[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, characterized by bilateral macronodular adrenal hypertrophy and autonomous cortisol production, is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome. Bilateral adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment for adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia but obliges the patient to receive lifetime steroid replacement therapy subsequently, and may increase the patient's risk of adrenal insufficiency. These circumstances require surgeons to carefully consider operative strategies on an individual basis.
We performed successful laparoscopic adrenalectomy on four patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Computed tomography scans showed bilateral adrenal enlargement in all patients. Case 1: a 56-year-old Japanese woman presented with obvious Cushing's symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Case 2: a 37-year-old Japanese man also presented with Cushing's symptoms during treatment for diabetes mellitus and hypertension. These patients were diagnosed as Cushing's syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia based on endocrinologic testing, and underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Case 3: an 80-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized due to unusual weight gain and heightened general fatigue, and was diagnosed as Cushing's syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. She underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy due to high operative risk. Case 4: a 66-year-old Japanese man was discovered to have bilateral adrenal tumors on medical examination. He did not have Cushing's symptoms and was diagnosed as subclinical Cushing's syndrome due to suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone serum levels and loss of cortisol circadian rhythm without abnormal levels of serum cortisol. He underwent unilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy. During follow-up, serum cortisol levels were within the normal range in all cases, and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were not suppressed. Further, cases with Cushing's syndrome experienced clinical improvement.
We were able to effectively treat adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia in patients with obvious Cushing's symptoms by laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy, which promptly improved symptoms. Further, unilateral adrenalectomy was effective for treating an older patient at high operative risk and a patient with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative clinical parameters which influence operative time and intraoperative maximum systolic blood pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma.
Between January 1992 and September 2010, we performed 28 laparoscopic adrenalectomies for pheochromocytoma at Hamamatsu University School of Medicine. These 28 cases were characterized based on the following parameters: body mass index (BMI), tumor size, history of hypertension, preoperative blood pressure, serum concentration of catecholamine, and 24-h urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolite. We retrospectively analyzed whether or not these parameters influenced operative time or intraoperative maximum systolic blood pressure.
All 28 cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomy were performed safely and without intraoperative complications and needed neither blood transfusion nor conversion to laparotomy. The median operative time was 203 minutes, and intraoperative hypertension (systolic blood pressure > 200 mmHg) occurred in 46% (13/28) of cases. Median day of discharge in all patients was post-operative day 5. Significant positive correlation was shown between tumor size and operative time and between intraoperative maximum systolic blood pressure and serum concentration of catecholamine or 24-h urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolite (p < 0.05).
The lengthened operative time for large tumors and elevated intraoperative blood pressure for tumors with high preoperative catecholamine activity necessitate careful perioperative management in patients receiving laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Nippon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the medical records of patients with BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) following kidney transplantation in our institution.
We screened patients for decoy cells using urine cytology, assessed serum creatinine levels, and conducted a graft biopsy, as well as assessed the presence of plasma BK virus DNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The treatment of BKVN was based on the decreased use of immunosuppressants.
Overall, six male patients were studied (mean age 40.8 years, range 18-58; mean donor age 45.2 years, range 15-67). A positive urine cytology screen led to the subsequent detection of plasma BK virus DNA in the five patients with urine cytology results positive for decoy cells. In the four patients in whom plasma BK virus DNA was detected, a maximum value of DNA of > or = 10 000 copies/mL was observed. Time elapsed from transplantation to BKVN diagnosis ranged from 3 to 62 months. Although the two cadaver grafts were lost, the loss was not due to any effects directly associated with BKVN. The other four grafts are still functioning with a mean creatinine level of 1.8 mg/dL. Most of the patients with BKVN were regarded as being in a state of heightened immunosuppression. BK virus transition to blood was prevented in one patient.
Early diagnosis of BKV infection with reduction of immunosuppression may potentially counter BK viremia and retard progression of BKV nephropathy. Decoy cell screening by urine cytology as well as plasma BK virus DNA screening should be considered in addition to the required graft biopsy in kidney transplant recipients, particularly in those with impaired graft function.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · International Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We retrospectively compared perioperative parameters, as well as the oncological and functional results, for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) carried out via the posterior and anterior approaches in our hospital.
We recorded pre-, peri-, and postoperative parameters and complications, and evaluated the oncological and functional results to compare the posterior approach (group 1, n = 25) with the anterior approach (group 2, n = 34).
There were no significant differences regarding the preoperative characteristics of the two groups. The incidence of major complications, positive surgical margins, and continence at 3 and 6 months postoperatively showed no significant differences between the two groups. Although mean blood loss (including urine) was not significantly different, the mean prostatectomy time was significantly shorter in group 2 (174.21 +/- 57.97 min) than in group 1 (224.76 +/- 66.72 min) (P = 0.003 by Student's t-test). Also, the postoperative recovery period until discharge was 5.94 days in group 2, and was significantly shorter than in group 1 (7.48 days) (P = 0.02 by Student's t-test).
This retrospective comparative study shows that the anterior approach yields similar, if not better results than the posterior approach for LRP.
Preview · Article · Dec 2007 · International Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a BK virus-associated nephropathy in a 28-year-old man. His symptoms occurred 5 years after he had received a kidney transplantation. He was treated with tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisolone. The progress of the disease was monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions for BK virus DNA. An analysis of viral DNA showed that the BK virus in the patient's plasma belonged to genotype IV.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 57-year-old woman was hospitalized with a left renal artery aneurysm (RAA). The aneurysm measured 35 mm in diameter and was located at the renal artery bifurcation. We performed a laparoscopic nephrectomy using a retroperitoneal approach and performed an ex vivo repair of the renal artery. The reconstructed kidney was then autotransplanted at the left iliac fossa. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. A laparoscopic nephrectomy and ex vivo repair are both considered to be effective for treating complex RAA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 64-year-old female was admitted to hospital for acute abdominal pain with ascites. The patient had received postoperative pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix 7 years previously. Serum creatinine (Scr) was elevated to 2.70 mg/dl, and urinary output was reduced to below 200 ml/day. Cystoscopy revealed a small perforation from the bladder diverticulum. Following transurethral catheterization, urinary output was promptly increased, and Scr was returned to 0.65 mg/dl 4 days later. This rare case suggested that spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder following postoperative radiotherapy could occur very late with laboratory features of oliguric acute renal failure.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Internal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycophenolic acid (MPA), the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been introduced into renal transplant immunosuppressant protocols in combination with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and steroids. This study compared the pharmacokinetic profiles of MPA and its major metabolite MPA glucuronide (MPAG) in combination with tacrolimus (TAC) or cyclosporine (CyA) during the maintenance period (>6 months) following renal transplantation. There was no difference between TAC and CyA-treated groups in MPA plasma concentration before drug administration (C(0)). MPA C(0) in TAC and CyA-treated patients did not differ from that in patients who were not treated with a CNI. In patients treated with a CNI, MPAG C(0) was significantly greater in those treated with CyA compared with TAC. The MPAG/MPA ratio in CyA-treated patients was significantly greater than that in the TAC-treated group. We observed that C(0) of MPA was negatively correlated with that of TAC and CyA. Positive correlation between MPA C(0), MPAG C(0) and serum creatinine was stronger in patients treated with CyA compared with TAC. Our study suggests that CyA, but not TAC, inhibits enterohepatic circulation of MPAG as a secondary excretion pathway, and that renal function makes a major contribution to elimination of MPA and MPAG. We indicate that it may be necessary to estimate biliary excretion of MPAG to avoid the risk of intestinal injury in patients receiving combination therapy with TAC during the maintenance period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a multicenter trial with transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. A total of 72 consecutive patients with stage T1c-2NOM0 prostate cancer were treated using the Sonablate 500TM HIFU device (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, USA). Biochemical recurrence was defined according to the criteria recommended by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Panel. The median age and prostate specific antigen (PSA) level were 72 years and 8.10 ng/ml, respectively. The median follow-up period for all patients was 14.0 months. Biochemical disease-free survival rates in all patients at 1 and 2 years were 78% and 76%, respectively. Biochemical disease-free survival rates in patients with stage T1c, T2a and T2b groups at 2 years were 89, 67% and 40% (p = 0.0817). Biochemical disease-free survival rates in patients with Gleason scores of 2-4, 5-7 and 8-10 at 2 years were 88, 72% and 80% (p = 0.6539). Biochemical disease-free survival rates in patients with serum PSA of less than 10 ng/ml and 10-20 ng/ml were 75% and 78% (p = 0.6152). No viable tumor cells were noted in 68% of patients by postoperative prostate needle biopsy. Prostatic volume was decreased from 24.2 ml to 14.0 ml at 6 months after HIFU (p < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were noted in International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum urinary flow rate and quality of life analysis with Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. HIFU therapy appears to be minimally invasive, efficacious and safe for patients with localized prostate cancer with pretreatment PSA levels less than 20 ng/ml.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is currently recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors. In order to assess the current status of laparoscopic adrenalectomy, we reviewed the literature focusing on the indications and contraindications, surgical techniques, complications and new methods. We also reviewed the results separately for aldosteronoma, pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and primary or metastatic adrenal cancer.
Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and effective treatment for adrenal disorders, excluding primary adrenal cancer. There are no differences of the various operative parameters between the transperitoneal and retroperitoneal approaches, so the choice of approach should depend on the surgeon's preference or the patient's circumstances. It is important for the surgeon to remove the tumor and the surrounding fat en bloc, especially in the case of large or irregular tumors because of the potential for malignancy. The surgeon must also immediately switch to an open procedure if the laparoscopic operation becomes difficult.
We conclude that use of laparoscopic adrenalectomy allows the performance of minimally invasive surgery with the advantages of more rapid recovery and a shorter hospital stay than open adrenalectomy.
Preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is unanimously recognized as the gold standard for the treatment of adrenal tumors, but it is not indicated for tumors of any size when invasion of the surrounding tissues is clearly detected by preoperative imaging. Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal malignancy is a feasible procedure, in the case of primary adrenal malignancy, it should be done very carefully. When laparoscopic surgery is performed for adrenal tumors >6 cm or for tumors that are considered potentially malignant after preoperative imaging or endocrine studies, the operation should be performed only by a highly skilled laparoscopic surgeon. It is also important to inform the patient and family that the tumors may be malignant and that conversion to open surgery could be necessary. The surgeon must create a sufficiently wide working space, remove the tumor and surrounding fat en bloc, and never grasp the tumor or adrenal tissue. The ultrasonically activated scalpel or ultrasonic endoaspirator should be carefully handled so that it does not touch the tumor surface because this will create a risk of tumor-cell dissemination. It also is essential not to persist unreasonably with laparoscopic procedures but to switch immediately to open surgery when laparoscopic surgery becomes difficult.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Endourology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy remains a controversial procedure for large tumors. We examined the outcome and complications of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for such lesions.
A total of 178 patients underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, of whom 29 patients had large (>or =5 cm) tumors. Their mean age was 47.9 years (range 21-72 years), and the mean tumor size was 6.5 cm (range 5.0-11.0 cm). They were compared with patients whose adrenal tumors were <5 cm.
The large-tumor group had a mean operating time of 176 +/- 48 minutes (range 84-278 minutes) and a mean blood loss of 136.6 mL (range 10-800 mL) and required a mean of 1.8 days before starting oral intake. None of these values is significantly different from the results in the control group (P > 0.05). The length of recovery was significantly longer in the large-tumor group (5.4 v 4.5 days; P < 0.05), but this was not true if a patient with a 23-day postoperative stay is excluded. The overall incidence of complications was 12% in the large-tumor group, which was not significantly different from that in the control group (P > 0.05).
The operating time, blood loss, and incidence of complications after laparoscopic adrenalectomy did not differ between the patients with large and small adrenal tumors, indicating that experienced surgeons can safely and effectively use laparoscopy for larger tumors. However, it is necessary to consider carefully whether laparoscopic surgery is indicated for tumors that show infiltration on preoperative imaging or for patients who have undergone previous upper-retroperitoneal surgery.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Endourology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS), we investigate the change of resistance index (RI) before and after transurethral vaporization of the prostate (TUVP) in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients.
In all, 49 patients underwent transrectal PDUS before receiving TUVP, three were excluded because of cancer and three could not be followed up. The remaining 43 were enrolled in the present study. Patients were assessed before and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery, giving a mean duration of follow-up of 9.1 months. International prostate symptom scores (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) scores, postvoiding residual urine volumes (PVR) and maximum urinary flow rates (Qmax) were evaluated and total prostatic volume (TPV) and RI were measured using PDUS.
Resistance index ranged from 0.64 to 0.91. The postoperative parameters except for RI, such as TPV, PVR, IPSS and QOL scores improved significantly at the follow-up assessment after surgery. The elevated RI decreased significantly 1, 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Resistance index significantly decreased after TUVP and IPSS and other urodymamics parameters improved.
The present study suggested that RI could evaluate the severity of BPH and the degree of intraprostatic pressure or bladder outlet obstruction.
Preview · Article · Apr 2005 · International Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BK polyomavirus (BKV) infects most of the human population, but clinically relevant infections are usually limited to individuals who are in an immunosuppressed state. The significance of BKV infection was investigated in a 50-year-old man who underwent cadaveric kidney transplantation and was treated with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. By staining renal biopsy specimens with a monoclonal antibody against BK large T antigen, we were able to observe the relationship between the appearance of the BKV antigen and the extent of immunosuppression in this patient. We also determined that BKV belonged to genotype I by analysis of viral DNA from the patient's urine.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · International Journal of Urology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Economical elements including surgical fee and hosipital stay become larger in the selection of surgical methods for the treatment of urinary stones. Then, urologists need to explain to patients the treatment cost to obtain informed consent. By comparing the data from participants' answer to Debate 1 at the 82th annual meeting of the Japanese Urological Association (April 2002, Tokyo) and questionnaire responses from the members of the annual meeting of central division of Japanese Urological Association (November 2002, Nagoya), we surveyed the trends of surgical methods on the treatments of staghorn caliculi and lower ureter stones. Furthermore, we clarified the cost of these methods. Based on the status of world countries, we demonstrate the ideal selection including economical aspects on the selection of endourological method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is an anticancer agent widely used against various tumors including bladder cancer. Orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) is one of the key enzymes in metabolic pathways of 5-FU. We examined the possible relationship between OPRT activities of bladder cancer specimens and clinicopathological features. In addition, chemosensitivity to 5-FU was also examined. Bladder cancer specimens were obtained from 36 patients between November 1997 and January 2004. OPRT activity was measured by radioassay. In vitro chemosensitivity to 5-FU was assessed using histoculture drug response assay (HDRA). The mean OPRT activity in bladder cancer specimens was significantly higher than that in normal bladder specimens. In high-grade (G3) and invasive cancer specimens, mean OPRT activities were significantly higher than those in low grade (G1 and G2) and superficial cancer specimens, respectively. There was a significant correlation between OPRT activity and 5-FU sensitivity (r=0.571, p<0.01) in 19 cases whose OPRT activities and 5-FU sensitivities were assessed simultaneously. These results suggest that OPRT activity may be a good indicator of the malignant potential and sensitivity to 5-FU in bladder cancer.
No preview · Article · Sep 2004 · Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy