[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nephro-protective effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely known; however, there are few reports of long-term effects focusing on the renal vessels. We studied afferent arteriolar changes induced by the long-term administration of an ARB.
Thirty-two 6-week-old male Zucker fatty rats (ZFRs) were divided into following four groups (n = 8 in each): ZFR Group and ZFR+High Group fed a standard or high-salt diet, respectively; ZFR+ARB Group and ZFR+High+ARB Group fed a standard or high-salt diet with ARB (Olmesartan, 5 mg/kg/day), respectively. Blood pressure, proteinuria, morphological examinations and glomerular haemodynamics in vivo were studied.
Marked proliferative changes in the afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were frequently observed in the two groups given ARBs; in the ZFR+ARB group (77.3±10.3%) compared with the two groups without ARB (1.7%, p < 0.005; 1.2%, p < 0.0005) and 37.4±15.6% in the ZFR+High+ARB group. Proteinuria markedly decreased in the groups treated with ARBs, but the glomerular erythrocyte velocities showed no differences.
Our findings indicate that long-term ARB administration induced unusual proliferative changes in SMCs of afferent arterioles of ZFRs. These changes could narrow arteriolar lumens and reduce intraglomerular pressure, but they could cause also irreversible damage to the arterioles.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While investigating the mechanisms underlying cell death during wound healing processes, we uncovered the pro-apoptotic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on granulation tissue fibroblasts following pretreatment with transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in vitro. bFGF induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in TGF-beta1-pretreated granulation tissue-derived fibroblasts (GF-1) following bFGF treatment for 48 and 96 h. In contrast, fibroblasts that had been treated in the same manner and that originated from the uninjured dermis did not display apoptosis, indicating that the mechanisms underlying apoptosis events in fibroblasts that originate from normal dermal and wound tissues differ. In this process, we also found that bFGF inhibited Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and induced a rapid loss of phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at tyrosine 397 in pretreated GF-1 cells, an event that coincided with the dissociation of phosphorylated FAK from the focal adhesions. Therefore, inhibition of survival signals relayed via the disrupted focal adhesion structures and inactivated Akt following bFGF treatment may lead to apoptosis in GF-1 cells pretreated with TGF-beta1. Pretreatment of GF-1 with TGF-beta1 followed by the addition of bFGF resulted in significantly greater inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt and FAK compared to treatment with TGF-beta1 or bFGF alone. The combinatorial treatment also led to proteolysis of FAK and inhibition of FAK and Akt protein expression in GF-1 cells. These findings demonstrated a significant role for the two cytokines in apoptosis of granulation tissue fibroblasts during wound healing. In vivo studies also confirmed a marked decline in phosphorylation and protein expression of Akt and FAK in bFGF-injected skin wounds. These results led to the hypothesis that temporal activation of TGF-beta1 and bFGF at the injury site promotes apoptosis in granulation tissue fibroblasts, an event that is critical for the termination of proliferative granulation tissue formation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · The Journal of Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A myocardial bridge (MB) that partially covers the course of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) sometimes causes myocardial ischemia, primarily because of hemodynamic deterioration, but without atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) as a result of an MB in patients with spontaneously developing atherosclerosis is unclear.
One hundred consecutive autopsied MI hearts either with MBs [MI(+)MB(+) group; n=46] or without MBs (n=54) were obtained, as were 200 normal hearts, 100 with MBs [MI(-)MB(+) group] and 100 without MBs. By microscopy on LADs that were consecutively cross-sectioned at 5-mm intervals, the extent and distribution of LAD atherosclerosis were investigated histomorphometrically in conjunction with the anatomic properties of the MB, such as its thickness, length, and location and the MB muscle index (MB thickness multiplied by MB length), according to MI and MB status. In the MI(+)MB(+) group, the MB showed a significantly greater thickness and greater MB muscle index (P<0.05) than in the MI(-)MB(+) group. The intima-media ratio (intimal area/medial area) within 1.0 cm of the left coronary ostium was also greater (P<0.05) in the MI(+)MB(+) group than in the other groups. In addition, in the MI(+)MB(+) group, the location of the segment that exhibited the greatest intima-media ratio in the LAD proximal to the MB correlated significantly (P<0.001) with the location of the MB entrance, and furthermore, atherosclerosis progression in the LAD proximal to the MB was largest at 2.0 cm from the MB entrance.
In the proximal LAD with an MB, MB muscle index is associated with a shift of coronary disease more proximally, an effect that may increase the risk of MI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on the inhibition of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression in dermal fibroblasts, we have established two dermal myofibroblastic cell lines positive for alpha-SMA (rat myofibroblasts [RMF] and rat myofibroblast-like [RMFL] cells) and one fibroblastic cell line negative for alpha-SMA (rat fibroblasts cells) as a model of fibroblast differentiation. In contrast to the increased expression of alpha-SMA in RMF and RMFL cells, irrespective of transforming growth factor-beta1 treatment, bFGF induced a decrease in alpha-SMA expression in the myofibroblastic cells and the reduced expression patterns of alpha-SMA differed between cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. Along with the inhibition of alpha-SMA expression by bFGF, the RMF and RMFL cells also showed different activated expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, suggesting the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in the down-regulation of alpha-SMA expression in myofibroblasts. Furthermore, an in vivo study demonstrated that bFGF administration markedly decreases the area that is positive for alpha-SMA expression in the treated wounds after day 18. In contrast, bFGF administration significantly increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining and alpha-SMA-positive cells at days 10 and 14, and reduced the double-positive cells rapidly after day 18. Collectively, the current investigation identified bFGF as a potent stimulator for the reduction of the myofibroblastic area in vivo, presumably because of its effects on the down-regulation of alpha-SMA expression as well as rapid induction of apoptosis in myofibroblasts.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Wound Repair and Regeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keloid is characterized by excessive deposition of collagen, resulting from aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) production and degradation. The aim was to investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in pathological wound healing in keloids.
Semiquantitative analysis of 60 keloid tissue samples and 25 mature scar tissue samples demonstrated significantly increased expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 in keloids compared with mature scars. Within keloid regions, MMP-2 expression was significantly higher in collagen bundle regions than in non-collagen bundle regions. Double immunofluorescence revealed that keloid fibroblasts between collagen bundles exhibited MMP-2, TIMP-2 and membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) co-expression, whereas only MMP-2 expression was evident on the edge of collagen bundles. Western blot analysis and gelatin zymography of 13 keloid-derived fibroblasts (KFbs) and six normal skin dermal-derived fibroblasts (NFbs) demonstrated that unstimulated KFbs exhibited significantly increased MMP-2 activity and expression compared with NFbs under the same conditions.
These results together indicate that MMP-2 activity can be promoted in keloid fibroblasts between collagen bundles in cooperation with TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP. This could contribute to remodelling of collagen bundle regions and invasion of fibroblasts into peripheral normal regions through promoted degradation of ECM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer invasion and metastasis are critical events for patient prognosis; however, the most important step in the whole process of lymph node (LN) metastasis in gastric cancer remains obscure. In this study, the significance of cancer cell behaviors, such as cell detachment, stromal invasion and lymphatic invasion on regional LN metastasis in gastric cancer was investigated by comprehensive immunohistochemistry.
A total of 210 cases with gastric cancer were selected. These consisted of 105 cases with regional LN metastasis (LN[+] group) and 105 cases without LN metastasis (LN[-] group). Both groups exhibited the same depth of invasion. Cancer tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry with antibodies against claudin-3, claudin-4, beta-catenin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-2, as well as endothelial markers of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 and von Willebrand factor for the objective discrimination between lymphatics and blood vessels. The expression of each protein as well as the histopathological parameters were compared between LN(+) and LN(-) groups.
Along with lymphatic invasion by cancer cells and gross tumor size, MMP-1 expression in cancer cells at the invasive front of the primary tumor was a significant, independent predictor of LN metastasis. The expression of claudins and beta-catenin was associated with the histopathological type of cancer, but not with LN status.
Among the cancer invasion-related proteins examined, MMP-1 plays a vital role in LN metastasis of gastric cancer. Tumor size, lymphatic invasion and MMP-1 expression level at the invasive front were the predictive factors of LN metastasis of gastric cancer.
No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regional lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer is a definitive indicator of the patient's prognosis. The goal of this study was to identify the predictors for lymph node metastasis among all the possible histopathological parameters, especially by conducting an objective discrimination of the lymphatic and blood vessels. A total of 210 resected primary gastric cancers with or without lymph node metastasis were evaluated based on the conventional histopathological parameters together with immunohistochemistry using antisera-recognizing lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), von Willebrand factor, and lymphangiogenesis promoter vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) antibodies. A multivariate regression analyses of the results indicated that only lymphatic invasion was a significant independent predictor of lymph node metastasis at any stage of cancer invasion. VEGF-C expression was partially related to lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer. The identification of lymphatic invasion by LYVE-1 antibody is therefore useful to predict regional lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Management strategies of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) have been revolutionized due to the discovery of a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib (Gleevec, STI571), which is substantially improving median survival. However, emergence of imatinib-resistance has put up a serious problem that requires novel treatment methods. Catechins, polyphenolic compounds in green tea, are gathering much attention due to their potential antitumor effects. So far (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant component of catechin, has been shown to cause typical apoptosis in several tumor cell lines in most cases through activation of caspases. In this study, we showed that EGCG predominantly caused necrosis-like cell death via a caspase-independent mechanism in CML cells, K562 and C2F8, whereas imatinib induced the typical apoptotic cell death. Moreover, this caspase-independent cell death partially mediated the release of apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF, and serine protease, HtrA2/Omi, from the mitochondria to cytosol. In addition, EGCG enhanced the imatinib-induced cell death (P < 0.01) resulting in additive cell death in K562 cells and EGCG alone, effectively reduced the viability of imatinib-resistant K562 cells (P < 0.01). Catechin is a possible candidate for an antitumor agent that causes cell death in CML cells via a caspase-independent mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) inhibits the progression of ventricular remodeling in ischemic and hypertensive heart diseases (HHDs). Recent studies have revealed that bFGF induces the transition from myofibroblasts to fibroblasts with decreased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). To clarify the mechanisms underlying the reduced ventricular remodeling in hypertensive heart diseases caused by bFGF, we examined the degree of interstitial fibrosis associated with alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity in hypertensive heart diseases.
Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed with a high-salt diet from 6 to 18 weeks of age and injected with a single dose of bFGF (100 microg) into the left myocardium at 15 weeks. Others were administered PBS without bFGF. Control age-matched Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed with a low-salt diet.
Cardiac systolic function was well preserved and decompensation of heart failure was prevented at 18 weeks in the rats treated with bFGF at 15 weeks. The bFGF-treated rats had significantly fewer interstitial alpha-SMA-positive myofibroblasts and significantly decreased prolyl 4-hydroxylase expression. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 gelatinase activity correlated with the downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 by bFGF, suggesting that inhibited extracellular matrix deposition is associated with a decreased number of myofibroblasts induced by bFGF.
bFGF can inhibit the progression of ventricular remodeling by inhibiting interstitial fibrosis and promoting angiogenesis without decreasing blood pressure in hypertensive heart disease.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secretory phospholipase A2s (sPLA2s) contribute to the hydrolysis of phospholipid. Among them, sPLA2-IIA, -V, and -X have been regarded as enhancers of lipid accumulation in arterial intima. However, the distribution and production of the other types of sPLA2 in human aortic wall remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, the distribution and production of seven types of sPLA2 including IIA, IID, IIE, IIF, III, V, and X in atherosclerosis development in the human aorta were comprehensively examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH). The extent of sPLA2s expression increased with atherosclerosis development, but only sPLA2-IIF was never observed in the normal aorta. Double-immunostaining demonstrated that sPLA2-V expression was limited to smooth muscle cells (SMCs), although the other sPLA2s were expressed in both macrophages and SMCs. ISH using sPLA2 cDNAs revealed that the expression pattern of each mRNA was consistent with the results of immunohistochemistry for each corresponding sPLA2. These results indicate that the seven types of sPLA2 are expressed with various patterns in all stages of atherosclerosis development and may play an atherogenic role through degradation of phospholipid.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the associations of lymphatic invasion and lymphatic vessel density around tumors with lymph node (LN) status in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by immunohistochemical analysis using D2-40 antibody as a lymphatic marker. Surgically removed specimens from 76 cases with RCC, including 16 cases with LN metastasis, were used. Lymphatic vessel density around the tumor increased compared with normal kidneys but was not significant by LN status. Tumor size, tumor cell types, patterns of tumor growth, nuclear grade of tumor cells, venous invasion, lymphatic invasion, and primary tumor stage were predictive factors for LN metastasis. Based on multivariate regression analysis, only lymphatic invasion was an independent risk factor for LN metastasis. The immunohistochemical detection of lymphatics was useful for identifying the lymphatic invasion of RCC, and the presence of lymphatic invasion around RCC was an independent predictive factor for LN metastasis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C/EBPbeta plays a pivotal role in activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in monocytes/macrophages. However, mechanisms for functional regulation of C/EBPbeta remain uncharacterized. Previous studies indicated that NF-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, which activates TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF), induces HIV-1 expression. We found that TRAF signals activate HIV-1 LTR with mutations of NF-kappaB sites in promonocytic cell line U937, suggesting existence of an alternative HIV-1 activating pathway. In this study, we have characterized the signal transduction pathway of TRAF other than that leading to NF-kappaB, using U937 cell line, and its subline, U1, which is chronically infected by HIV-1. We show that signals downstream of TRAF2 and TRAF5 activate p38 MAPK, which directly phosphorylates C/EBPbeta, and that activation of p38 MAPK potently activates C/EBPbeta-mediated induction of HIV-1 gene expression. We also show TRAF2 and TRAF5 are expressed in monocytes/macrophages of spleen samples from HIV-1 infected patients. Identification of TRAF-p38 MAPK-CEBPbeta pathway provides a new target for controlling reactivation of latent HIV-1 in monocytes/macrophages.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Microbes and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the mechanisms underlying declines in wound contraction caused by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and the role of autologous fibroblasts in modulating wound healing, we have examined the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and apoptosis in a model of wound healing using collagen sponges with and without bFGF (1 microg) and/or fibroblasts (1 x 10(6) cells/cm(2)) applied to experimentally produced full-thickness skin wounds in rats (n=10 for each group). At 7 days postoperatively, wounds filled with a fibroblast-seeded collagen sponge (fibroblast-seeded group) displayed a greater area of collagen sponge and a smaller area of fibroblasts compared with control wounds filled with collagen sponge alone (control group). Therefore, seeding of fibroblasts in the dermal substitute might retard degradation of the collagen sponge, inhibiting fibroblast infiltration into the substitute. By day 14, wounds filled with bFGF-treated collagen sponge without fibroblast seeding (bFGF group) displayed decreased alpha-SMA expression and significantly increased apoptosis compared with other wounds. Double staining revealed that apoptosis in alpha-SMA-positive fibroblastic cells was significantly increased in the bFGF group, suggesting that bFGF treatment is a potent stimulator of myofibroblast apoptosis. Furthermore, morphometric analysis demonstrated the significant decrease in the level of wound contraction and the degree of mature collagen bundle formation in the bFGF group by day 42. The bFGF group also showed increased bFGF expression in macrophages by day 28. These results suggest that bFGF administration to an artificial dermis promotes apoptosis of alpha-SMA-positive fibroblastic cells and inhibits alpha-SMA expression in the treated wound, thus reducing wound contraction.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Wound Repair and Regeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that lymphatic invasion is a predictor for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer (EGC); however, it has been impossible to differentiate between lymphatic invasion and blood vessel invasion using current staining techniques. We studied the significance of lymphatic invasion on regional lymph node metastasis in EGC by using human lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) antibody, specific to lymphatic vessels, and von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody, specific to the blood vessels, to clearly distinguish these vascular tissues.EGC tissues were obtained from 66 node-positive and 66 node-negative subjects and were matched by age and sex. These tissues were immunostained with antibodies against LYVE-1 and vWF. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that lymphatic invasion was a significant independent predictor for regional lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 4.667; P = .0094), whereas blood vessel invasion was not. Thus, lymphatic invasion identified by LYVE-1 antibody could predict the existence of regional lymph node metastasis in EGC.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · American Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial bridge (MB) is frequently detected in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), and LAD intima under MB is significantly spared from atherosclerotic evolution. Significance of anatomical features of MB on the extent of atherosclerosis of LAD was histomorphometrically investigated. Full-length 200 LADs with MB and 100 control LADs without MB were cross-sectioned at 5 mm intervals, and atherosclerosis ratio and intimal lesion types were evaluated. In cases with MB located within 5 cm from the left coronary ostium, atherosclerosis ratio in the proximal part of LAD was significantly lower than in control group, but, in cases with MB locating more than 5 cm from the ostium, atherosclerosis ratio in this part was similar to that in control cases. MB thickness was significantly correlated with its length, and the longer the MB the more proximally it tended to be located in LAD. Atherosclerosis ratio under MB was lower in cases with thick or long MBs than in cases with thinner or shorter MBs. In addition, intimal lesion in segments proximal to MB tended to be eccentric. Our results suggest that these anatomical properties of MB are the critical modulators for atherosclerosis evolution in the entire course of LAD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the role of myocardial apoptosis associated with the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human myocardial infarction (MI), we have analyzed the expression of apoptosis positive for single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) antibody, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interleukin (IL)-8 in 147 samples of infarcted myocardial tissue from 65 patients. ss-DNA-positive apoptotic nuclei were found mainly in cardiomyocytes in the border zones and granulation tissue cells in the infarct foci. The ss-DNA index (SI) of cardiomyocytes (average 0.13%) peaked at stage II (established myocardial necrosis), the value being significantly higher than at stages III (macrophage infiltration), IV (granulation formation), and V (scar formation) (P<0.05), whereas the SI of granulation tissue (average 0.08%) at stages III, IV, and V showed no significant differences between the three stages. These results suggest that cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the border zone is responsible for cellular loss in the acute stage of MI, whereas granulation tissue apoptosis may not be involved in the process of ventricular remodeling. TNF-alpha was expressed in cardiomyocytes in the border zones of infarct foci, but no significant positive correlation was found between SI and TNF-alpha index in cardiomyocytes (r=0.08, P = 0.37), suggesting that TNF-alpha does not serve as a direct trigger of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo. The number of IL-8-positive cells peaked at stage II, and IL-8-myeloperoxidase-double-positive neutrophils were frequently detected, indicating that infiltrating neutrophils are the predominant source of IL-8 in the infarcted myocardium. These results suggest that, in human MI, TNF-alpha produced by cardiomyocytes does not play a critical role in their apoptosis, and that IL-8 produced by neutrophils is responsible for the subsequent accumulation and activation of neutrophils, thus increasing the degree of myocardial damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize apoptosis in keloids and the mechanisms responsible for this process, the expression of activated caspase-9 and -3 in fibroblasts obtained from keloids was analyzed. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the number of fibroblasts positive for terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) or activated caspase-9 or -3 was low but was significantly higher in keloid tissues than in normal scar tissues. Significant relationships between the number of caspase-positive fibroblasts and TUNEL-positive fibroblasts suggested that the activation of caspase-9 and -3 induces apoptosis in a subpopulation of keloid fibroblasts. All keloid fibroblast cell lines established in this study showed activation of caspase-9 and -3 after serum deprivation for 3 or 4 hours, as shown using Western blotting. Furthermore, serum deprivation-induced apoptosis in a keloid fibroblast line was blocked by a caspase-9 inhibitor (acetyl-Leu-Glu-His-Asp-al), indicating that activation of caspase-9 was necessary for the process of apoptosis in keloid fibroblasts. Although serum deprivation did not significantly change the level of apoptosis protease activating factor-1 in any of the lines, cytochrome c release was detected in cytosolic fractions of the lines after serum deprivation for 3 or 4 hours. These results strongly suggest that keloid fibroblasts are predisposed to apoptosis and cytochrome c release and that caspase-9 activation may underlie regulation of apoptosis in keloid fibroblasts in vivo.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Wound Repair and Regeneration
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) is a specific cell surface protein in lymphatic endothelium. The antiserum against human LYVE-1 was developed and was confirmed a powerful marker of lymphatic endothelium in human organs. With this novel marker we investigated the small network of intraprostate lymphatic vessels.
To identify intraprostatic lymphatic vessels, we performed an immunohistochemical staining method using LYVE-1 pAb and von Willebrand Factor (vWF), and assessed the difference in distribution of small lymphatic vessels between the components in the prostate.
The density of lymphatic vessel was significantly high around ejaculatory ducts and in the fibromascular area between the globular area of peripheral zone and transitional zone. Predominat lymphatic vessels distributed in the fibromascular area in the anterior and posterior prostate of extrastromal area.
Recognition of the distinctive features of the intraprostate lymphatic network, can help the investigation of lymphatic involvement in cancer of the prostate.