[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: . The impact of perioperative blood transfusion on the prognosis of gastric adenocarcinoma patients is still controversial. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative complications and prognosis of patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma with different levels of preoperative hemoglobin value (POHb).
. From 2003 to 2011, 1199 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy were retrospectively enrolled and followed up to December 2014. Clinicopathological features and survival outcomes were compared between transfused and nontransfused patients.
. In this study, transfused patients had more postoperative complications than nontransfused ones (
). In survival analysis, the difference was not significant between transfused and nontransfused patients with POHb between 70 and 100 g/L (
). However, in patients with POHb >100 g/L, transfused patients had significantly worse prognosis (
), especially in TNM III stage patients (
). And intraoperative blood transfusion predicted poor prognosis (
. Perioperative blood transfusion might lead to poor survival in gastric adenocarcinoma patients with POHb >100 g/L and transfused patients had more postoperative complications; thus it is better to refrain from unnecessary perioperative blood transfusion especially intraoperative transfusion.
Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: . To evaluate prognostic value of metastatic No.8p LNs in patients with gastric cancer.
. From August 2002 to December 2011, a total of 284 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy with No.8p LNs dissection were analyzed retrospectively in this study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the status of No.8p LNs. Clinicopathological features were collected to conduct the correlation analysis. Follow-up was carried out up to December 31st, 2014. Overall survival was analyzed.
. Out of 284 patients, metastatic No.8p LNs were found in 24 (8.5%) patients. Compared with other 260 cases, these patients suffered morphologically larger tumor (
), node stage (
), and metastatic stage (
). The 3-year overall survival rate was 26% in No.8p-positive group and 53% in No.8p-negative group. No significant difference of cumulative survival rates existed between the No.8p-positive group and No.8p-negative stage IV group (26% versus 28%,
). Patients with other distant metastasis or not in No.8p+ group had similar cumulative survival rates (24% versus 28%,
. Positive No.8p LNs were a poor but not an independent prognostic factor for patients with GC and should be recognized as distant metastasis.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bursectomy of D2 gastrectomy in terms of postoperative complications and short-term survival outcomes.
From January 2012 to December 2013, data of 406 gastric cancer patients with advanced tumor stages and who underwent D2 radical gastrectomy and were grouped according to whether bursectomy was performed or not in West China Hospital, Sichuan University, were analyzed.
Finally, 159 patients were in bursectomy group and 247 patients in non-bursectomy group. Surgical duration was 260.1 ± 43.4 min in the bursectomy group, compared to 227.9 ± 48.6 min in the non-bursectomy group (p < 0.001). The intraoperative blood loss was comparable between the bursectomy group and the non-bursectomy group (198.9 ± 63.5 vs. 201.1 ± 53.7 ml, p = 0.729). Postoperative morbidity rate showed no significant difference between the two groups, which were 23.3 % in the bursectomy group and 17.8 % in the non-bursectomy group, p = 0.179. The overall survival outcomes of patients were compared between the two groups of all patients (p = 0.055): patients who underwent distal gastrectomy (p = 0.129) and total gastrectomy (p = 0.016) and pT2-3 stage patients (p = 0.117) and pT4a stage patients (p = 0.128). The multivariate survival analysis identified that bursectomy or not, pT stage and pN stage were independent prognostic risk factors for the overall survival.
The bursectomy might increase the surgical duration when the D2 gastrectomy was done. Experienced surgeons can perform it safely. However, for the survival benefits of bursectomy, long-term, large sample sized, and high-quality randomized controlled trials are expected.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · World Journal of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the short-term and long-term results of a large cohort of gastric cancer (GC) patients undergoing gastrectomy.
Recently, the “obesity paradox” has been proposed, referring to the paradoxically “better” outcomes of overweight and obese patients compared with nonoverweight patients. The associations between BMI and surgical outcomes among patients with GC remain controversial.
A single-institution cohort of 1249 GC patients undergoing gastrectomy between 2000 and 2010 were categorized to low-BMI (<18.49 kg/m2), normal-BMI (18.50–24.99 kg/m2), and high-BMI (≥25.00 kg/m2) groups. The postoperative complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo system, and their severity was assessed by using the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI). The impact of BMI on the postoperative complications and overall survival was analyzed.
There were 908, 158, and 182 patients in the normal-BMI, low-BMI, and high-BMI groups, respectively. The overall morbidity in the high-BMI group (24.7%) was higher than that in either the low-BMI or the normal-BMI group (20.9% and 15.5%, respectively; P = 0.006), but the mean CCI in the low-BMI group was significantly higher (8.32 ± 19.97) than the mean CCI in the normal-BMI and high-BMI groups (3.76 ± 11.98 and 5.58 ± 13.07, respectively; P < 0.001). The Kaplan–Meier curve and the log-rank test demonstrated that the low-BMI group exhibited the worst survival outcomes compared with the normal-BMI group, whereas the high-BMI group exhibited the best survival outcomes (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, BMI was identified as an independent prognostic factor. In the stage-specific subgroup analysis, a low BMI was associated with poorer survival in the cases of stage III–IV diseases.
Low BMI was associated with more severe postoperative complications and poorer prognosis. Despite a higher risk of mild postoperative complications, the high-BMI patients exhibited paradoxically “superior” survival outcomes compared with the normal-BMI patients. These findings confirm the “obesity paradox” in GC patients undergoing gastrectomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional and immune status is important to the prognosis of patients with gastric carcinoma (GC). Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of the combination of preoperative hemoglobin, albumin, lymphocyte and platelet (HALP) in patients with GC. From January 2005 to December 2011, 1332 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy were randomly divided into the training (n = 888) and the validation sets (n = 444) by X-tile according to the sample size ratio 2:1. The cut-point of HALP was 56.8 and the patients were subsequently subdivided into HALP < 56.8 and HALP ≥ 56.8 groups in both two sets. Multivariate analysis revealed that gender (p < 0.001, p < 0.001), tumor size (p = 0.003, p = 0.035) and T stage (p < 0.001, p = 0.044) were independently related to HALP both in the training and the validation sets. Kaplan-Meier (p < 0.001, p = 0.003) and Cox regression (p = 0.043, p = 0.042) showed that the prognosis of HALP ≥ 56.8 group was significantly better than that of HALP < 56.8 group both in two sets (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Nomograms of these two sets based on HALP was more accurate in prognostic prediction than TNM stage alone. Our findings suggested that HALP was closely associated with clinicopathological features and was an independent prognostic factor in GC patients. Nomogram based on HALP could accurately predict the prognosis of GC patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal necrosis is a life-threatening disease, and its prompt and accurate diagnosis is very important. This study aimed to evaluate the value of d-dimer as a marker for early diagnosis of bowel necrosis.
From 2009 to 2013, patients undergoing operation due to acute intestinal obstruction were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathologic characteristics were compared among no ischemia group, reversible ischemia group, and bowel necrosis group.
There were totally 274 patients being included for analyses. Patients with bowel necrosis had a significant highest level of d-dimer compared with other 2 groups (P = 0.007) when FEU unit was applied. The optimal cutoff value of d-dimer levels as an indicator in diagnosing bowel necrosis was projected to be 1.965 mg/L, which yielded a sensitivity of 84.0%, a specificity of 45.6%, a positive predictive value of 60.7%, and a negative predictive value of 74.0%. And the sensitivity of 84.0% and specificity of 70.0% were detected, when 1.65 mg/L of d-dimer was set as the cutoff value to distinguish the reversible ischemia and bowel necrosis. The corresponding results in patients with no or slight peritoneal irritation signs were 85.2%, 44.7%, 35.4% and 89.5% respectively. The sensitivity and negative predictive value were 96.0% and 91.7%, respectively, when d-dimer and peritoneal irritation signs were combined to perform the parallel analysis.
The combination of d-dimer and peritoneal irritation signs could generate a reliable negative predictive value, which is helpful to exclude the diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. However, it should also be proved in well-designed large-scale prospective study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune cells contribute to determining the prognosis of gastric cancer. However, their exact role is less clear.
We determined the prognostic significance of different immune cells in intratumoral tissue (T), stromal tissue (S), and adjacent normal tissue (N) of 166 gastric cancer cases and their interactions, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD57+, CD68+, CD66b+, and Foxp3+ cells, and established an effective prognostic nomogram based on the immune reactions.
We found high densities of TCD3+, TCD4+, TCD8+, SCD3+, SCD4+, SCD57+, SCD66b+, and NFoxp3+ cells, as well as high TCD8+/SCD8+ ratio, TCD68+/SCD68+ ratio, TCD3+/TFoxp3+ ratio, TCD4+/TFoxp3+ ratio, TCD8+/TFoxp3+ ratio, SCD3+/SFoxp3+ ratio, and SCD4+/SCD8+ ratio were associated with better survival, whereas high densities of TCD66b+, TFoxp3+, SFoxp3+ and NCD66b+ cells as well as high TCD57+/SCD57+ ratio, TCD66b+/SCD66b+ ratio, SCD8+/SFoxp3+ ratio, and TFoxp3+/NFoxp3+ ratio were associated with significantly worse outcome. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size, longitudinal tumor location, N stage, TCD68+/SCD68+ ratio, TCD8+/TFoxp3+ ratio, density of TFoxp3+ cells, and TCD66b+/SCD66b+ ratio were independent prognostic factors, which were all selected into the nomogram. The calibration curve for likelihood of survival demonstrated favorable consistency between predictive value of the nomogram and actual observation. The C-index (0.83, 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.87) of our nomogram for predicting prognosis was significantly higher than that of TNM staging system (0.70).
Collectively, high TCD68+/SCD68+ ratio and TCD8+/TFoxp3+ ratio were associated with improved overall survival, whereas high density of TFoxp3+ cells and TCD66b+/SCD66b+ ratio demonstrated poor overall survival, which are promising independent predictors for overall survival in gastric cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are many controversial issues in the aspects of No.10 lymphadenectomy, such as the necessity of No.10 lymphadenectomy, the value of splenectomy, the most appropriate procedure and the safety as well as feasibility of laparoscopic or robotic No.10 lymphadenectomy. These issues will be discussed in this article from the evidence-based view.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness and safety of in-vivo dissection procedure of No. 10 lymph nodes with those of ex-vivo dissection procedure for gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy.
Patients were divided into in-vivo group and ex-vivo group according to whether the dissection of No. 10 lymph nodes were performed after the mobilization of the pancreas and spleen, and migration out from peritoneal cavity. Clinicopathologic characteristics, overall survival, morbidity, and mortality were compared between the 2 groups.
There were 148 patients in in-vivo group, while 30 in ex-vivo group. The baselines between the 2 groups were almost comparable. The metastatic ratio of No. 10 lymph nodes were 6.1% and 10.0% (P = 0.435) and the metastatic degree were 7.9% and 13.6% (P = 0.158) for in-vivo group and ex-vivo group, respectively. There was no difference in morbidity or mortality between the 2 groups. The number of total harvested lymph nodes and No. 10 lymph nodes increased significantly in ex-vivo group at the cost of prolonged operation time. The estimated overall survival rates for patients in in-vivo group and ex-vivo group were (3-year: 52.0% vs 61.8%) and (5-year: 45.3% vs 49.5%), respectively, without statistical significance. Further multivariable analysis had showed that the procedure of No. 10 lymphadenectomy was not a significant independent prognostic factor.
Both in-vivo and ex-vivo dissection of No. 10 lymph nodes could be performed safely. It seems that ex-vivo dissection of No. 10 lymph nodes can result in a higher effective dissection at the cost of the operation time, but the overall survival rates were not statistically significant between the 2 groups, which should be confirmed further in a well-designed randomized controlled trial.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of the EGJA is rapidly increasing. The clinicopathological features have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in clinicopathological features and prognosis between patients with esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and distal gastric adenocarcinoma (DGA).
In this retrospective study, 1230 patients who underwent gastrectomy between January 2006 and December 2010 in West China Hospital were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor location. Clinicopathological characteristics, postoperative complications, and survival outcomes were compared. Univariate and multivariate analysis were also used to evaluate the prognostic factors of DGA and EGJA.
Patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were divided into 2 study groups according to tumor location: 321 EGJA (26.1%) and 909 DGA (73.9%). Tumors with larger diameter, more advanced pT and pN stage were more common in EGJA. Significant differences were revealed in 3-year overall survival rate (3-YS) between 2 groups: EGJA (57.5%) and DGA (65.5%) (P = 0.001), and further analysis indicate that there was also significant difference on 3-YS between EGJA (76.9%) and DGA (84.2%) (P = 0.012) in stage II. From our multivariate analysis, we found that there were different independent prognostic indicators for DGA and EGJA.
The clinicopathological features of EGJA were strikingly different from DGA and patients with EGJA showed a worse prognosis when compared with DGA. The pT stage, pN stage, pM stage, tumor size, age, and radical degree were determined to be independent factors of prognosis for DGA, while only combined organ resection, pN stage, and pM stage were independent prognostic factors for EGJA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival benefit of palliative gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal seeding proven intraoperatively and to identify positive predictive factors for improving survival.
The value of palliative resection for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal metastasis is controversial.
From 2006 to 2013, 267 gastric cancer patients with intraoperatively identified peritoneal dissemination were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into resection group and nonresection group according to whether a palliative gastrectomy was performed. Clinicopathologic variables and survival were compared. Subgroup analyses stratified by clinicopathologic factors and multivariable analysis for overall survival were also performed.
There were 114 patients in the resection group and 153 in nonresection group. The morbidities in the resection and nonresection groups were 14.91% and 5.88%, respectively (P = 0.014). There, however, was no difference in mortality between the 2 groups. The median survival time of patients in the resection group was longer than in nonresection group (14.00 versus 8.57 months, P = 0.000). The median survivals among the patients with different classifications of peritoneal metastasis were statistically significant (P = 0.000). Patients undergoing resection followed by chemotherapy had a significantly longer median survival, compared with that of patients who had chemotherapy alone, those who had resection alone, or those who had not received chemotherapy or resection (P = 0.000). Results of subgroup analyses showed that except for P3 patients and patients with multisite distant metastases, overall survival was significantly better in patients with palliative gastrectomy, compared with the nonresection group. In multivariate analysis, P3 disease (P = 0.000), absence of resection (P = 0.000), and lack of chemotherapy (P = 0.000) were identified as independently associated with poor survival.
Palliative gastrectomy might be beneficial to the survival of gastric cancer patients with intraoperatively proven P1/P2 alone, rather than P3. Postoperative palliative chemotherapy could improve survival regardless of operation and should be recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A minimum of 15 lymph nodes (LNs) has been recommended as an adequate number for radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to investigate whether the harvesting of at least 25 LNs was a better criterion for stage N2–3 GC based on the 10-year experience of a high-volume hospital.
A total of 1363 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2000 and 2010 were included in this study. The relationship between the number of lymph nodes examined during gastrectomy and overall survival (OS) was analyzed.
In multivariate analysis, the numbers of LNs examined (P = 0.001) and N stage were confirmed as 2 of the independent prognostic factors. A larger proportion of N2/N3a/N3b patients was observed in the group with ≥20 LNs examined. The cutoff of ≥25 LNs examined exhibited a significantly lower hazard ratio (HR) than other LN cutoffs among N2–N3 diseases, but the cutoff was not significantly superior to other cutoffs in patients with N0 and N1 disease (HR, 0.64, 0.62, and 0.53 for N2, N3a, and N3b, respectively). The 5-year OS rates were 58.59% and 32.77% for N2 and N3 diseases, respectively, with ≥25 LNs examined, which represents a significant improvement over 15–24 LNs examined (52.48% and 21.67% for N2 and N3 stages, respectively).
Among patients with stage N2–N3 GC, harvesting at least 25 LNs may represent a superior cutoff for radical gastrectomy and could yield better survival outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the changes of esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (EGJA) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) among surgical patients from 1988 to 2012 in a Chinese high-volume hospital.
The incidence of EGJA in Western countries has rapidly increased in recent decades. However, recent data from China remain sparse.
A retrospective analysis was performed on the basis of 5053 patients who underwent surgery for gastric and distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. Total of 1723 patients with EGJA who underwent surgery were included. Changes of the prevalence of GERD and the clinicopathological features and surgical treatment of EGJA were longitudinally analyzed by a 5-year interval.
The proportion of EGJA was increased from 22.3% in period 1 (1988-1992) to 35.7% in period 5 (2008-2012) (P < 0.001). The proportion of Siewert type III (35.9% vs 47.0%) (P < 0.001) and type I (8.7% vs 15.8%) (P = 0.002) tumors of EGJA was also increased during the past 25 years. The prevalence of GERD had increased gradually from 6.5% in period 1 to 10.9% in period 5 for the 3 subgroups without significant difference (P = 0.459). There was an upward tendency with significant difference between the proportion of EGJA and the prevalence of GERD (r = 0.946, P = 0.000). Instead of type II and type III tumors, there was a positive correlation with change in GERD for type I tumors (r = 0.438, P = 0.029). Total gastrectomy was more preferred among patients with EGJA in period 5 than in period 1 (42.0% vs 19.6%) (P < 0.001).
An increasing trend of EGJA is observed during the past 25 years in West China Hospital. The prevalence of GERD among EGJA had showed a gradually increased trend. However, the causality between GERD and EGJA still needs to be researched further. Total gastrectomy is becoming more preferred procedure in patients with EGJA.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Annals of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The studies on risk factors and metastatic rate of retropancreatic (number 13) lymph nodes in gastric adenocarcinoma were few and the results were still controversial. The aim of this study was to elucidate risk factors and prognostic significance of number 13 lymph nodes in gastric adenocarcinoma. Method. From January 2000 to December 2011, 114 patients who underwent gastrectomy with number 13 lymph nodes dissection were enrolled and followed up to January 2014. Patients were grouped according to whether number 13 lymph nodes were positive or negative. Results. The metastatic rate of number 13 lymph nodes was 22.8%. In multivariate analysis, pT stage (P = 0.027), pN stage (P = 0.005), and number 11p (P = 0.015) lymph nodes were independent risk factors of positive number 13 lymph nodes. In all patients (P < 0.001) and subpopulation with TNM III stage (P = 0.007), positive number 13 lymph nodes had significantly worse prognosis than those of patients with negative number 13 LNs in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Conclusion. Number 13 lymph nodes had relatively high metastatic rate and led to poor prognosis. pT stage, pN stage, and number 11p lymph nodes were independent risk factors of positive number 13 lymph nodes.
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Gastroenterology Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to evaluate the survival benefit and safety of No. 10 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer patients with total gastrectomy.
Splenic hilar lymph nodes (LNs) are required to be dissected in total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy. However, there has still not been a consensus in aspects of survival and safety on No. 10 LN resection.
From January 2006 to December 2011, 453 patients undergoing total gastrectomy for gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were grouped according to No. 10 lymphadenectomy (10D+/10D−). Clinicopathologic characteristics were compared between the 2 groups. These patients had undergone a follow-up until January 2014. The overall survival, morbidity, and mortality rate were analyzed. Subgroup analyses which were stratified by the sex, age, tumor location, lymphadenectomy extent, curative degree, differentiation, tumor size, and TNM staging (ie, stages of tumor) were performed.
There were 220 patients in 10D+ group, whereas 233 in 10D− group. In terms of prognosis, the baseline features between the 2 groups were almost comparable. The incidence of No. 10 LN metastasis was 11.82%. There was no difference in morbidity and mortality between the 2 groups. Significantly more LNs were harvested from patients in 10D+ group (P = 0.000). The estimated overall 5-year survival rates were 46.44% and 37.43% in 10D+ group and 10D− group respectively, which is not statistically significant (P = 0.3288). Although no statistical significance was found in the estimated 5-year survival rate, these data were obviously higher in patients with age >60 years, Siewert II/ III tumors, N1 status, or IIIa/IIIc stages when No. 10 lymphadenectomies were performed.
Although the differences were obvious, the 5-year survival rates between the 2 groups did not reach statistical significances, which was probably caused by too small patient samples. High-quality studies with larger sample sizes are needed before stronger statement can be done. Until then, the No. 10 LNs’ resection might be recommended in total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy with an acceptable incidence of complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compare the postoperative quality of life between the anastomosis of anterior gastric wall to the esophagus (AGE) and posterior gastric wall to the esophagus (PGE) for gastric tube reconstruction of proximal gastrectomy.
Retrospectively matched-pair study collected patients who underwent anterior and posterior gastric wall anastomosis to the esophagus after proximal gastrectomy. Surgical related parameters and postoperative 3-month, 6-month, 9-month, 12-month quality of life were according to EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-STO22 questionnaires during the out-patient visit.
Eleven pair cases included in the study and finished postoperative quality of life evaluation. General characteristics, such as age, surgical duration, blood loss, postoperative complications existed no significant difference between the two groups. The AEG reconstruction existed advantage in the pain scale (EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-STO22) and reflux symptom scale (EORTC QLQ-STO22) at the 3-month postoperative evaluation. However, there was no difference between the two groups in the assessment of quality of life in the postoperative 6-month, 9-month, 12-month.
Although there were some subtle differences between the two reconstruction methods. Both of these two reconstruction methods can as a selection of gastric tube reconstruction. Further study and other reconstruction method are expected for the proximal gastrectomy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Hepato-gastroenterology