Lawrence Joseph

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (454)2478.95 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To estimate the degree to which fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). Methods: We used population-based administrative data from Alberta (1993-2007) and Quebec (1989-2011). SARD algorithms included ≥2 physician billing codes, or ≥1 rheumatology billing code, or ≥1 hospitalization diagnostic code (for systemic lupus, Sjogren's Syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, or undifferentiated connective tissue disease). Bayesian hierarchical latent class regression models estimated the probability that any given resident was a SARD case, based on the algorithms. Mean 2001-2006 residential ambient PM2.5 levels were assigned using satellite-derived data for dissemination area regions in Alberta and CLSC regions in Quebec. The sum of individual level probabilities provided the estimated total cases per region in each province, according to age, sex, urban-versus-rural residence, income, and PM2.5 levels. In Alberta, we ran separate models for First-Nations (FN) and non-First Nations subgroups. Bayesian logistic regression modeling generated odds ratio (OR) estimates for being a SARD case, accounting concurrently for demographics, as well as an interaction term between age and sex. Results: Our data suggested that the probability of being a SARD case was higher among females versus males and for residents aged >45 versus younger, with the highest ORs for older females. Independently, the odds of being a SARDs case increased with PM2.5 levels in both provinces. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PM2.5 exposure may be associated with an increased risk of SARDs.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Higher street connectivity, land use mix and residential density (collectively referred to as neighbourhood walkability) have been linked to higher levels of walking. The objective of our study was to summarize the current body of knowledge on the association between neighbourhood walkability and biosensor-assessed daily steps in adults. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase (Ovid) for articles published prior to May 2014 on the association between walkability (based on Geographic Information Systems-derived street connectivity, land use mix, and/or residential density) and daily steps (pedometer or accelerometer-assessed) in adults. The mean differences in daily steps between adults living in high versus low walkable neighbourhoods were pooled across studies using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The search strategy yielded 8,744 unique abstracts. Thirty of these underwent full article review of which six met the inclusion criteria. Four of these studies were conducted in Europe and two were conducted in Asia. A meta-analysis of four of these six studies indicates that participants living in high compared to low walkable neighbourhoods accumulate 766 more steps per day (95 % credible interval 250, 1271). This accounts for approximately 8 % of recommended daily steps. The results of European and Asian studies support the hypothesis that higher neighbourhood walkability is associated with higher levels of biosensor-assessed walking in adults. More studies on this association are needed in North America.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To estimate the associations of neighbourhood walkability (based on Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived measures of street connectivity, land use mix, and population density and the Walk Score) with self-reported utilitarian walking and accelerometer-assessed daily steps in Canadian adults. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009). Setting Home neighbourhoods (500 m polygonal street network buffers around the centroid of the participant's postal code) located in Atlantic Canada, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies and British Columbia. Participants 5605 individuals participated in the survey. 3727 adults (≥18 years) completed a computer-assisted interview and attended a mobile clinic assessment. Analyses were based on those who had complete exposure, outcome and covariate data (n=2949). Main exposure measures GIS-derived walkability (based on land use mix, street connectivity and population density); Walk Score. Main outcome measures Self-reported utilitarian walking; accelerometer-assessed daily steps. Results No important relationship was observed between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps. Participants who reported more utilitarian walking, however, accumulated more steps (<1 h/week: 6613 steps/day, 95% CI 6251 to 6975; 1 to 5 h/week: 6768 steps/day, 95% CI 6420 to 7117; ≥6 h/week: 7391 steps/day, 95% CI 6972 to 7811). There was a positive graded association between walkability and odds of walking ≥1 h/week for utilitarian purposes (eg, Q4 vs Q1 of GIS-derived walkability: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.11; Q3 vs Q1: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76; Q2 vs Q1: OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.39) independent of age, sex, body mass index, married/common law status, annual household income, having children in the household, immigrant status, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season. Conclusions Contrary to expectations, living in more walkable Canadian neighbourhoods was not associated with more total walking. Utilitarian walking and daily steps were, however, correlated and walkability demonstrated a positive graded relationship with utilitarian walking.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The diagnosis of anaphylaxis currently relies on suggestive clinical history after exposure to a potential triggering factor because no reliable diagnostic marker is available to confirm the diagnosis. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate tryptase levels in children with anaphylaxis and to examine predictors of elevated tryptase level (defined as ≥11.4 μg/L during reaction and for those with a baseline level, defined as a reaction level of at least 2 ng/mL + 1.2 × [postreaction tryptase level]). Methods: Children presenting with anaphylaxis to the Montreal Children's Hospital were recruited over a 4-year period. Symptoms, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis were documented. Levels during the reaction and approximately 9 months after the reaction were compared on the basis of paired means using the t distribution. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association between tryptase levels and risk factors. Results: Over a 4-year period, 203 children had serum tryptase levels measured. Among these, 39 children (19.2%; 95% CI, 14.1%-25.4%) had elevated levels. Only severe reactions were associated with reaction levels of 11.4 μg/L or more (odds ratio, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.2-19.0). Milk-induced anaphylaxis and severe reactions were more likely associated with increased tryptase levels (beta-adjusted, 4.0; 95% CI, 0.95-7.0, and 7.5; 95% CI, 4.8-10.3, respectively). Reaction levels exceeding the threshold level of 2 ng/mL + 1.2 × (postreaction tryptase level) detected most of the anaphylactic reactions, particularly if baseline levels were taken within 2 months of the reaction. Conclusions: Tryptase levels are particularly useful for the diagnosis of severe and/or milk-induced anaphylaxis. Assessing the difference between reaction and postreaction tryptase levels may improve diagnostic sensitivity.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
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    ABSTRACT: In utero exposure to maternal antibodies and cytokines are potential risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to determine if children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of ASD compared to children born to mothers without SLE. The "Offspring of SLE mothers Registry (OSLER)" is a large population-based cohort, identified through Quebec's healthcare databases (1989-2009), including all women who had ≥1 hospitalization for delivery after SLE diagnosis, and a randomly selected control group of women, matched ≥4:1 for age and year of delivery. We identified children born live to SLE mothers and their matched controls, and ascertained ASD, performing multivariate analyses to adjust for parental demographics, sex and birth order of child, maternal comorbidities, and obstetrical complications. 509 women with SLE had 719 children, while 5824 matched controls had 8493 children. Children born to women with SLE had more ASD compared to controls [1.4% (95%CI 0.8,2.5) versus 0.6% (95%CI 0.5,0.8), difference 0.8% (95%CI 0.1,1.9)]. Mean age at ASD diagnosis was younger in offspring of SLE mothers (3.8 years, 95%CI 1.8,5.8) as opposed to controls (5.7 years, 95%CI 4.9,6.5). In primary multivariate analysis, SLE offspring had substantially increased risk of ASD versus controls (OR 2.19, 95%CI 1.09,4.39). Compared to children from the general population, children born to women with SLE have an increased risk of ASD, although in absolute terms it represents a rare outcome. These hypothesis-generating data provide direction for additional studies of maternal autoimmunity and ASD risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Arthritis and Rheumatology
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    ABSTRACT: The anthropometric thresholds signaling type 2 diabetes risk have not been well defined for Aboriginal communities. This study examined current thresholds in terms of ability to capture diabetes risk in the Cree of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada. The study cohort for this analysis included adult participants from the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment and Health Study with complete data on anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, and insulin. Diabetes risk was defined as Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value >2. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR, NLR) of existing obesity thresholds were evaluated (WHO; International Diabetes Federation, IDF; Adult Treatment Panel III, ATP III). Receiver operating curves were examined to estimate optimal thresholds. In a sensitivity analysis, diabetes risk was defined as HOMA-IR >2.7. The WHO 30 kg/m(2) body mass index (BMI) threshold performed well in women (PLR 5.56, 95% CI 1.95 to 15.9; NLR 0.24, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.31) and men (PLR 7.51, 95% CI 2.94 to 19.2; NLR 0.33, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.41). It was close to the estimated optimal threshold (28.5 kg/m(2)). The ATP III waist circumference threshold (102 cm) performed well in men (PLR 4.64, 95% CI 2.47 to 8.71; NLR 0.21, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.28) and was close to the estimated optimal threshold (101 cm). With diabetes risk defined at HOMA-IR >2.7, PLR values were slightly lower with narrower 95% CIs and optimal thresholds were slightly higher; PLR values remained above 3. For other current thresholds, estimated optimal values were higher and none had a PLR above 2. A BMI of 30 kg/m(2) in women and men, and a 102 cm waist circumference in men, are meaningful obesity thresholds in this Aboriginal population. Other thresholds require a further evaluation.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Studies suggest a relationship between sitting time and cardiovascular disease mortality. Our aim was to identify socio-demographic, contextual, and clinical (e.g., body composition, diabetes duration) correlates of self-reported sitting time among adults with type 2 diabetes, a clinical population at high risk for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine if there was an inverse relationship between sitting and step counts in a diabetes cohort in whom we had previously identified low step counts with further lowering in fall/winter. The cohort included 198 adults (54 % men; age 60.0 SD 11.5 years; Body mass index 30.4 SD 5.6 kg/m(2)) (Montréal, Canada). Socio-demographic, contextual and clinical factors were assessed using standardized questionnaires and step counts with a pedometer over 14 days (concealed viewing windows). Total sitting time was estimated once per season (up to 4 times per year at -month intervals) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short version. Potential sitting time correlates were evaluated using Bayesian longitudinal hierarchical linear regression models in participants with sitting time data (n = 191). The average sitting time was 308 (SD 161) minutes/day without variation across seasons. Sitting time correlates were being an immigrant (56 fewer minutes/day spent sitting compared to non- immigrants, 95 % credible interval, CrI: -100, -11) and having a university degree (55 more minutes/day spent sitting compared to those without a university degree, 95 % CrI: 10, 100) after adjustment for potential correlates observed in univariate analyses (sex, age, job status, waist circumference, depressed mood, steps). Correlation between sitting and steps, adjusted for age and sex, was -0.144 (95 % CI: -0.280, 0.002). There was low correlation between sitting time and step counts. Therefore, high sitting time and low step counts are behaviours that may need to be independently targeted. Interventions to reduce sitting time in adults with type 2 diabetes may need to target non-immigrants and those with a university degree.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    Vincent Laliberté · Lawrence Joseph · Ian Gold
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    ABSTRACT: Citation: Laliberté V, Joseph L and Gold I (2015) A Bayesian approach to latent class modeling for estimating the prevalence of schizophrenia using administrative databases. Front. Psychiatry 6:99. Estimating the incidence and the prevalence of psychotic disorders in the province of Quebec has been the object of some interest in recent years as a contribution to the epidemiological study of the causes of psychotic disorders being carried out primarily in UK and Scandinavia. A number of studies have used administrative data from the Régie de l'assurance maladie du Québec (RAMQ) that includes nearly all Quebec citizens to obtain geographical and temporal prevalence estimates for the illness. However, there has been no investigation of the validity of RAMQ diagnoses for psychotic disorders, and without a measure of the sensitivity and the specificity of these diagnoses, it is impossible to be confident in the accuracy of the estimates obtained. This paper proposes the use of latent class analysis to ascertain the validity of a diagnosis of schizophrenia using RAMQ data.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Frontiers in Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Operator fatigue may negatively influence adenoma detection (AD) during screening colonoscopy. Objective: To better characterize factors affecting AD, including the number of hours worked, and the number and type of procedures performed before an index screening colonoscopy. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving individuals undergoing a screening colonoscopy at a major tertiary care hospital in Montreal, Quebec. Individuals were identified using an endoscopic reporting database; AD was identified by an electronic chart review. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between patient- and endoscopist-related variables and AD. Results: A total of 430 consecutive colonoscopies performed by 10 gastroenterologists and two surgeons were included. Patient mean (± SD) age was 63.4±10.9 years, 56.3% were males, 27.7% had undergone a previous colonoscopy and the cecal intubation rate was 95.7%. The overall AD rate was 25.7%. Age was associated with AD (OR 1.06 [95% CI 1.03 to 1.08]), while female sex (OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.75]), an indication for average-risk screening (OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.27 to 0.80]) and an increase in the number of hours during which endoscopies were performed before the index colonoscopy (OR 0.87 [95% CI 0.76 to 0.99]) were associated with lower AD rates. On exploratory univariable analysis, a threshold of 3 h of endoscopy time performed before the index colonoscopy was associated with decreased AD. Conclusion: The number of hours devoted to endoscopies before the index colonoscopy was inversely associated with AD rate, with decreased performance possibly as early as within 3 h. This metric should be confirmed in future studies and considered when optimizing scheduling practices.
    No preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the association between fine particulate (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution and systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). Associations between ambient air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and SARDs were assessed using land-use regression models for Calgary, Alberta and administrative health data (1993-2007). SARD case definitions were based on ≥2 physician claims, or ≥1 rheumatology billing code; or ≥1 hospitalization code (for systemic lupus, Sjogren's Syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, or undifferentiated connective tissue disease). Bayesian hierarchical latent class regression models estimated the probability that each resident was a SARD case, based on these case definitions. The sum of individual level probabilities provided the estimated number of cases in each area. The latent class model included terms for age, sex, and an interaction term between age and sex. Bayesian logistic regression models were used to generate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for NO2 and PM2.5. pollutant models, adjusting for neighbourhood income, age, sex, and an interaction between age and sex. We also examined models stratified for First-Nations (FN) and non-FN subgroups. Residents that were female and/or aged >45 had a greater probability of being a SARD case, with the highest OR estimates for older females. Independently, the odds of being a SARDs case increased with PM2.5 levels, but the results were inconclusive for NO2. The results stratified by FN and non-FN groups were not distinctly different. In this urban Canadian sample, adjusting for demographics, exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of SARDs. The results for NO2 were inconclusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Environmental Research
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    ABSTRACT: Studies suggest an increase in food allergy prevalence over the last decade, but the contributing factors remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the most common food allergies and atopic history, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. We conducted a case-control study nested within the SPAACE study (Surveying Prevalence of Food Allergy in All Canadian Environments) - a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Cases consisted of individuals with probable food allergy (self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis) to milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, shellfish, fish, wheat, soy, or sesame. Controls consisted of nonallergic individuals, matched for age. Cases and controls were queried on personal and family history of atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits with probable food allergy. Between September 2010 and September 2011, 480 cases and 4,950 controls completed the questionnaire. For all 9 allergens, factors associated with a higher risk of probable allergy were as follows: (1) personal history of eczema (in the first 2 years of life), asthma or hay fever (odds ratio, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.5; OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.6, and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0, respectively), (2) maternal, paternal or sibling's food allergy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.6; OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-5.1, and OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.2-4.2), (3) high household income (top 20%; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0). Males and older individuals were less likely to have food allergy (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, and OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). Eczema in the first 2 years of life was the strongest risk factor for egg, peanut, tree nut and fish allergy. This is the largest population-based nested case-control study exploring factors associated with food allergies. Our results reveal that, in addition to previously reported factors, eczema in the first 2 years of life is consistently associated with food allergies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Despite progress in automated blood pressure measurement (BPM) technology, there is limited research linking hard outcomes to automated office BPM (OBPM) treatment targets and thresholds. Equivalences for automated BPM devices have been estimated from approximations of standardized manual measurements of 140/90 mmHg. Until outcome-driven targets and thresholds become available for automated measurement methods, deriving evidence-based equivalences between automated methods and standardized manual OBPM is the next best solution. The MeasureBP study group was initiated by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program to close this critical knowledge gap. MeasureBP aims to define evidence-based equivalent values between standardized manual OBPM and automated BPM methods by synthesizing available evidence using a systematic review and individual subject-level data meta-analyses. This manuscript provides a review of the literature and MeasureBP study protocol. These results will lay the evidenced-based foundation to resolve uncertainties within blood pressure guidelines which, in turn, will improve the management of hypertension.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Current Hypertension Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We examined the impact of data source and exposure measurement error for ambient NO2 on risk estimates derived from a case-crossover study of emergency room visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada between 2002 and 2009. Methods: Paired personal and fixed-site NO2 data were available from an independent population (47 children and 48 adults) in Windsor between 2005 and 2006. We used linear regression to estimate the relationship and measurement error variance induced between fixed site and personal measurements of NO2, and through a series of simulations, evaluated the potential for a Bayesian model to adjust for this change in scale and measurement error. Finally, we re-analyzed data from the previous case-crossover study adjusting for the estimated change in slope and measurement error. Results: Correlations between paired NO2 measurements were weak (R(2)≤0.08) and slopes were far from unity (0.0029≤β≤0.30). Adjusting the previous case-crossover analysis suggested a much stronger association between personal NO2 (per 1ppb) (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.276, 95% Credible Interval (CrI): 1.034, 1.569) and emergency room visits for asthma among children relative to the fixed-site estimate (OR=1.024, 95% CrI 1.004-1.045). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that risk estimates based on fixed-site NO2 concentrations may differ substantially from estimates based on personal exposures if the change in scale and/or measurement error is large. In practice, one must always keep the scale being used in mind when interpreting risk estimates and not assume that coefficients for ambient concentrations reflect risks at the personal level.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Environmental Research

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To estimate the early prevalence of various electrocardiographic (EKG) abnormalities in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to evaluate possible associations between repolarization changes (increased corrected QT [QTc] and QT dispersion [QTd]) and clinical and laboratory variables, including the anti-Ro/SSA level and specificity (52 or 60 kd).Methods We studied adult SLE patients from 19 centers participating in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Inception Registry. Demographics, disease activity (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), disease damage (SLICC/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index [SDI]), and laboratory data from the baseline or first followup visit were assessed. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to asses for any cross-sectional associations between anti-Ro/SSA and EKG repolarization abnormalities.ResultsFor the 779 patients included, mean ± SD age was 35.2 ± 13.8 years, 88.4% were women, and mean ± SD disease duration was 10.5 ± 14.5 months. Mean ± SD SLEDAI-2K score was 5.4 ± 5.6 and mean ± SD SDI score was 0.5 ± 1.0. EKG abnormalities were frequent and included nonspecific ST-T changes (30.9%), possible left ventricular hypertrophy (5.4%), and supraventricular arrhythmias (1.3%). A QTc ≥440 msec was found in 15.3%, while a QTc ≥460 msec was found in 5.3%. Mean ± SD QTd was 34.2 ± 14.7 msec and QTd ≥40 msec was frequent (38.1%). Neither the specificity nor the level of anti-Ro/SSA was associated with QTc duration or QTd, although confidence intervals were wide. Total SDI was significantly associated with a QTc interval exceeding 440 msec (odds ratio 1.38 [95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.79]).ConclusionA substantial proportion of patients with recent-onset SLE exhibited repolarization abnormalities, although severe abnormalities were rare.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Arthritis Care and Research
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prevalence in Quebec using administrative health data, comparing across regions. Cases of RA were ascertained from physician billing and hospitalization data, 1992-2008. We used three case definitions: 1) >= 2 billing diagnoses, submitted by any physician, >= 2 months apart, but within 2 years; 2) >= 1 diagnosis, by a rheumatologist; 3) >=1 hospitalization diagnosis (all based on ICD-9 code 714, and ICD-10 code M05). We combined data across these three case definitions, using Bayesian hierarchical latent class models to estimate RA prevalence, adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the data. We compared urban versus rural regions. Using our case definitions and no adjustment for error, we defined 75,760 cases for an over-all RA prevalence of 9.9 per thousand residents. After adjusting for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of our case definition algorithms, we estimated Quebec RA prevalence at 5.6 per 1000 females and 4.1 per 1000 males. The adjusted RA prevalence estimates for older females were the highest for any demographic group (9.9 cases per 1,000), and were similar in rural and urban regions. In younger males and females, and in older males, RA prevalence estimates were lower in rural versus urban areas. Without adjustment for error inherent in administrative databases, RA prevalence in Quebec was approximately 1%, while adjusted estimates are approximately half that. The lower prevalence in rural areas, seen for most demographic groups, may suggest either true regional variations in RA risk, or under-ascertainment of cases in rural Quebec.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC Research Notes
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Multiplexed point-of-care (POC) devices can rapidly screen for HIV-related co-infections (eg, hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), syphilis) in one patient visit, but global evidence for this approach remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate a multiplex POC testing strategy to expedite screening for HIV-related co-infections in at-risk populations. Methods A multiplex strategy was developed with two subsequent versions of an investigational device Miriad. It was evaluated in two non-comparable settings and populations in two countries for feasibility of conduct, detection of new infections, preference and accuracy. Version 1 was evaluated in 375 sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Mumbai, India; version 2 was evaluated in 119 injection drug users in Montreal, Canada. Results Feasibility (completion rate) of the multiplex strategy was high (86.1% Mumbai; 92.4% Montreal). A total of 170 new infections were detected in Mumbai (56 HIV, 75 HBV, 37 syphilis, 2 HCV) versus 2 in Montreal. Preference was 60% in Mumbai and 97% in Montreal. Miriad version 1 specificities were high: HIV 99.7% (98.3% to 100%), HBV 99.3% (97.6% to 99.9%), HCV 99.7% (98.5% to 99.9%), syphilis 85.2% (80.9% to 88.8%); sensitivities were as follows: HIV 100% (94.8% to 100%), HBV 13.3% (6.6% to 23.2%), HCV 50% (1.3% to 98.7%), syphilis 86.1% (70.5% to 95.3%). With version 2, specificities improved: HIV 100% (97.2% to 100%), HBV 100% (97.3% to 100%), HCV 85.3% (73.8% to 93.0%), syphilis 98.1% (93.3% to 99.8%); sensitivities were: HIV 100% (47.3% to 100%), HCV 80.4% (66.1% to 90.6%), syphilis 100% (22.4% to 100%). Conclusions A quad multiplex POC strategy for HIV and co-infections was feasible to operationalise and preferred by patients in both settings. Many new infections were identified in Mumbai and accuracy improved with version 2 of the assay. Such a strategy will help expedite screening for co-infections, particularly where baseline screening is low. These findings are valuable to practitioners, researchers, policymakers and funders involved in initiatives for all four diseases with implications for scale-up.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes associated with excess bodyweight, development of a clinically meaningful metric for health professionals remains a challenge. We estimated the years of life lost and the life-years lost from diabetes and cardiovascular disease associated with excess bodyweight. We developed a disease-simulation model to estimate the annual risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality for people with BMI of 25-<30 kg/m(2) (overweight), 30-<35 kg/m(2) (obese), or 35 kg/m(2) and higher (very obese), compared with an ideal BMI of 18·5-<25 kg/m(2). We used data from 3992 non-Hispanic white participants in the National Nutrition and Examination Survey (2003-10) for whom complete risk factor data and fasting glucose concentrations were available. After validation of the model projections, we estimated the years of life lost and healthy life-years lost associated with each bodyweight category. Excess bodyweight was positively associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The effect of excess weight on years of life lost was greatest for young individuals and decreased with increasing age. The years of life lost for obese men ranged from 0·8 years (95% CI 0·2-1·4) in those aged 60-79 years to 5·9 years (4·4-7·4) in those aged 20-39 years, and years lost for very obese men ranged from 0·9 (0-1·8) years in those aged 60-79 years to 8·4 (7·0-9·8) years in those aged 20-39 years, but losses were smaller and sometimes negligible for men who were only overweight. Similar results were noted for women (eg, 6·1 years [4·6-7·6] lost for very obese women aged 20-39 years; 0·9 years [0·1-1·7] lost for very obese women aged 60-79 years). Healthy life-years lost were two to four times higher than total years of life lost for all age groups and bodyweight categories. Our estimations for both healthy life-years and total years of life lost show the effect of excess bodyweight on cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and might provide a useful health measure for discussions between health professionals and their patients. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology

Publication Stats

14k Citations
2,478.95 Total Impact Points


  • 1995-2016
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Mathematics and Statistics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2000-2015
    • McGill University Health Centre
      • Epidemiology Clinic
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2005
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      • Service de Rhumatologie
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004
    • Queen's University
      • Department of Community Health and Epidemiology
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000-2004
    • Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2003
    • The University of Calgary
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2002
    • Jewish General Hospital
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Dalhousie University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2001
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Medicine
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada