Alastair C. Edge

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (48)209.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present new ultraviolet, optical, and X-ray data on the Phoenix galaxy cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). Deep optical imaging reveals previously-undetected filaments of star formation, extending to radii of ~50-100 kpc in multiple directions. Combined UV-optical spectroscopy of the central galaxy reveals a massive (2x10^9 Msun)), young (~4.5 Myr) population of stars, consistent with a time-averaged star formation rate of 610 +/- 50 Msun/yr. We report a strong detection of OVI(1032,1038) which appears to originate primarily in shock-heated gas, but may contain a substantial contribution (>1000 Msun/yr) from the cooling intracluster medium. We confirm the presence of deep X-ray cavities in the inner ~10 kpc, which are amongst the most extreme examples of radio-mode feedback detected to date, implying jet powers of 2-7 x10^45 erg/s. We provide evidence that the AGN inflating these cavities may have only recently transitioned from "quasar-mode" to "radio-mode", and may currently be insufficient to completely offset cooling. A model-subtracted residual X-ray image reveals evidence for prior episodes of strong radio-mode feedback at radii of ~100 kpc, with extended "ghost" cavities indicating a prior epoch of feedback roughly 100 Myr ago. This residual image also exhibits significant asymmetry in the inner ~200 kpc (0.15R500), reminiscent of infalling cool clouds, either due to minor mergers or fragmentation of the cooling ICM. Taken together, these data reveal a rapidly evolving cool core which is rich with structure (both spatially and in temperature), is subject to a variety of highly energetic processes, and yet is cooling rapidly and forming stars along thin, narrow filaments.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We study the dependence of angular two-point correlation functions on stellar mass ($M_{*}$) and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of $M_{*}>10^{10}M_{\odot}$ galaxies at $z\sim1$. The data from UKIDSS DXS and CFHTLS covering 8.2 deg$^{2}$ sample scales larger than 100 $h^{-1}$Mpc at $z\sim1$, allowing us to investigate the correlation between clustering, $M_{*}$, and star formation through halo modeling. Based on halo occupation distributions (HODs) of $M_{*}$ threshold samples, we derive HODs for $M_{*}$ binned galaxies, and then calculate the $M_{*}/M_{\rm halo}$ ratio. The ratio for central galaxies shows a peak at $M_{\rm halo}\sim10^{12}h^{-1}M_{\odot}$, and satellites predominantly contribute to the total stellar mass in cluster environments with $M_{*}/M_{\rm halo}$ values of 0.01--0.02. Using star-forming galaxies split by sSFR, we find that main sequence galaxies ($\rm log\,sSFR/yr^{-1}\sim-9$) are mainly central galaxies in $\sim10^{12.5} h^{-1}M_{\odot}$ haloes with the lowest clustering amplitude, while lower sSFR galaxies consist of a mixture of both central and satellite galaxies where those with the lowest $M_{*}$ are predominantly satellites influenced by their environment. Considering the lowest $M_{\rm halo}$ samples in each $M_{*}$ bin, massive central galaxies reside in more massive haloes with lower sSFRs than low mass ones, indicating star-forming central galaxies evolve from a low $M_{*}$--high sSFR to a high $M_{*}$--low sSFR regime. We also find that the most rapidly star-forming galaxies ($\rm log\,sSFR/yr^{-1}>-8.5$) are in more massive haloes than main sequence ones, possibly implying galaxy mergers in dense environments are driving the active star formation. These results support the conclusion that the majority of star-forming galaxies follow secular evolution through the sustained but decreasing formation of stars.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multiwavelength morphological analysis of star-forming clouds and filaments in the central (≲50 kpc) regions of 16 low-redshift (z < 0.3) cool core brightest cluster galaxies. New Hubble Space Telescope imaging of far-ultraviolet continuum emission from young (≲10 Myr), massive (≳5 M⊙) stars reveals filamentary and clumpy morphologies, which we quantify by means of structural indices. The FUV data are compared with X-ray, Lyα, narrow-band Hα, broad-band optical/IR, and radio maps, providing a high spatial resolution atlas of star formation locales relative to the ambient hot (∼107–8 K) and warm ionized (∼104 K) gas phases, as well as the old stellar population and radio-bright active galactic nucleus (AGN) outflows. Nearly half of the sample possesses kpc-scale filaments that, in projection, extend towards and around radio lobes and/or X-ray cavities. These filaments may have been uplifted by the propagating jet or buoyant X-ray bubble, or may have formed in situ by cloud collapse at the interface of a radio lobe or rapid cooling in a cavity's compressed shell. The morphological diversity of nearly the entire FUV sample is reproduced by recent hydrodynamical simulations in which the AGN powers a self-regulating rain of thermally unstable star-forming clouds that precipitate from the hot atmosphere. In this model, precipitation triggers where the cooling-to-free-fall time ratio is tcool/tff ∼ 10. This condition is roughly met at the maximal projected FUV radius for more than half of our sample, and clustering about this ratio is stronger for sources with higher star formation rates.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the angular clustering of 33 415 extremely red objects (EROs) in the Elais-N1 field covering 5.33 deg2, which cover the redshift range z = 0.8 to 2. This sample was made by merging the UKIDSS Deep eXtragalactic Survey (DXS) with the optical Subaru and Pan-STARRS PS1 data sets. We confirm the existence of a clear break in the angular correlation function at ∼0.02° corresponding to 1 h−1 Mpc at z ∼ 1. We find that redder or brighter EROs are more clustered than bluer or fainter ones. Halo occupation distribution (HOD) model fits imply that the average mass of dark matter haloes which host EROs is over 1013 h−1 M⊙ and that EROs have a bias ranging from 2.7 to 3.5. Compared to EROs at z ∼ 1.1, at z ∼ 1.5 EROs have a higher bias and fewer are expected to be satellite galaxies. Furthermore, EROs reside in similar dark matter haloes to those that host 1011.0 M⊙ < M* < 1011.5 M⊙ galaxies. We compare our new measurement and HOD fits with the predictions of the galform semi-analytical galaxy formation model. Overall, the clustering predicted by galform gives an encouraging match to our results. However, compared to our deductions from the measurements, galform puts EROs into lower mass haloes and predicts that a larger fraction of EROs are satellite galaxies. This suggests that the treatment of gas cooling may need to be revised in the model. Our analysis illustrates the potential of clustering analyses to provide observational constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Harald Ebeling · Lauren N. Stephenson · Alastair C. Edge
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    ABSTRACT: Ram-pressure stripping by the gaseous intra-cluster medium has been proposed as the dominant physical mechanism driving the rapid evolution of galaxies in dense environments. Detailed studies of this process have, however, largely been limited to relatively modest examples affecting only the outermost gas layers of galaxies in nearby and/or low-mass galaxy clusters. We here present results from our search for extreme cases of gas-galaxy interactions in much more massive, X-ray selected clusters at $z>0.3$. Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) snapshots in the F606W and F814W passbands, we have discovered dramatic evidence of ram-pressure stripping in which copious amounts of gas are first shock compressed and then removed from galaxies falling into the cluster. Vigorous starbursts triggered by this process across the galaxy-gas interface and in the debris trail cause these galaxies to temporarily become some of the brightest cluster members in the F606W passband, capable of outshining even the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Based on the spatial distribution and orientation of systems viewed nearly edge-on in our survey, we speculate that infall at large impact parameter gives rise to particularly long-lasting stripping events. Our sample of six spectacular examples identified in clusters from the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS), all featuring $M_{\rm F606W}<-$21 mag, doubles the number of such systems presently known at $z>0.2$ and facilitates detailed quantitative studies of the most violent galaxy evolution in clusters.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the angular clustering of 33 415 extremely red objects (EROs) in the Elais-N1 field covering 5.33 deg$^{2}$, which cover the redshift range $z=0.8$ to $2$. This sample was made by merging the UKIDSS Deep eXtragalactic Survey (DXS) with the optical Subaru and Pan-STARRS PS1 datasets. We confirm the existence of a clear break in the angular correlation function at $\sim 0.02^{\circ}$ corresponding to $1 h^{-1}$ Mpc at $z\sim1$. We find that redder or brighter EROs are more clustered than bluer or fainter ones. Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model fits imply that the average mass of dark matter haloes which host EROs is over $10^{13} h^{-1} M_{\odot}$ and that EROs have a bias ranging from 2.7 to 3.5. Compared to EROs at $z\sim1.1$, at $z\sim1.5$ EROs have a higher bias and fewer are expected to be satellite galaxies. Furthermore, EROs reside in similar dark matter haloes to those that host $10^{11.0} M_{\odot}<M_{*}<10^{11.5} M_{\odot}$ galaxies. We compare our new measurement and HOD fits with the predictions of the GALFORM semi-analytical galaxy formation model. Overall, the clustering predicted by GALFORM gives an encouraging match to our results. However, compared to our deductions from the measurements, GALFORM puts EROs into lower mass haloes and predicts that a larger fraction of EROs are satellite galaxies. This suggests that the treatment of gas cooling may need to be revised in the model. Our analysis illustrates the potential of clustering analyses to provide observational constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present new optical integral field spectroscopy (Gemini South) and submillimeter spectroscopy (Submillimeter Array) of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster (SPT-CLJ2344-4243). This cluster was previously reported to have a massive starburst (~800 M ☉ yr–1) in the central, brightest cluster galaxy, most likely fueled by the rapidly cooling intracluster medium. These new data reveal a complex emission-line nebula, extending for >30 kpc from the central galaxy, detected at [O II]λλ3726, 3729, [O III]λλ4959, 5007, Hβ, Hγ, Hδ, [Ne III]λ3869, and He II λ4686. The total Hα luminosity, assuming Hα/Hβ = 2.85, is L Hα = 7.6 ± 0.4 ×1043 erg s–1, making this the most luminous emission-line nebula detected in the center of a cool core cluster. Overall, the relative fluxes of the low-ionization lines (e.g., [O II], Hβ) to the UV continuum are consistent with photoionization by young stars. In both the center of the galaxy and in a newly discovered highly ionized plume to the north of the galaxy, the ionization ratios are consistent with both shocks and active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization. We speculate that this extended plume may be a galactic wind, driven and partially photoionized by both the starburst and central AGN. Throughout the cluster we measure elevated high-ionization line ratios (e.g., He II/Hβ, [O III]/Hβ), coupled with an overall high-velocity width (FWHM 500 km s–1), suggesting that shocks are likely important throughout the interstellar medium of the central galaxy. These shocks are most likely driven by a combination of stellar winds from massive young stars, core-collapse supernovae, and the central AGN. In addition to the warm, ionized gas, we detect a substantial amount of cold, molecular gas via the CO(3-2) transition, coincident in position with the galaxy center. We infer a molecular gas mass of = 2.2 ± 0.6 × 1010M ☉, which implies that the starburst will consume its fuel in ~30 Myr if it is not replenished. The L IR/ that we measure for this cluster is consistent with the starburst limit of 500 L ☉/M ☉, above which radiation pressure is able to disperse the cold reservoir. The combination of the high level of turbulence in the warm phase and the high L IR/ ratio suggests that this violent starburst may be in the process of quenching itself. We propose that phases of rapid star formation may be common in the cores of galaxy clusters, but so short-lived that their signatures are quickly erased and appear only in a subsample of the most strongly cooling clusters.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel observations of the core of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. Especially intriguing is the network of filaments that surround the brightest cluster galaxy, NGC 1275, previously imaged extensively in Hα and CO. In this work, we report detections of far-infrared (FIR) lines, in particular, [C ii] 158, [O i] 63, [N ii] 122, [O ib] 145 and [O iii] 88 μm, with Herschel. All lines are spatially extended, except [O iii], with the [C ii] line emission extending up to 25 kpc from the core. [C ii] emission is found to be co-spatial with Hα and CO. Furthermore, [C ii] shows a similar velocity distribution to CO, which has been shown in previous studies to display a close association with the Hα kinematics. The spatial and kinematical correlation among [C ii], Hα and CO gives us confidence to model the different components of the gas with a common heating model. With the help of FIR continuum Herschel measurements, together with a suite of coeval radio, sub-millimetre and IR data from other observatories, we performed a spectral energy distribution fitting of NGC 1275 using a model that contains contributions from dust emission as well as synchrotron active galactic nucleus emission. This has allowed us to accurately estimate the dust parameters. The data indicate a low dust emissivity index, β ≈ 1, a total dust mass close to 107 M⊙, a cold dust component with temperature 38 ± 2 K and a warm dust component with temperature 116 ± 9 K. The FIR-derived star formation rate is 24 ± 1 M⊙ yr−1, which is in agreement with the far-ultraviolet-derived star formation rate in the core, determined after applying corrections for both Galactic and internal reddening. The total IR luminosity in the range 8–1000 μm is inferred to be 1.5 × 1011 L⊙, making NGC 1275 a luminous IR galaxy. We investigated in detail the source of the Herschel FIR and Hα emissions emerging from a core region 4 kpc in radius. Based on simulations conducted using the radiative transfer code, cloudy, a heating model comprising old and young stellar populations is sufficient to explain these observations. The optical line ratios indicate that there may be a need for a second heating component. However, stellar photoionization seems to be the dominant mechanism. We have also detected [C ii] in three well-studied regions of the filaments. Herschel, with its superior sensitivity to FIR emission, can detect far colder atomic gas than previous studies. We find an [O i]/[C ii] ratio about 1 dex smaller than predicted by the otherwise functional Ferland (2009) model. That study considered optically thin emission from a small cell of gas and by design did not consider the effects of reasonable column densities. The line ratio suggests that the lines are optically thick, as is typical of galactic photodissociation regions, and implies that there is a large reservoir of cold atomic gas. This was not included in previous inventories of the filament mass and may represent a significant component.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The XMM Cluster Survey (XCS) is a serendipitous search for galaxy clusters using all publicly available data in the XMM-Newton Science Archive. Its main aims are to measure cosmological parameters and trace the evolution of X-ray scaling relations. In this paper we present the first data release from the XMM Cluster Survey (XCS-DR1). This consists of 503 optically confirmed, serendipitously detected, X-ray clusters. Of these clusters, 256 are new to the literature and 357 are new X-ray discoveries. We present 463 clusters with a redshift estimate (0.06 < z < 1.46), including 261 clusters with spectroscopic redshifts. The remainder have photometric redshifts. In addition, we have measured X-ray temperatures (TX) for 401 clusters (0.4 < TX < 14.7 keV). We highlight seven interesting subsamples of XCS-DR1 clusters: (i) 10 clusters at high redshift (z > 1.0, including a new spectroscopically confirmed cluster at z= 1.01); (ii) 66 clusters with high TX (>5 keV) (iii) 130 clusters/groups with low TX (<2 keV) (iv) 27 clusters with measured TX values in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) ‘Stripe 82’ co-add region; (v) 77 clusters with measured TX values in the Dark Energy Survey region; (vi) 40 clusters detected with sufficient counts to permit mass measurements (under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium); (vii) 104 clusters that can be used for applications such as the derivation of cosmological parameters and the measurement of cluster scaling relations. The X-ray analysis methodology used to construct and analyse the XCS-DR1 cluster sample has been presented in a companion paper, Lloyd-Davies et al.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Using a sample of 123 X-ray clusters and groups drawn from the XMM Cluster Survey first data release, we investigate the interplay between the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), its black hole and the intracluster/group medium (ICM). It appears that for groups and clusters with a BCG likely to host significant active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, gas cooling dominates in those with TX > 2 keV while AGN feedback dominates below. This may be understood through the subunity exponent found in the scaling relation we derive between the BCG mass and cluster mass over the halo mass range 1013 < M500 < 1015 M⊙ and the lack of correlation between radio luminosity and cluster mass, such that BCG AGN in groups can have relatively more energetic influence on the ICM. The LX–TX relation for systems with the most massive BCGs, or those with BCGs co-located with the peak of the ICM emission, is steeper than that for those with the least massive and most offset, which instead follows self-similarity. This is evidence that a combination of central gas cooling and powerful, well fuelled AGN causes the departure of the ICM from pure gravitational heating, with the steepened relation crossing self-similarity at TX= 2 keV. Importantly, regardless of their black hole mass, BCGs are more likely to host radio-loud AGN if they are in a massive cluster (TX≳ 2 keV) and again co-located with an effective fuel supply of dense, cooling gas. This demonstrates that the most massive black holes appear to know more about their host cluster than they do about their host galaxy. The results lead us to propose a physically motivated, empirical definition of ‘cluster’ and ‘group’, delineated at 2 keV.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the cores of galaxy clusters have distinctly different properties from other low-redshift massive ellipticals. The majority of the BCGs in cool-core clusters show signs of active star formation. We present observations of NGC 4696, the BCG of the Centaurus galaxy cluster, at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths with the Herschel space telescope. Using the PACS spectrometer, we detect the two strongest coolants of the interstellar medium, [C ii] at 157.74 μm and [O i] at 63.18 μm, and in addition [N ii] at 121.90 μm. The [C ii] emission is extended over a region of 7 kpc with a similar spatial morphology and kinematics to the optical Hα emission. This has the profound implication that the optical hydrogen recombination line, Hα, the optical forbidden lines, [N ii] λ6583 Å, the soft X-ray filaments and the FIR [C ii] line all have the same energy source. We also detect dust emission using the PACS and SPIRE photometers at all six wavebands. We perform a detailed spectral energy distribution fitting using a two-component modified blackbody function and find a cold 19-K dust component with mass 1.6 × 106 M⊙ and a warm 46-K dust component with mass 4.0 × 103 M⊙. The total FIR luminosity between 8 and 1000 μm is 7.5 × 108 L⊙, which using Kennicutt relation yields a low star formation rate of 0.13 M⊙ yr−1. This value is consistent with values derived from other tracers, such as ultraviolet emission. Combining the spectroscopic and photometric results together with optical Hα, we model emitting clouds consisting of photodissociation regions adjacent to ionized regions. We show that in addition to old and young stellar populations, there is another source of energy, such as cosmic rays, shocks or reconnection diffusion, required to excite the Hα and [C ii] filaments.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometric detections of CO (J = 1 → 0) emission from a 24 μm-selected sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 0.4. The galaxies have polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7.7 μm-derived star formation rates of SFR ~30-60 M ☉ yr–1 and stellar masses M ~ 1011M ☉. The CO (J = 1 → 0) luminosities of the galaxies imply that the disks still contain a large reservoir of molecular gas, contributing ~20% of the baryonic mass, but have star formation "efficiencies" similar to local quiescent disks and gas-dominated disks at z ~ 1.5-2. We reveal evidence that the average molecular gas fraction has undergone strong evolution since z ~ 2, with f gas ∝ (1 + z)~2±0.5. The evolution of f gas encodes fundamental information about the relative depletion/replenishment of molecular fuel in galaxies and is expected to be a strong function of halo mass. We show that the latest predictions for the evolution of the molecular gas fraction in semi-analytic models of galaxy formation within a ΛCDM universe are supported by these new observations.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Quillen et al. and O'Dea et al. carried out a Spitzer study of a sample of 62 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from the ROSAT brightest cluster sample, which were chosen based on their elevated Hα flux. We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys far-ultraviolet (FUV) images of the Lyα and continuum emission of the luminous emission-line nebulae in seven BCGs found to have an infrared (IR) excess. We confirm that the BCGs are actively forming stars which suggests that the IR excess seen in these BCGs is indeed associated with star formation. Our observations are consistent with a scenario in which gas that cools from the intracluster medium fuels the star formation. The FUV continuum emission extends over a region ~7-28 kpc (largest linear size) and even larger in Lyα. The young stellar population required by the FUV observations would produce a significant fraction of the ionizing photons required to power the emission-line nebulae. Star formation rates estimated from the FUV continuum range from ~3 to ~14 times lower than those estimated from the IR, however, both the Balmer decrements in the central few arcseconds and detection of CO in most of these galaxies imply that there are regions of high extinction that could have absorbed much of the FUV continuum. Analysis of archival Very Large Array observations reveals compact radio sources in all seven BCGs and kpc scale jets in A-1835 and RXJ 2129+00. The four galaxies with archival deep Chandra observations exhibit asymmetric X-ray emission, the peaks of which are offset from the center of the BCG by ~10 kpc on average. A low feedback state for the active galactic nucleus could allow increased condensation of the hot gas into the center of the galaxy and the feeding of star formation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Quillen et al. and O'Dea et al. carried out a Spitzer study of a sample of 62 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from the ROSAT Brightest Cluster Sample chosen based on their elevated H-alpha flux. We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) far ultraviolet (FUV) images of the Ly-alpha and continuum emission of the luminous emission-line nebulae in 7 BCGs found to have an infrared excess. We confirm that the BCGs are actively forming stars suggesting that the IR excess seen in these BCGs is indeed associated with star formation. The FUV continuum emission extends over a region of ~7-28 kpc (largest linear size) and even larger in Ly-alpha. The young stellar population required by the FUV observations would produce a significant fraction of the ionizing photons required to power the emission line nebulae. Star formation rates estimated from the FUV continuum range from ~3 to ~14 times lower than those estimated from the IR, however both the Balmer decrement in the central few arcseconds and detection of CO in most of these galaxies imply that there are regions of high extinction that could have absorbed much of the FUV continuum. Analysis of archival VLA observations reveals compact radio sources in all 7 BCGs and kpc scale jets in Abell 1835 and RXJ 2129+00. The four galaxies with archival deep Chandra observations exhibit asymmetric X-ray emission, the peaks of which are offset from the center of the BCGs by ~10 kpc on average. A low feedback state for the AGN could allow increased condensation of the hot gas into the center of the galaxy and the feeding of star formation. Comment: Accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalogue of 3405 X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) Bright Source Catalogue which fall within the area covered by the 6dF Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The catalogue is count-rate limited at 0.05 cts s−1 in the X-ray and covers the area of sky with δ < 0° and |b| > 10°. The RASS–6dFGS sample was one of the additional target catalogues of the 6dFGS and as a result we obtained optical spectra for 2224 (65 per cent) RASS sources. Of these, 1715 (77 per cent) have reliable redshifts with a median redshift of z= 0.16 (excluding the Galactic sources). For the optically bright sources (bJ≤ 17.5) in the observed sample, over 90 per cent have reliable redshifts. The catalogue mainly comprises quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and active galaxies but also includes 238 Galactic sources. Of the sources with reliable redshifts the majority are type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN, 69 per cent), while 12 per cent are type 2 AGN, 6 per cent absorption-line galaxies and 13 per cent are stars. We also identify a small number of optically faint, very low redshift, compact objects which fall outside the general trend in the bJ−z plane. The RASS–6dFGS catalogue complements a number of Northern hemisphere samples, particularly the ROSAT Bright Source Catalogue–NRAO VLA Sky Survey (RBSC–NVSS) sample (Bauer et al. 2000), and furthermore, in the same region of sky (−40° < δ < 0°) reveals an additional 561 sources that were not identified as part of that sample. We detect 918 sources (27 per cent) of the RASS–6dFGS sample in the radio using either the 1.4 GHz NVSS or the 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) catalogues and find that the detection rate changes with redshift. At redshifts larger than 1 virtually all of these sources have radio counterparts and with a median flux density of 1.15 Jy, they are much stronger than the median flux density of 28.6 mJy for the full sample. We attribute this to the fact that the X-ray flux of these objects is being boosted by a jet component, possibly Doppler boosted, that is only present in radio-loud AGN. The RASS–6dFGS sample provides a large set of homogeneous optical spectra ideal for future studies of X-ray emitting AGN.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric, spectroscopic and weak lensing analysis of the large-scale structure and dynamics of the most X-ray luminous galaxy cluster known, RX J1347−1145, at z= 0.451. We spectroscopically confirmed 47 new members with Low Dispersion Survey Spectrograph 3 (LDSS3) on the Magellan telescope. Together with previously known members, we measure a new velocity dispersion of 1163 ± 97 km s−1. The mass inferred from our velocity dispersion is M200= 1.16+0.32−0.27× 1015 M⊙, with r200= 1.85 Mpc, under the assumption of a singular isothermal sphere. We also present a weak lensing analysis using deep Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) data on this cluster, and find a deprojected mass of 1.47+0.46−0.43× 1015 M⊙ within r200, in excellent agreement with our dynamical estimate. Thus, our new dynamical mass estimate is consistent with that from weak lensing and X-ray studies in the literature, resolving a previously claimed discrepancy. We photometrically detect and spectroscopically confirm another massive cluster with σ= 780 ± 100 km s−1 and M200= 3.4+1.4−1.1× 1014 M⊙∼ 7 Mpc south-west of RX J1347−1145, which we refer to as RXJ1347−SW. Our spectroscopic survey reveals a possible excess of galaxies in velocity space in the region between RX J1347−1145 and RXJ1347−SW; comparing with simulations, this excess appears consistent with that expected from a large filamentary structure traced by galaxies connecting these two clusters.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present Advanced Camera for Surveys observations of MACS J1149.5+2223, an X-ray luminous galaxy cluster at z = 0.544 discovered by the Massive Cluster Survey. The data reveal at least seven multiply imaged galaxies, three of which we have confirmed spectroscopically. One of these is a spectacular face-on spiral galaxy at z = 1.491, the four images of which are gravitationally magnified by 8 μ 23. We identify this as an L (MB –20.7), disk-dominated (B/T 0.5) galaxy, forming stars at ~6 M ☉ yr–1. We use a robust sample of multiply imaged galaxies to constrain a parameterized model of the cluster mass distribution. In addition to the main cluster dark matter halo and the bright cluster galaxies, our best model includes three galaxy-group-sized halos. The relative probability of this model is P(N halo = 4)/P(N halo < 4) ≥ 1012 where N halo is the number of cluster/group-scale halos. In terms of sheer number of merging cluster/group-scale components, this is the most complex strong-lensing cluster core studied to date. The total cluster mass and fraction of that mass associated with substructures within R ≤ 500 kpc, are measured to be M tot = (6.7 ± 0.4) × 1014M ☉ and f sub = 0.25 ± 0.12, respectively. Our model also rules out recent claims of a flat density profile at 7σ confidence, thus highlighting the critical importance of spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged galaxies when modeling strong-lensing clusters. Overall our results attest to the efficiency of X-ray selection in finding the most powerful cluster lenses, including complicated merging systems.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a catalogue of 3405 X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) Bright Source Catalogue which fall within the area covered by the 6dF Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The catalogue is count-rate limited at 0.05 cts\s in the X-ray and covers the area of sky with delta < 0 deg and |b|>10 deg. The RASS--6dFGS sample was one of the additional target catalogues of the 6dFGS and as a result we obtained optical spectra for 2224 (65%) RASS sources. Of these, 1715 (77%) have reliable redshifts with a median redshift of z=0.16 (excluding the Galactic sources). For the optically bright sources (b_J < 17.5) in the observed sample, over 90% have reliable redshifts. The catalogue mainly comprises QSOs and active galaxies but also includes 238 Galactic sources. Of the sources with reliable redshifts the majority are Type 1 AGN (69%), while 12% are Type 2 AGN, 6% absorption-line galaxies and 13% are stars. We also identify a small number of optically-faint, very low redshift, compact objects which fall outside the general trend in the b_J-z plane. We detect 918 sources (27%) of the RASS--6dFGS sample in the radio using either the 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) or the 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) catalogues and find that the detection rate changes with redshift. At redshifts larger than 1 virtually all of these sources have radio counterparts and with a median flux density of 1.15 Jy, they are much stronger than the median flux density of 28.6 mJy for the full sample. We attribute this to the fact that the X-ray flux of these objects is being boosted by a jet component, possibly Doppler boosted, that is only present in radio-loud AGN. (abridged version) Comment: 17 pages, 15 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009
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    Alastair J. R. Sanderson · Alastair C. Edge · Graham P. Smith
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    ABSTRACT: We study the distribution of projected offsets between the cluster X-ray centroid and the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) for 65 X-ray-selected clusters from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey, with a median redshift of z= 0.23. We find a clear correlation between X-ray/BCG projected offset and the logarithmic slope of the cluster gas density profile at 0.04r500(α), implying that more dynamically disturbed clusters have weaker cool cores. Furthermore, there is a close correspondence between the activity of the BCG, in terms of detected Hα and radio emission, and the X-ray/BCG offset, with the line-emitting galaxies all residing in clusters with X-ray/BCG offsets of ≤15 kpc. Of the BCGs with α < −0.85 and an offset <0.02r500, 96 per cent (23/24) have optical emission and 88 per cent (21/24) are radio active, while none has optical emission outside these criteria. We also study the cluster gas fraction (fgas) within r500 and find a significant correlation with X-ray/BCG projected offset. The mean fgas of the ‘small offset’ clusters (<0.02r500) is 0.106 ± 0.005 (σ= 0.03) compared to 0.145 ± 0.009 (σ= 0.04) for those with an offset >0.02r500, indicating that the total mass may be systematically underestimated in clusters with larger X-ray/BCG offsets. Our results imply a link between cool core strength and cluster dynamical state consistent with the view that cluster mergers can significantly perturb cool cores, and set new constraints on models of the evolution of the intracluster medium.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • I. Lee · M. Im · M. Kim · E. Kang · H. Shim · G. T. Richards · A. C. Edge · M. G. Lee · M.-G. Park
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    ABSTRACT: We observed quasar candidates with the long-slit, low-resolution mode of Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (LSS; Kim et al. 2003, Publ. Korean Astron. Soc., 18, 81) on the 1.8m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO), Korea, over four observing runs spanning from 2005 January to 2006 December. (2 data files).
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009