[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An 18-year-old female had received a 2 HLA incompatible renal transplant 10 years before. She initially presented with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis caused by Salmonella enterica co-infected with Staphylococcus aureus of her left knee with development of secondary septic arthritis of the right knee and left shoulder. This was complicated by a recurrent subcutaneous abscess and intermittent high fever. The infection was successfully treated with a combination of a prolonged course of antibiotics, twice joint washout and debridement, repeat aspiration, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and a total withdrawal of immunosuppressant resulting in good joint function and preservation of normal renal graft function. In our experience, it was possible to keep stable renal graft function in spite of complete withdrawal of immunosuppressants for 12 months in a recipient with 2 HLA mismatches.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Clinical nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute renal failure (ARF) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Here, we investigate etiology, comorbidities, outcome and risk factors associated with mortality in these children with ARF.
We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of 58 children with ARF diagnosed between January 1997 and December 2006 at a single institute. Factors including age, sex, clinical features and laboratory parameters were compared between survivors and non-survivors.
ARF was secondary to extrarenal causes in 79.3% of cases. Sepsis (18.9%), hematooncologic disease (18.9%) and cardiovascular disease (18.9%), were the main causes of ARF. Primary renal disease due to acute glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, hemolytic uremic syndrome and obstructive uropathy accounted for 20.7% of the cases. The overall mortality rate was 51.7%. There were no significant differences between survivors and non-survivors in gender and changes in the peak levels of calcium, phosphorous and uric acid levels. The mortality rate was significantly higher when ARF occurred in younger children (p = 0.019), secondary to systemic disease (p = 0.038, odds ratio 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 17.9), sepsis (p < 0.001, odds ratio 19.7; 95% CI 5.1, 76.4), use of ventilator (p < 0.001, odds ratio 35; 95% CI 6.7, 182.7), multiple organ failure (p < 0.001) and non-use of renal replacement therapy (p = 0.018, odds ratio, 3.6; 95% CI interval 1.2, 10.6) on univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that sepsis (p = 0.011, odds ratio, 11.3; 95% CI 1.7, 73.0) and numbers of organ failures (p = 0.001, odds ratio 8.14; 95% CI 2.5, 26.7) were independently associated with mortality.
This study found that sepsis and number of organ failures were independent predictors of mortality in children with ARF.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Clinical nephrology