[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Background:
Pseudomonas fluorescens lectin (PFL) belongs to a recently discovered anti-HIV lectin family and induces anoikis-like cell death of MKN28 gastric cancer cells by causing α2 integrin internalization through recognition of high mannose glycans; however, the detailed anti-cancer mechanism is not fully elucidated.
Cell adherence potency of MKN28 upon PFL treatment was assessed using a colorimetric assay. Cell surface molecules to which PFL bound were identified by peptide mass finger printing with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and their cellular localization determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Gene and protein expression in PFL-treated MKN28 cells were evaluated by microarray analysis and western blot, and the function of these genes was evaluated by siRNA knock-down. A proliferation assay measured the sensitivity of PFL-treated cancer cells to anti-cancer drugs. The effect of PFL on subcutaneous MKN28 tumor growth and hepatic tumor formation in BALB/c nude mice was evaluated.
The strength of MKN28 cell adherence in vitro to the extracellular matrix was impaired by PFL treatment, consistent with the observation that PFL induces rapid downregulation of surface integrins. PFL also was found to bind to cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Surface EGFR molecules were endocytosed following PFL binding, and were degraded in a time-dependent fashion. This degradation process was largely the result of autophagy, as revealed by the increased expression of autophagic proteins. PFL-induced EGFR degradation was partly inhibited by RAB7 siRNA as well as LC3 siRNA, and internalized EGFR colocalized with ATG9 at 48 h post-PFL treatment, suggesting that these proteins contribute to dynamic degradation induced by PFL. PFL-induced decrease in surface EGFR rendered MKN28 cells susceptible to gefitinib, a selective inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase. In vivo experiments showed that PFL-treated MKN28-EGFP cells injected in the portal vein of BALB/c nude mice failed to form tumor colonies on the liver, and intratumoral injection of PFL significantly inhibited tumor growth.
PFL-mediated downregulation of integrin and EGFR contributes to the inhibition of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. This novel anti-cancer mechanism of PFL suggests that this lectin would be useful as an anti-cancer drug or an adjuvant for other drugs.
Full-text available · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Cancer
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Combined active and passive immunization has been established to be an optimal strategy for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Prompt administration of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) can reliably prevent the disease. However, RIG is unavailable and unaffordable in the majority of cases. On the basis of a model experiment using hamsters, we demonstrated that vaccine injection at the wound site in the same manner as administration of RIG provided protective efficacy that was not inferior to the current optimal PEP, a combination of vaccination and RIG. Further study is needed to determine whether it can replace the use of RIG.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Lectin PFL binding high-mannose glycan derived from Pseudomonas fluorescens and other homologous lectins: PML derived from Pseudomonas mandelii and PTL derived from Pseudomonas taiwanensis were examined for antiviral activity. The cDNA of these lectin genes were synthesized, cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed lectins were purified by gel filtrations, and supplied to cultures infected with several strains of influenza virus. These three lectins have inhibited propagation of influenza viruses with a similar extent, 50% of inhibition-dose was around ten nanomolar concentration. An immunofluorescent microscopy, a microarray analysis, and several infection experiments with different time periods of lectin addition or using the competitor substrates indicated that binding of these lectins with high-mannose glycan on HA protein of influenza virus could block the virus entry into the host cells, thereby resulting in inhibition of the virus propagation. These Pseudomonas-derived lectins would be protential and attractive antiviral agents targeting glycoproteins of enveloped viruses including influenza virus.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Lectin sensitivity of the recent pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1-2009) was screened for 12 lectins with various carbohydrate specificity by a neutral red dye uptake assay with MDCK cells. Among them, a high mannose (HM)-binding anti-HIV lectin, ESA-2 from the red alga Eucheuma serra, showed the highest inhibition against infection with an EC50 of 12.4 nM. Moreover, ESA-2 exhibited a wide range of antiviral spectrum against various influenza strains with EC50s of pico molar to low nanomolar levels. Besides ESA-2, HM-binding plant lectin ConA, fucose-binding lectins such as fungal AOL from Aspergillus oryzae and AAL from Aleuria aurantia were active against H1N1-2009, but the potency of inhibition was of less magnitude compared with ESA-2. Direct interaction between ESA-2 and a viral envelope glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), was demonstrated by ELISA assay. This interaction was effectively suppressed by glycoproteins bearing HM-glycans, indicating that ESA-2 binds to the HA of influenza virus through HM-glycans. Upon treatment with ESA-2, no viral antigens were detected in the host cells, indicating that ESA-2 inhibited the initial steps of virus entry into the cells. ESA-2 would thus be useful as a novel microbicide to prevent penetration of viruses such as HIV and influenza viruses to the host cells.
Full-text available · Article · Jun 2015 · Marine Drugs
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Novel anti-HIV lectin family which shows a strict binding specificity for high mannose glycans has been found in lower organisms. The bacterial orthologue has been identified in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 and the gene coding a putative lectin was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by one step gel filtration. Glycan array screening of the recombinant lectin, termed PFL, has revealed that PFL preferentially recognizes high mannose glycans with α1-3 Man that was highly exposed at the D2 position. In contrast, masking of this α1-3 Man with α1-2 Man dramatically impaired lectin-carbohydrate interactions. Reducing terminal disaccharide, GlcNAc-GlcNAc of high mannose glycans was also essential for PFL-binding. PFL showed a potent anti-influenza virus activity by inhibiting the virus entry into cells at doses of low nanomolar concentration. At micromolar concentration or higher, PFL showed a cytotoxicity accompanying loss of the cell adhesion against human gastric cancer MKN28 cells. The cell surface molecule to which PFL bound was co-precipitated with biotin-labeled PFL and identified as integrin α2 by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Intriguingly, upon treatment with exogenous PFL, integrin α2 on the cell surface underwent rapid internalization to the cytoplasm and accumulated to perinuclear region, together with the bound PFL. The resulting loss of cell adherence would trigger a signaling pathway that induced anoikis-like cell death. These events were effectively inhibited by pretreatment of PFL with mannnan, indicating the involvement of high mannose glycans on PFL-induced cell death that was triggered by PFL-integrin α2 interactions.
Full-text available · Article · Sep 2012 · PLoS ONE
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: QS-BHK-P7, street rabies virus, after passages in the BHK cell line, had an in vitro phenotype that distinguished it from its parental virus. Both viruses caused lethal infection in mice by central nervous system inoculation; however, only QS-BHK-P7 killed mice by the intramuscular route. We found four mutations, S23R and H424P in ectodomain of the glycoprotein (G), I1711 V in the polymerase genes, and another at the non-coding region between the phosphoprotein and matrix protein genes of QS-BHK-P7. None of the mutations in the G gene occurred in previously reported pathogenic determinants. The roles of mutations in particular non-coding regions remain to be elucidated.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Street rabies viruses are field isolates known to be highly neurotropic. However, the viral elements related to their pathogenicity have yet to be identified at the nucleotide or amino acid level. Here, through 30 passages in mouse neuroblastoma NA cells, we have established an attenuated variant of street rabies virus strain 1088, originating from a rabid woodchuck followed by 2 passages in the brains of suckling mice. The variant, 1088-N30, was well adapted to NA cells and highly attenuated in adult mice after intramuscular (i.m.) but not intracerebral (i.c.) inoculations. 1088-N30 had seven nucleotide substitutions, and the R196S mutation of the G protein led to an additional N-glycosylation. Street viruses usually possess one or two N-glycosylation sites on the G protein, 1088 has two, while an additional N-glycosylation site is observed in laboratory-adapted strains. We also established a cloned variant 1088-N4#14 by limiting dilution. Apart from the R196S mutation, 1088-N4#14 possessed only one amino acid substitution in the P protein, which is found in several field isolates. 1088-N4#14 also efficiently replicated in NA cells and was attenuated in adult mice after i.m. inoculations, although it was more pathogenic than 1088-N30. The spread of 1088-N30 in the brain was highly restricted after i.m. inoculations, although the pattern of 1088-N4#14's spread was intermediate between that of the parental 1088 and 1088-N30. Meanwhile, both variants strongly induced humoral immune responses in mice compared to 1088. Our results indicate that the additional N-glycosylation is likely related to the reduced pathogenicity. Taken together, we propose that the number of N-glycosylation sites in the G protein is one of the determinants of the pathogenicity of street rabies viruses.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: The transcription mode of rabies virus high egg passage-Flury (HEP) strain was examined and compared with that of Evelyn Rokitniki Abelseth (ERA) strain by northern blot analysis using rabies virus gene-specific probes. The ERA strain was shown to exclusively produce monocistronic mRNAs in transcription. All combinations of multicistronic transcripts, including five monocistronic mRNAs, were detected in the viral RNA transcripts of HEP strain. It was concluded that the unique transcription mode is not due to the nucleotide structure of the genome RNA template, but rather to the viral RNA polymerase of HEP strain. The viral polymerase of HEP strain read through the gene junction at a high frequency. The HEP strain has been passaged many times in chick embryo and cultured cells, and has adapted to propagate well in the baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells. Through these passages in various hosts, the HEP strain has acquired a unique transcription mode that might have an advantage in amplification of the virus.
Full-text available · Article · Jun 2011 · Microbiology and Immunology
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: The complete amino acid sequence of a lectin from the green alga Boodlea coacta (BCA), which was determined by a combination of Edman degradation of its peptide fragments and cDNA cloning, revealed the following: 1) B. coacta used a noncanonical genetic code (where TAA and TAG codons encode glutamine rather than a translation termination), and 2) BCA consisted of three internal tandem-repeated domains, each of which contains the sequence motif similar to the carbohydrate-binding site of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin-related lectins. Carbohydrate binding specificity of BCA was examined by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC assay using 42 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides. BCA bound to high mannose-type N-glycans but not to the complex-type, hybrid-type core structure of N-glycans or oligosaccharides from glycolipids. This lectin had exclusive specificity for α1-2-linked mannose at the nonreducing terminus. The binding activity was enhanced as the number of terminal α1-2-linked mannose substitutions increased. Mannobiose, mannotriose, and mannopentaose were incapable of binding to BCA. Thus, BCA preferentially recognized the nonreducing terminal α1-2-mannose cluster as a primary target. As predicted from carbohydrate-binding propensity, this lectin inhibited the HIV-1 entry into the host cells at a half-maximal effective concentration of 8.2 nm. A high association constant (3.71 × 10(8) M(-1)) of BCA with the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Moreover, BCA showed the potent anti-influenza activity by directly binding to viral envelope hemagglutinin against various strains, including a clinical isolate of pandemic H1N1-2009 virus, revealing its potential as an antiviral reagent.
Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: The carbohydrate binding profile of the red algal lectin KAA-2 from Kappaphycus alvarezii was evaluated by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method using pyridylaminated oligosaccharides. KAA-2 bound exclusively to high mannose type N-glycans, but not to other glycans such as complex type, hybrid type, or the pentasaccharide core of N-glycans. This lectin exhibited a preference for an exposed α1-3 Man on a D2 arm in a similar manner to Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA-2), which shows various biological activities, such as anti-HIV and anti-carcinogenic activity. We tested the anti-influenza virus activity of KAA-2 against various strains including the recent pandemic H1N1-2009 influenza virus. KAA-2 inhibited infection of various influenza strains with EC50s of low nanomolar levels. Immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-influenza antibody demonstrated that the antiviral activity of KAA-2 was exerted by interference with virus entry into host cells. This mechanism was further confirmed by the evidence of direct binding of KAA-2 to a viral envelope protein, hemagglutinin (HA), using an ELISA assay. These results indicate that this lectin would be useful as a novel antiviral reagent for the prevention of infection.
Full-text available · Article · Feb 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: The lentiviral vector system based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is used extensively in gene therapy trials of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Retrograde axonal transport of viral vectors offers a great advantage to the delivery of genes into neuronal cell bodies that are situated in regions distant from the injection site. Pseudotyping of HIV-1-based vectors with selective variants of rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) increases gene transfer via retrograde transport into the central nervous system. Because large-scale application for gene therapy trials requires high titer stocks of the vector, pseudotyping of a lentiviral vector that produces more efficient retrograde transport is needed. In the present study, we developed a novel vector system for highly efficient retrograde gene transfer by pseudotyping an HIV-1 vector with a fusion envelope glycoprotein (termed FuG-B) in which the cytoplasmic domain of RV-G was substituted by the corresponding part of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The FuG-B pseudotype shifted the transducing property of the lentiviral vector and enhanced the retrograde transport-mediated gene transfer into different brain regions innervating the striatum with greater efficiency than that of the RV-G pseudotype in mice. In addition, injection of the FuG-B-pseudotyped vector into monkey striatum (caudate and putamen) allowed for highly efficient gene delivery into the nigrostriatal dopamine system, which is a major target for gene therapy of Parkinson's disease. Our strategy provides a powerful tool for the treatment of certain neurological and neurodegenerative diseases by promoting retrograde gene delivery via a lentiviral vector.
Full-text available · Article · Oct 2010 · Human gene therapy
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Despite the pivotal role of microglia in the immune system of the brain, a growing body of evidence suggests that excessive microglial activation provokes neuronal and glial damage, leading to neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders. Celastrol, a triterpene, is a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound derived from perennial creeping plants belonging to the Celastraceae family. In the current study, we have analyzed the effect of celastrol on morphological and transcriptional responses in microglial MG6 cells upon stimulation with double-stranded RNA, a strong activator of innate immune cells. In the presence of celastrol, morphological changes were inhibited in double-stranded RNA-stimulated microglia. It was also found that the treatment of microglia with celastrol led to a significant decrease in the double-stranded RNA-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These data demonstrate that celastrol inhibits morphological and transcriptional responses during microglial activation.
Article · Apr 2010 · The International journal of neuroscience
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: In rabies endemic countries, funds and infrastructure are often insufficient to employ the approved gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of rabies: the direct fluorescent test. In the present study, two types (type 1 and 2) of an ICT kit were evaluated for detection of rabies. These were developed using monoclonal antibodies which recognize epitope II and III of the nucleoprotein of rabies virus. Both kits specifically detected all rabies virus strains and there was no cross reactivity with Lyssaviruses (Lagos, Mokola and Duvenhage), Rhabdovirus (VSV and Oita 296/1972) and other common canine-pathogenic viruses. In type 1, a single type of monoclonal antibody was used. It was capable of detecting recombinant nucleoprotein and showed sensitivity of 95.5% (42/44) and specificity of 88.9% (32/36) using brain samples from rabid dogs. In contrast, type 2 which was made of two different monoclonal antibodies had a lower sensitivity of 93.2% (41/44) and higher specificity of 100% (36/36). These ICT kits provide a simple and rapid method for rabies detection. They need neither cold chain for transportation nor complicated training for personnel. This diagnostic test is suitable for rabies screening, particularly in areas with a high prevalence of rabies and where the fluorescent antibody test is not available.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Following virus infection of the central nervous system, microglia become activated and undergo morphological as well as functional transformations, thereby initiating effective antiviral actions. Herein, we have examined the contribution of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways to cell shape determination and cytoskeletal organization in microglia upon stimulation with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a conserved molecular pattern of virus infection. Under non-proliferative condition, microglial MG6-1 cells displayed a distinctive morphology with spinescent processes and small somata. Following dsRNA stimulation, the process-bearing microglial cells exhibited swift and drastic changes in cell morphology, filamentous actin (F-actin) structure, and intracellular signaling. In the dsRNA-stimulated microglial cells, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway was involved in morphological alteration into an ameboid state. We also found that p38 signaling pathway negatively regulates the formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in microglial cells. Furthermore, the dsRNA-induced accumulation of F-actin was partly mediated by NF-kappaB, JNK, and p38 pathways. These results indicate that NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling pathways mediate morphological and cytoskeletal changes during dsRNA-induced microglial activation.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Despite the pivotal role of microglia in immune system of the brain, a growing body of evidence suggests that the excessive microglial activation provokes neuronal and glial damages, leading to neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, have recently received much attention for their suppressive effects on inflammation in the central nervous system. In the current study, we have examined the statin-mediated inhibition of microglial function, especially that of chemokine production. Stimulation of microglial cells with interferon-beta (IFN-beta) resulted in the expression of CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), a major chemoattractant of inflammatory cells. Microglial CCL5 response was synergistically potentiated by costimulation with IFN-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The simvastatin treatment significantly diminished the microglial CCL5 expression induced by IFN-beta alone or by IFN-beta/TNF-alpha combination. In the presence of simvastatin, the IFN-beta-induced activation of Janus kinase (Jak)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway was attenuated, although this compound had little or no effect on the TNF-alpha-evoked activation of nuclear factor kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways. In addition, chemical inhibitor of Jak-STAT signaling significantly diminished the IFN-beta-induced expression of CCL5 in microglia. Taken together, these results suggest that simvastatin suppresses the IFN-beta-induced expression of CCL5 via down-regulation of Jak-STAT signaling pathway.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: An amino acid at position 333 in the glycoprotein of several fixed rabies virus strains is responsible for the pathogenicity in adult mice. Substitution of arginine at this position largely reduces the viral pathogenicity in adult mice. Attenuation by this single amino acid substitution has been established by using escape mutants selected by monoclonal antibodies and point-mutated virus generated by reverse-genetics. A highly attenuated HEP-Flury strain, which was selected by serial passages in cell cultures, has glutamine at this position. In this study, a point-mutated rHEP333R virus, having arginine at position 333, was generated and examined for the responsibility of this substitution in rabies pathogenicity. The rHEP333R acquired an ability to spread and propagate in mouse brain but the parental rHEP did not. The pathogenicity of rHEP333R to adult mice by intracerebral inoculation largely increased. We confirmed that an arginine at position 333 contributed to reversion of the pathogenicity in a highly attenuated HEP-Flury strain.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: The genetic diversity of the rabies virus glycoprotein (G) gene isolated from individual rabid dogs (inter-hosts) and within a single infected dog (intra-host) has been analyzed in an effort to better understand selective pressures and population shifts among rabies viruses circulating in Bangkok. Comparison of individual master sequences among inter-hosts revealed that the dog virus isolates circulating in Bangkok were phylogenetically closely related. The ectodomain of the glycoprotein was highly conserved among the virus isolates. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of the G gene within an intra-host was assessed by comparing the cloned sequences in the virus population. The comparisons revealed that rabies virus circulating in an intra-host consisted of closely related heterogenous populations with minor substitutions at nucleotide (0.19%) and amino acid levels.
Article · Jun 2006 · Infection Genetics and Evolution
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: During neurotropic virus infection, microglia act as a source of chemokines, thereby regulating the recruitment of peripheral leukocytes and the multicellular immune response within the CNS. Herein, we present a comprehensive study on the chemokine production by microglia in response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a conserved molecular pattern of virus infection. Transcriptional analyses of chemokine genes revealed that dsRNA strongly induces the expression of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) in microglia. We also observed that the dsRNA stimulation triggered the activation of signaling pathways mediated by nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The microglial CXCL10 response to dsRNA was induced via NF-kappaB, p38, and JNK pathways, whereas the dsRNA-induced CCL5 production was dependent on JNK, but not on the other signal-transducing molecules tested. In addition, the acidic environment of intracellular vesicles was required for the activation of cellular signaling in response to dsRNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the recognition of dsRNA structure selectively induces the CXCL10 and CCL5 responses in microglia through vacuolar pH-dependent activation of NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling pathways.
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: Following virus infection of the central nervous system, microglia, the ontogenetic and functional equivalents of macrophages in somatic tissues, act as sources of chemokines, thereby recruiting peripheral leukocytes into the brain parenchyma. In the present study, we have systemically examined the growth characteristics of rabies virus (RV) in microglia and the activation of cellular signaling pathways leading to chemokine expression upon RV infection. In RV-inoculated microglia, the synthesis of the viral genome and the production of virus progenies were significantly impaired, while the expression of viral proteins was observed. Transcriptional analyses of the expression profiles of chemokine genes revealed that RV infection, but not exposure to inactivated virions, strongly induces the expression of CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) and CC chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) in microglia. RV infection triggered the activation of signaling pathways mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). RV-induced expression of CXCL10 and CCL5 was achieved by the activation of p38 and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, the activation of ERK1/2 was found to down-regulate CCL5 expression in RV-infected microglia, despite the fact that it was involved in partial induction of CXCL10 expression. Furthermore, NF-kappaB signaling upon RV infection was augmented via a p38-mediated mechanism. Taken together, these results indicate that the strong induction of CXCL10 and CCL5 expression in microglia is precisely regulated by the activation of multiple signaling pathways through the recognition of RV infection.
Full-text available · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract]ABSTRACT: The RNA polymerase of rabies virus (RV) is a two-protein complex composed of L (a large catalytic component) and P (a non-catalytic phosphoprotein cofactor) proteins. We generated a gene-deficient RV lacking the entire P gene from HEP-Flury (HEP) strain, one of the most attenuated RV strains, by the method of reverse genetics. This P gene-deficient (def-P) virus could replicate and produce progeny viruses with a slightly retarded rate in the cell lines that constitutively express the P protein. The def-P virus could perform the primary RNA transcription by the virion-associated polymerase even in the infected host without de novo P protein synthesis. However, the def-P virus required the newly synthesized P protein for the secondary RNA transcription and genome RNA replication of virus. No progeny virus was produced in the infected host that did not express P protein. The def-P virus was apathogenic in adult and suckling mice even when inoculated intracranially. On the other hand, inoculation of the def-P virus into mice induced a high titer of virus-neutralizing antibody and protected mice from lethal challenge with the CVS strain. These results demonstrated that the def-P virus could induce strong protective immunity against rabies virus without the production of progeny virus and the severe host damage. The def-P virus would be a potential resource of safe live-attenuated rabies vaccine.