399Arg (rs25487) were analysed in a series of 701 BRCA1 and 576 BRCA2 mutation carriers. An association was observed between p.Arg280His-rs25489 and breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers, with rare homozygotes at increased risk relative to common homozygotes (hazard ratio: 22.3, 95% confidence interval: 14.3-34, P<0.001). This association was further tested in a second series of 4480 BRCA1 and 3016 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. CONCLUSIONS AND INTERPRETATION: No evidence of association was found when the larger series was analysed which lead us to conclude that none of the three SNPs are significant modifiers of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · British Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls), was established. This is the first multicentre screening study targeted at men with a known genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. A preliminary analysis of the data is reported. Men aged 40-69 years from families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were offered annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, and those with PSA > 3 ng/mL, were offered a prostate biopsy. Controls were men age-matched (± 5 years) who were negative for the familial mutation. In total, 300 men were recruited (205 mutation carriers; 89 BRCA1, 116 BRCA2 and 95 controls) over 33 months. At the baseline screen (year 1), 7.0% (21/300) underwent a prostate biopsy. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in ten individuals, a prevalence of 3.3%. The positive predictive value of PSA screening in this cohort was 47·6% (10/21). One prostate cancer was diagnosed at year 2. Of the 11 prostate cancers diagnosed, nine were in mutation carriers, two in controls, and eight were clinically significant. The present study shows that the positive predictive value of PSA screening in BRCA mutation carriers is high and that screening detects clinically significant prostate cancer. These results support the rationale for continued screening in such men.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · BJU International
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, RAD51C mutations were identified in families with breast and ovarian cancer. This observation prompted us to investigate the role of RAD51D in cancer susceptibility. We identified eight inactivating RAD51D mutations in unrelated individuals from 911 breast-ovarian cancer families compared with one inactivating mutation identified in 1,060 controls (P = 0.01). The association found here was principally with ovarian cancer, with three mutations identified in the 59 pedigrees with three or more individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 0.0005). The relative risk of ovarian cancer for RAD51D mutation carriers was estimated to be 6.30 (95% CI 2.86-13.85, P = 4.8 x 10(-6)). By contrast, we estimated the relative risk of breast cancer to be 1.32 (95% CI 0.59-2.96, P = 0.50). These data indicate that RAD51D mutation testing may have clinical utility in individuals with ovarian cancer and their families. Moreover, we show that cells deficient in RAD51D are sensitive to treatment with a PARP inhibitor, sugg
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele frequencies in the surrounding genomic regions reflect adaptive or balancing selection. Such proposals predict long-range linkage disequilibrium (LD) resulting from a selective sweep, although genetic drift in a founder population may also act to create long-distance LD. To date, few studies have used the tools of statistical genomics to examine the likelihood of long-range LD at a deleterious locus in a population that faced a genetic bottleneck. We studied the genotypes of hundreds of women from a large international consortium of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and found that AJ women exhibited long-range haplotypes compared to CNJ women. More than 50% of the AJ chromosomes with the BRCA1 185delAG mutation share an identical 2.1 Mb haplotype and nearly 16% of AJ chromosomes carrying the BRCA2 6174delT mutation share a 1.4 Mb haplotype. Simulations based on the best inference of Ashkenazi population demography indicate that long-range haplotypes are expected in the context of a genome-wide survey. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that a local bottleneck effect from population size constriction events could by chance have resulted in the large haplotype blocks observed at high frequency in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 regions of Ashkenazi Jews.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011

Publication Stats

675 Citations
163.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • University of Otago
      • Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences
      Taieri, Otago, New Zealand
  • 2011
    • Churchill College
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2011
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      • Department of Genetics and Computational Biology
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2006-2011
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      • Division of Genetics and Epidemiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2010
    • Royal Brisbane Hospital
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2001-2002
    • Canterbury District Health Board
      • Department of Haematology
      Christchurch, Canterbury Region, New Zealand