Kay-Tee Khaw

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (929)5880.29 Total impact

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Increased serum neopterin had been described in older age two decades ago. Neopterin is a biomarker of systemic adaptive immune activation that could be potentially implicated in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Measurements of waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin as components of MetS definition, and plasma total neopterin concentrations were performed in 594 participants recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Results: Higher total neopterin concentrations were associated with reduced HDLC (9.7 %, p < 0.01 for men and 9.2 %, p < 0.01 for women), whereas no association was observed with the rest of the MetS components as well as with MetS overall (per 10 nmol/L: OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 0.85-2.39 for men and OR = 1.38, 95 % CI = 0.79-2.43). Conclusions: These data suggest that high total neopterin concentrations are cross-sectionally associated with reduced HDLC, but not with overall MetS.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · Immunity & Ageing
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain causal estimates, we examined the role of pubertal development in prostate cancer using genetic polymorphisms associated with Tanner stage in adolescent boys in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Methods We derived a weighted genetic risk score for pubertal development, combining 13 SNPs associated with male Tanner stage. A higher score indicated a later puberty onset. We examined the association of this score with prostate cancer risk, stage and grade in the UK-based ProtecT case-control study (n = 2,927), and used the PRACTICAL consortium (n = 43,737) as a replication sample. Results In ProtecT, the puberty genetic score was inversely associated with prostate cancer grade (odds ratio (OR) of high- vs. low-grade cancer, per tertile of the score: 0.76; 95 % CI, 0.64–0.89). In an instrumental variable estimation of the causal OR, later physical development in adolescence (equivalent to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43–91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI, 0.91–1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90–0.98), but not with disease grade. Conclusions Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12916-016-0602-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality ( n 1008) and all-cause mortality ( n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected ( P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) ( P for heterogeneity =0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · British Journal Of Nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Importance Leisure-time physical activity has been associated with lower risk of heart-disease and all-cause mortality, but its association with risk of cancer is not well understood. Objective To determine the association of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of common types of cancer and whether associations vary by body size and/or smoking. Design, Setting, and Participants We pooled data from 12 prospective US and European cohorts with self-reported physical activity (baseline 1987-2004). We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations of leisure-time physical activity with incidence of 26 types of cancer. Leisure-time physical activity levels were modeled as cohort-specific percentiles on a continuous basis and cohort-specific results were synthesized by random-effects meta-analysis. Hazard ratios for high vs low levels of activity are based on a comparison of risk at the 90th vs 10th percentiles of activity. The data analysis was performed from January 1, 2014, to June 1, 2015. Exposures Leisure-time physical activity of a moderate to vigorous intensity. Main Outcomes and Measures Incident cancer during follow-up. Results A total of 1.44 million participants (median [range] age, 59 [19-98] years; 57% female) and 186 932 cancers were included. High vs low levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with lower risks of 13 cancers: esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.89), liver (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98), lung (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.71-0.77), kidney (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.85), gastric cardia (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95), endometrial (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.92), myeloid leukemia (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.92), myeloma (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95), colon (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.91), head and neck (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.93), rectal (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.95), bladder (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.92), and breast (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.93). Body mass index adjustment modestly attenuated associations for several cancers, but 10 of 13 inverse associations remained statistically significant after this adjustment. Leisure-time physical activity was associated with higher risks of malignant melanoma (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.16-1.40) and prostate cancer (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.08). Associations were generally similar between overweight/obese and normal-weight individuals. Smoking status modified the association for lung cancer but not other smoking-related cancers. Conclusions and Relevance Leisure-time physical activity was associated with lower risks of many cancer types. Health care professionals counseling inactive adults should emphasize that most of these associations were evident regardless of body size or smoking history, supporting broad generalizability of findings.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · JAMA Internal Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2016 · International Journal of Cancer
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Dairy products may be involved in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease by modulating gut microbiota and immune responses, but data from epidemiological studies examining this relationship are limited. We investigated the association between prediagnostic intake of these foods and dietary calcium, and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: In total, 401,326 participants were enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. At recruitment, consumption of total and specific dairy products (milk, yogurt, and cheese) and dietary calcium was measured using validated food frequency questionnaires. Cases developing incident CD (n = 110) or UC (n = 244) during follow-up were matched with 4 controls. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for total energy intake and smoking. Results: Compared with the lowest quartile, the ORs for the highest quartile of total dairy products and dietary calcium intake were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.32-1.19, p trend = 0.19) and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.28-1.42, p trend = 0.23) for CD, and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.50-1.30, p trend = 0.40) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.49-1.34, p trend = 0.60) for UC, respectively. Compared with nonconsumers, individuals consuming milk had significantly reduced odds of CD (OR 0.30, 95% CI, 0.13-0.65) and nonsignificantly reduced odds of UC (OR 0.85, 95% CI, 0.49-1.47). Conclusions: Milk consumption may be associated with a decreased risk of developing CD, although a clear dose-response relationship was not established. Further studies are warranted to confirm this possible protective effect.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2016 · Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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    Alexander Gusev · Huwenbo Shi · Gleb Kichaev · Mark Pomerantz · Fugen Li · Henry W Long · Sue A Ingles · Rick A Kittles · Sara S Strom · Benjamin A Rybicki · [...] · Dimitrios Trichopoulos · Paolo Vineis · Meredith Yeager · Gosia Trynka · Soumya Raychaudhuri · Frederick R Schumacher · Alkes L Price · Matthew L Freedman · Christopher A Haiman · Bogdan Pasaniuc ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Nature Communications
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · PLoS Medicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We examined the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cognitive function in a population of older British adults. Methods: Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort study underwent ophthalmic and cognitive assessment. Measurements of RNFL thickness were made using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Cognitive testing included a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SF-MMSE), an animal naming task, a letter cancellation task, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the National Adult Reading Test (NART), and the Paired Associates Learning Test. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess associations of RNFL thickness with cognitive test scores, adjusted for age, sex, education level, social class, visual acuity, axial length, and history of cataract surgery. Results: Data were available from 5563 participants with a mean age of 67 years. A thicker HRT-derived RNFL thickness was associated with better scores for the SF-MMSE (0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], [0.02, 0.10], P = 0.005), HVLT (0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.29]; P = 0.014), and NART (-0.24, 95% CI [-0.46, -0.02], P = 0.035). The associations of RNFL thickness with SF-MMSE and HVLT remained significant following further adjustment for NART. Conclusions: We found a significant association between HRT-derived RNFL thickness and scores from cognitive tests assessing global function, recognition, learning, episodic memory, and premorbid intelligence. However, the associations were weak and not currently of predictive value. Further research is required to confirm and clarify the nature of these associations, and identify biological mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic risk scores were used as unconfounded instruments for specific lipid traits (Mendelian randomization) to assess whether circulating lipids causally influence prostate cancer risk. Data from 22,249 prostate cancer cases and 22,133 controls from 22 studies within the international PRACTICAL consortium were analyzed. Allele scores based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be uniquely associated with each of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels, were first validated in an independent dataset, and then entered into logistic regression models to estimate the presence (and direction) of any causal effect of each lipid trait on prostate cancer risk. There was weak evidence for an association between the LDL genetic score and cancer grade: the odds ratio (OR) per genetically instrumented standard deviation (SD) in LDL, comparing high- (≥7 Gleason score) versus low-grade (<7 Gleason score) cancers was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.92, 2.46; P = 0.11). A genetically instrumented SD increase in TGs was weakly associated with stage: the OR for advanced versus localized cancer per unit increase in genetic risk score was 1.68 (95% CI: 0.95, 3.00; P = 0.08). The rs12916-T variant in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) was inversely associated with prostate cancer (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.00; P = 0.03). In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk. We found weak evidence that higher LDL and TG levels increase aggressive prostate cancer risk, and that a variant in HMGCR (that mimics the LDL lowering effect of statin drugs) reduces risk. However, inferences are limited by sample size and evidence of pleiotropy.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Cancer Medicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Germline mutations within DNA-repair genes are implicated in susceptibility to multiple forms of cancer. For prostate cancer (PrCa), rare mutations in BRCA2 and BRCA1 give rise to moderately elevated risk, whereas two of ∼100 common, low-penetrance PrCa susceptibility variants identified so far by genome-wide association studies implicate RAD51B and RAD23B. Methods: Genotype data from the iCOGS array were imputed to the 1000 genomes phase 3 reference panel for 21 780 PrCa cases and 21 727 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. We subsequently performed single variant, gene and pathway-level analyses using 81 303 SNPs within 20 Kb of a panel of 179 DNA-repair genes. Results: Single SNP analyses identified only the previously reported association with RAD51B. Gene-level analyses using the SKAT-C test from the SNP-set (Sequence) Kernel Association Test (SKAT) identified a significant association with PrCa for MSH5. Pathway-level analyses suggested a possible role for the translesion synthesis pathway in PrCa risk and Homologous recombination/Fanconi Anaemia pathway for PrCa aggressiveness, even though after adjustment for multiple testing these did not remain significant. Conclusions: MSH5 is a novel candidate gene warranting additional follow-up as a prospective PrCa-risk locus. MSH5 has previously been reported as a pleiotropic susceptibility locus for lung, colorectal and serous ovarian cancers.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication 10 March 2016. doi:10.1038/bjc.2016.50 www.bjcancer.com.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · British Journal of Cancer
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Framingham risk equations are widely used to predict cardiovascular disease based on health information from a single time point. Little is known regarding use of information from repeat risk assessments and temporal change in estimated cardiovascular risk for prediction of future cardiovascular events. This study was aimed to compare the discrimination and risk reclassification of approaches using estimated cardiovascular risk at single and repeat risk assessments Methods: Using data on 12,197 individuals enrolled in EPIC-Norfolk cohort, with 12 years of follow-up, we examined rates of cardiovascular events by levels of estimated absolute risk (Framingham risk score) at the first and second health examination four years later. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (aROC) and risk reclassification, comparing approaches using information from single and repeat risk assessments (i.e. estimated risk at different time points). Results: The mean Framingham risk score increased from 15.5% to 17.5% over a mean of 3.7 years from the first to second health examination. Individuals with high estimated risk (?20%) at both health examinations had considerably higher rates of cardiovascular events than those who remained in the lowest risk category (0.05). Using information from both risk assessments slightly improved discrimination compared to information from a single risk assessment (aROC 0.76 and 0.75 respectively, p
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    No preview · Dataset · Feb 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Acrylamide was classified as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, public health concern increased when acrylamide was identified in starchy, plant-based foods, processed at high temperatures. The purpose of this study was to identify which food groups and lifestyle variables were determinants of hemoglobin adduct concentrations of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) in 801 non-smoking postmenopausal women from eight countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Methods: Biomarkers of internal exposure were measured in red blood cells (collected at baseline) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) . In this cross-sectional analysis, four dependent variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, sum of total adducts (HbAA + HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify determinants of the four outcome variables. All dependent variables (except HbGA/HbAA) and all independent variables were log-transformed (log2) to improve normality. Median (25th-75th percentile) HbAA and HbGA adduct levels were 41.3 (32.8-53.1) pmol/g Hb and 34.2 (25.4-46.9) pmol/g Hb, respectively. Results: The main food group determinants of HbAA, HbGA, and HbAA + HbGA were biscuits, crackers, and dry cakes. Alcohol intake and body mass index were identified as the principal determinants of HbGA/HbAA. The total percent variation in HbAA, HbGA, HbAA + HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA explained in this study was 30, 26, 29, and 13 %, respectively. Conclusions: Dietary and lifestyle factors explain a moderate proportion of acrylamide adduct variation in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · European Journal of Nutrition
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Social inequalities in adult smoking and excessive alcohol intake may be associated with exposure to multiple childhood social risk factors across different domains of risk within the household. Methods: We used data from a cross-sectional cohort study of adults (40-75 years) in 1993-97 living in England (N = 19466) to examine the association between clusters of childhood social risks across different domains with adult smoking and excessive alcohol use. Participants reported exposure to six childhood social risk factors, current smoking behaviour and alcohol intake. Factor analysis was used to identify domains of social risk. We created a childhood cumulative domain social risk score (range 0-2) from summing the total number of domains. Results: Factor analysis identified two domains of childhood social risk within the household: maladaptive family functioning (parental unemployment, substance misuse, physical abuse) and parental separation experiences : maternal separation, divorce, being sent away from home). Compared to those children with risk exposure in no single domain, children with risk exposure in both domains (i.e. maladaptive family functioning, parental separation experiences) had a higher prevalence of adult smoking [men: Prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.74, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.35-2.26; women: PR = 1.71 95% CI: 1.34-2.18]. There was a trend association between the number of childhood social risk domains and adult smoking (both sexes: P < 0.001) and excessive alcohol use (men: P <0.008). Conclusions: Further work is needed to understand if addressing cumulative risk exposure to maladaptive family functioning and parental separation experiences can reduce social inequalities in adult smoking and excessive alcohol intake.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · The European Journal of Public Health
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Serum liver biomarkers (gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT; alanine aminotransferase, ALT; aspartate aminotransferase, AST; alkaline phosphatase, ALP; total bilirubin) are used as indicators of liver disease, but there is currently little data on their prospective association with risk of hepatobiliary cancers. Methods: A nested-case control study was conducted within the prospective EPIC cohort (>520,000 participants, 10 European countries). After a mean 7.5 mean years of follow-up, 121 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 34 intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC) and 131 gallbladder and biliary tract (GBTC) cases were identified and matched to 2 controls each. Circulating biomarkers were measured in serum taken at recruitment into the cohort, prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95%CI). Results: In multivariable models, 1SD increase of each log-transformed biomarker was positively associated with HCC risk (OR(GGT)=4.23, 95%CI:2.72-6.59; OR(ALP)=3.43, 95%CI:2.31-5.10;OR(AST)=3.00, 95%CI:2.04-4.42; OR(ALT)=2.69, 95%CI:1.89-3.84; OR(Bilirubin)=2.25, 95%CI:1.58-3.20). Each liver enzyme (OR(GGT)=4.98; 95%CI:1.75-14.17; OR(AST)=3.10, 95%CI:1.04-9.30; OR(ALT)=2.86, 95%CI:1.26-6.48, OR(ALP)=2.31, 95%CI:1.10-4.86) but not bilirubin (OR(Bilirubin)=1.46,95%CI:0.85-2.51) showed a significant association with IHBC. Only ALP was significantly associated with GBTC risk (OR(ALP)=1.59, 95%CI:1.20-2.09). Conclusion: This study shows positive associations between circulating liver biomarkers in sera collected prior to cancer diagnoses and the risks of developing HCC or IHBC, but not GBTC.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variable agreement exists between different Lp(a) measurement methods, but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The predictive value of Lp(a) measured by two different assays (Randox and UCSD) was determined in 623 CAD cases and 948 controls in a case-control study within the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. Participants were divided into sex-specific quintiles, and by Lp(a) <50 versus >50 mg/dL, which represents the 80th percentile in northern European subjects.Randox and UCSD Lp(a) levels were strongly correlated, with Spearman correlation coefficients for men, women and sexes combined were 0.905, 0.915 and 0.909, respectively (p<0.001 for each).The >80th percentile cut-off values, however, were 36 mg/dL and 24 mg/dL for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. Despite this, Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with CAD risk, with odds ratios of 2.18 (1.58-3.01) and 2.35 (1.70-3.26) for people in the top versus bottom Lp(a) quintile for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. This study demonstrates that CAD risk is present at lower Lp(a) levels than the currently suggested optimal Lp(a) level of <50 mg/dL. Appropriate thresholds may need to be population and assay specific until Lp(a) assays are standardized and Lp(a) thresholds are evaluated broadly across all populations at risk for CVD and aortic stenosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The Journal of Lipid Research
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: We aimed to examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of incident heart failure in a UK general population. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify this association. Methods and results: We used data from a prospective population-based study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Chocolate intake was quantified based on a food frequency questionnaire obtained at baseline (1993-1997) and incident heart failure was ascertained up to March 2009. We supplemented the primary data with a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies which evaluated risk of incident heart failure with chocolate consumption. A total of 20,922 participants (53% women; mean age 58 ± 9 years) were included of whom 1101 developed heart failure during the follow up (mean 12.5 ± 2.7 years, total person years 262,291 years). After adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors, we found 19% relative reduction in heart failure incidence in the top (up to 100 g/d) compared to the bottom quintile of chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-0.98) but the results were no longer significant after controlling for comorbidities (HR 0.87 95%CI 0.71-1.06). Additional adjustment for potential mediators did not attenuate the results further. We identified five relevant studies including the current study (N = 75,408). The pooled results showed non-significant 19% relative risk reduction of heart failure incidence with higher chocolate consumption (HR 0.81 95%CI 0.66-1.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher chocolate intake is not associated with subsequent incident heart failure.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Methods and findings: We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7). Conclusions: Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    No preview · Dataset · Jan 2016

Publication Stats

35k Citations
5,880.29 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2013
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Public Health and Primary Care
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • McGill University
      • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2010
    • Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2007
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • Universitetet i Tromsø
      • Department of Community Medicine
      Tromsø, Troms Fylke, Norway