[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify obstetric and other risk factors for urinary incontinence that occurs during pregnancy or after childbirth.
Questionnaire survey of women.
Maternity units in Aberdeen (Scotland), Birmingham (England) and Dunedin (New Zealand).
A total of 3405 primiparous women with singleton births delivered during 1 year.
Questionnaire responses and obstetric case note data were analysed using multivariate analysis to identify associations with urinary incontinence.
Urinary incontinence at 3 months after delivery first starting in pregnancy or after birth.
The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 29%. New incontinence first beginning after delivery was associated with older maternal age (oldest versus youngest group, OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.35-3.02) and method of delivery (caesarean section versus spontaneous vaginal delivery, OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.19-0.41). There were no significant associations with forceps delivery (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.92-1.51) or vacuum delivery (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.83-1.63). Incontinence first occurring during pregnancy and still present at 3 months was associated with higher maternal body mass index (BMI>25, OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.43) and heavier babies (birthweight in top quartile, OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.12-2.19). In these women, caesarean section was associated with less incontinence (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27-0.58) but incontinence was not associated with age.
Women have less urinary incontinence after a first delivery by caesarean section whether or not that first starts during pregnancy. Older maternal age was associated with new postnatal incontinence, and higher BMI and heavier babies with incontinence first starting during pregnancy. The effect of further deliveries may modify these findings.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2006 · BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence is needed for the effectiveness of interventions given with reducing diets for obese adults: drug therapy, exercise, or behaviour therapy.
We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials in any language. We searched 13 databases and handsearched journals. Trials lasted 1 year or more. One investigator extracted data and a second checked data extraction. Trial quality was assessed.
Adding orlistat to diet was associated with weight change for up to 24 months (-3.26 kg, 95% CI, -4.15 to -2.37 kg), and statistically significant beneficial changes were found for total and LDL cholesterol, blood pressure and glycaemic control. Adding sibutramine to diet was associated with a 12 month weight change of -4.18 kg (95% CI, -5.14 to -3.21 kg), and statistically significant beneficial effects on high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides (TGs), but an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Adding exercise to diet, or to diet and behaviour therapy, was associated with improved weight loss for up to 36 months and improvements in HDL, TGs and blood pressure. Adding behaviour therapy to diet, or to diet and sibutramine together, was associated with improved weight loss for up to 18 months. Adding drugs, exercise or behaviour therapy to dietary advice was each associated with similar weight change.
Adding orlistat, sibutramine, exercise, or behaviour modification to dietary advice can improve long-term weight loss.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence is needed for the best long-term diet for weight loss, and improvement in cardiac risk and disease in obese adults.
We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language. We searched 13 databases and handsearched journals. Trials lasted 1 year or more. One investigator extracted the data and a second checked data extraction. Trial quality was assessed.
Low fat diets (LFDs) produced significant weight losses up to 36 months (-3.55 kg; 95% CI, -4.54 to -2.55 kg). Blood pressure, lipids and fasting plasma glucose improved with these diets after 12 months. Four studies found that LFDs may prevent type 2 diabetes and reduce antihypertensive medication for up to 3 years. A very low calorie diet (VLCD, < 4.2 MJ day(-1)) was associated with the most weight loss after 12 months (-13.40 kg; 95% CI, -18.43 to -8.37 kg) in one small study with beneficial effects on asthma. There was no evidence that low carbohydrate protein sparing modified fasts (PSMFs) were associated with greater long-term weight loss than low calorie diets (LCDs, 4.2-6.7 MJ day(-1)) or VLCDs. PSMFs were, however, associated with greater lowering of fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c than LCDs.
Little evidence supports the use of diets other than LFDs for weight reduction. With the increasing prevalence of morbid obesity, long-term follow-up in RCTs is needed to evaluate the effect of LCDs, VLCDs and PSMFs more fully.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In randomized trials there may be no overriding reason whether or not to have a placebo control.
We assessed the effects of an open trial design (no placebo and people know what tablets they are given) compared with a blinded, placebo-controlled design on recruitment, compliance and retention within a randomized trial of secondary osteoporotic fracture prevention.
We undertook a randomized controlled comparison nested within a placebo-controlled trial of nutritional supplementation amongst people aged 70 years or over who had previously sustained a fracture, recruited in a UK teaching hospital. Randomization was 2:1 in favour of the blinded, placebo-controlled trial design.
From 180 eligible participants randomized to receive information based on the open trial design, 134 (74.4%) consented to take part, compared with 233 (65.1%) of 358 people randomized to the blinded, placebo-controlled design (difference 9.4%, 95% confidence interval 1.3-17.4%). Reluctance to take a placebo and the desire to know tablet allocation were reasons given for not taking part in the blinded, placebo-controlled design. There was no significant difference in tablet compliance. Open trial participants were more likely to remain in the trial for one year (difference 13.9%, 95% confidence interval 3.1-24.6%), mainly reflecting the high retention of the open trial no tablet group compared to the open trial tablet group (difference 23.6%, 95% confidence interval 11.9-35.2%). The odds ratio for reporting an adverse event in the open trial compared to the blinded, placebo-controlled design was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.28-1.49), and for reporting a fracture was 0.81 (0.36-1.85).
We conclude that using an open trial design may enhance participant recruitment and retention and thus improve generalizability and statistical power, but withdrawal rates may differ between the study allocations and may threaten the internal validity of the trial.