K H Winterhalter

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (201)929.11 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laccase isozymes from the white-rot basidiomycete fungi Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus were purified to apparent iso-electric homogeneity and crystallised. T. versicolor laccase crystallises in two crystal forms, both with the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), which diffract to 1.9 and 2.95 A resolution, respectively. The crystals of P. cinnabarinus laccase belong to the monoclinic space group C2 and diffract to at least 2.2 A resolution. All the laccase crystals are suitable for X-ray structure determination and contain a full complement of copper ions.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2002 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
  • K T Bostedt · C Schmid · C Ghirlanda-Keller · R Olie · K H Winterhalter · J Zapf
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    ABSTRACT: The insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF 1R) mediates the acute metabolic effects of IGF I as well as IGF I-stimulated cell proliferation and protection from apoptosis. IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) can modulate these responses. We, therefore, investigated whether intrinsic IGFBPs interfere with IGF I-induced regulation of IGF 1R expression and with the biological response to IGF I in two human tumor cell lines, the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 and the osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2/B-10. We compared the growth rates, IGFBP production, IGF I binding characteristics, IGF 1R protein and mRNA levels, and the acute IGF I response (stimulation of glycogen synthesis) after pretreatment of the cells in serum-free medium with or without added IGF I or medium supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast to A549 cells, which produce IGF I and significant amounts of IGFBPs, survival and proliferation of Saos-2/B-10 cells, which do not produce IGF I or significant amounts of IGFBPs, depended on the addition of exogenous IGF I. IGF I increased the concentration of IGFBP-2 and -3 and decreased the concentration of IGFBP-4 in the medium of A549 cells. As compared to FCS, IGF I pretreatment in both cell lines decreased the number of specific IGF I binding sites, down-regulated total and membrane IGF 1R protein, and largely reduced or abolished the acute IGF I response without affecting IGF 1R mRNA levels. The data suggest that the IGF 1R protein of the two cell lines is translationally and/or posttranslationally down-regulated by its ligand in the presence and in the absence of locally produced IGFBPs and that the cell lines have retained this negative feedback to counteract IGF I stimulation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Experimental Cell Research
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    Marc F. BOLLIGER · Karl FREI · Kaspar H. WINTERHALTER · Sergio M. GLOOR
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroligins, first discovered in rat brain, form a family of three synaptically enriched membrane proteins. Using reverse transcription-PCR of human brain polyadenylated RNA and extensive database searches, we identified the human homologues of the three rat neuroligins and a cDNA encoding a fourth member, which we named neuroligin 4. Neuroligin 4 has 63-73% amino acid identity with the other members of the human neuroligin family, and the same predicted domain structure. DNA database analyses, furthermore, indicated that a possible fifth neuroligin gene may be present in the human genome. Northern-blot analysis revealed expression of neuroligin 4 in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but barely at all in brain. Overexpression of neuroligin 4 cDNA in COS-7 cells led to the production of a 110 kDa protein. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that the protein was integrated into the plasma membrane. Overexpression of cDNAs encoding neuroligin 4 and the PDZ-domain protein, PSD-95, in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of detergent-resistant complexes. Neuroligin 4 did not bind to ZO-1, another PDZ-domain protein. Together, our data show that the human neuroligin family is composed of at least one additional member, and suggest that neuroligin 4 may also be produced outside the central nervous system.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2001 · Biochemical Journal
  • Carlo Regazzoni · Kaspar H. Winterhalter · Lucia Rohrer
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    ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix regulates many fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Among the ECM components, type I collagen induces endothelial tube formation in vitro. By analysing genes participating in this event, the bone morphogenetic protein receptor-II (BMPR-II) was detected to be upregulated in cells cultured on or within fibrillar type I collagen. Furthermore, the basement membrane type IV collagen or amorphous type I collagen did not show an induction of BMPR-II. Addition of the BMPR-II specific ligands, BMP2 and BMP4, in the culture medium of the endothelial cells seeded on type I collagen increased [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation into cellular DNA, indicating that endothelial cells were able to form a functional receptor. In addition, in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), an in vivo angiogenesis model, BMPR-II and BMPR-I were upregulated in the growing phase and ceased in the mature CAM.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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    Marc F. BOLLIGER · Karl FREI · Kaspar H. WINTERHALTER · Sergio M. GLOOR
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroligins, first discovered in rat brain, form a family of three synaptically enriched membrane proteins. Using reverse transcription-PCR of human brain polyadenylated RNA and extensive database searches, we identified the human homologues of the three rat neuroligins and a cDNA encoding a fourth member, which we named neuroligin 4. Neuroligin 4 has 63-73% amino acid identity with the other members of the human neuroligin family, and the same predicted domain structure. DNA database analyses, furthermore, indicated that a possible fifth neuroligin gene may be present in the human genome. Northern-blot analysis revealed expression of neuroligin 4 in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas, but barely at all in brain. Overexpression of neuroligin 4 cDNA in COS-7 cells led to the production of a 110 kDa protein. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that the protein was integrated into the plasma membrane. Overexpression of cDNAs encoding neuroligin 4 and the PDZ-domain protein, PSD-95, in COS-7 cells resulted in the formation of detergent-resistant complexes. Neuroligin 4 did not bind to ZO-1, another PDZ-domain protein. Together, our data show that the human neuroligin family is composed of at least one additional member, and suggest that neuroligin 4 may also be produced outside the central nervous system.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Biochemical Journal
  • M Hilge · A Perrakis · J P Abrahams · K Winterhalter · K Piontek · S M Gloor
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    ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of affinity-purified Thermomonospora fusca beta-mannanase has been solved despite the lack of the major part of the amino-acid sequence. A high-quality electron-density map allowed the identification of a stretch of eight amino acids close to the C-terminus which was used to design a degenerate downstream PCR primer. Together with a specific primer previously derived from the N-terminus, 95.7% of the mannanase gene sequence was obtained from genomic T. fusca DNA by PCR. The structure-derived sequence was then compared with the DNA-derived sequence and corrected when necessary. Applying the presented protocol, there was no need to manually build a model at an early stage of structure determination, an erroneous and tedious process, especially in the absence of the amino-acid sequence. Using the DNA sequence information and the current version of ARP/wARP, 281 residues, or 93% of the polypeptide chain (including side chains), were built and refined to an R factor of 16.5% without any manual intervention.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
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    ABSTRACT: Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodents: Oatps; human: OATPs) are involved in the absorption and elimination of a wide variety of structurally unrelated amphipathic organic compounds. Several members of this protein family mediate the uptake of substrates across the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes as the first step in hepatic elimination. In contrast to the well-characterized Oatp1 and Oatp2, the localization and substrate specificity of the recently cloned Oatp4 have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, we raised an antibody against the C-terminal end of Oatp4 and localized this 85-kDa protein to the basolateral membrane of rat hepatocytes. Similar to Oatp1 and Oatp2, Oatp4 is a multispecific transporter with high affinities for bromosulfophthalein, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, leukotriene C4, and anionic peptides. In addition, we compared the substrate specificity of Oatp4 to that of Oatp3, which so far has mainly been shown to mediate intestinal bile acid transport. Oatp3 had a similar broad substrate specificity, but in general much lower affinities than Oatp4. Thus, while Oatp4 seems to work in concert with Oatp1 and Oatp2 in the basolateral membrane of rat hepatocytes, Oatp3 is a multispecific transport system in the small intestine.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2001 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of affinity-purified Thermomonospora fuscaβ-mannanase has been solved despite the lack of the major part of the amino-acid sequence. A high-quality electron-density map allowed the identification of a stretch of eight amino acids close to the C-terminus which was used to design a degenerate downstream PCR primer. Together with a specific primer previously derived from the N-terminus, 95.7% of the mannanase gene sequence was obtained from genomic T. fusca DNA by PCR. The structure-derived sequence was then compared with the DNA-derived sequence and corrected when necessary. Applying the presented protocol, there was no need to manually build a model at an early stage of structure determination, an erroneous and tedious process, especially in the absence of the amino-acid sequence. Using the DNA sequence information and the current version of ARP/wARP, 281 residues, or 93% of the polypeptide chain (including side chains), were built and refined to an R factor of 16.5% without any manual intervention.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we identify the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan versican V2 as a major inhibitor of axonal growth in the extracellular matrix of the mature central nervous system. In immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization experiments we show that this tissue-specific splice variant of versican is predominantly present in myelinated fiber tracts of the brain and in the optic nerve, most likely being expressed by oligodendrocytes. We demonstrate that isolated versican V2 strongly inhibits neurite outgrowth of central and peripheral neurons in stripe-choice assays using laminin-1 as permissive substrate. The inhibitory character of versican V2 is maintained after removal of chondroitin sulfate and N- and O-linked oligosaccharide side chains, but it is abolished after core protein digestion with proteinase-K. Our data support the notion, that intact versican V2 prevents excessive axonal growth during late phases of development and hereby participates in the structural stabilization of the mature central nervous system.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2000 · Journal of Cell Science
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    M Wachtel · K Frei · E Ehler · A Fontana · K Winterhalter · S M Gloor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of epithelial and endothelial permeability is essential for proper function of compartmentalized organisms, and tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in this process. We analyzed the impact of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibition on the structure of endothelial junctional proteins. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) the PTP inhibitors phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and pervanadate induced proteolysis of the tight junction protein occludin. Occludin proteolysis was inhibited by the metalloproteinase inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline (PHEN), but not by inhibitors against other types of proteases. The junctional proteins ZO-1, cadherin and beta-catenin were not cleaved. Under conditions of occludin proteolysis, PAO treatment elevated permeability for FITC-dextran. Simultaneous incubation of HUVECs with PAO and PHEN inhibited the rise in permeability by more than 60%. PAO treatment lead to progressive disappearance of occludin from the cell periphery. In contrast, ZO-1, cadherin and beta-catenin retained their positions at the sites of intercellular contact. Simultaneous administration of PAO and PHEN greatly prevented the redistribution of occludin. These results demonstrate a selective cleavage of occludin by a metalloproteinase and suggest that this process can contribute to the control of paracellular permeability in endothelial cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2000 · Journal of Cell Science
  • Wolfgang Blodig · Andrew T. Smith · Kaspar Winterhalter · Klaus Piontek
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    ABSTRACT: The heme enzyme lignin peroxidase contains a unique Cbeta-hydroxylated tryptophan residue (Trp171) on the surface of the enzyme. Mutagenetic substitution of Trp171 abolishes completely the veratryl alcohol oxidation activity of the enzyme. This led us to surmise that Trp171 may be involved in electron transfer from natural substrates to the heme cofactor. Here we present evidence for the formation of a transient radical on Trp171 using spin-trapping in combination with peptide mapping. The spin-trap methyl nitroso propane forms a covalent adduct with Trp171 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide which can be detected by its characteristic visible absorbance spectrum. A very similar chromophore can be obtained in a small molecular model system from N-acetyl tryptophanamide, the spin-trap, and a single-electron abstracting system. The precise site the spin-trap is attached to could be identified in a crystal structure of spin-trap/hydrogen peroxide-treated enzyme as the C6 atom of the indole ring of Trp171. These results indicate that Trp171 is redox-active and that it forms an indole radical by transfer of an electron to the heme of compound I and/or II. Apart from cytochrome c peroxidase and DNA photolyase, lignin peroxidase appears to be the third enzyme only which utilizes a tryptophan residue as an integral part of its redox catalysis.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1999 · Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) is a basic intracellular protein which facilitates the in vitro intermembrane transfer of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids. SCP2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity and crystallized. Single crystals were obtained by hanging-drop vapour diffusion using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. These crystals belong to space group P4(1)2(1)2 or its enantiomorph, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.5, c = 86.5 A, and have one molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Intensity data to 1.8 A resolution were collected from native SCP2 crystals using synchrotron radiation, were processed and scaled with an R(linear) = 4.9%.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
  • Daniel Bisig · Peter Weber · Lloyd Vaughan · Kaspar H. Winterhalter · Klaus Piontek
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    ABSTRACT: A fragment of chicken tenascin consisting of fibronectin type-III domains 5 and 6 has been expressed in Escherichia coli. After modifying a previously reported purification protocol, an electrophoretically homogeneous recombinant protein was obtained from which various crystal forms could be grown under identical conditions. Only one form was suitable for structure determination. These crystals belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 45.2, b = 57.9, c = 72.2 A, beta = 91.4 degrees, and diffract to at least 2.6 A resolution using synchrotron radiation. From density measurements of the crystals, it was found that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data of native, two platinum-derivative and one palladium-derivative crystals were collected.
    No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography
  • Carlo Regazzoni · Kaspar H. Winterhalter · Lucia Rohrer

    No preview · Article · May 1999 · Analytical Biochemistry
  • Thomas Choinowski · Wolfgang Blodig · Kaspar H Winterhalter · Klaus Piontek
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    ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of lignin peroxidase (LiP) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was refined to an R-factor of 16.2 % utilizing synchrotron data in the resolution range from 10 to 1.7 A. The final model comprises all 343 amino acid residues, 370 water molecules, the heme, four carbohydrates, and two calcium ions. Lignin peroxidase shows the typical peroxidase fold and the heme has a close environment as found in other peroxidases. During refinement of the LiP model an unprecedented modification of an amino acid was recognized. The surface residue tryptophan 171 in LiP is stereospecifically hydroxylated at the Cbeta atom due to an autocatalytic process. We propose that during the catalytic cycle of LiP a transient radical at Trp171 occurs that is different from those previously assumed for this type of peroxidase. Recently, the existence of a second substrate-binding site centered at Trp171 has been reported, by us which is different from the "classical heme edge" site found in other peroxidases. Here, we report evidence for a radical formation at Trp171 using spin trapping, which supports the concept of Trp171 being a redox active amino acid and being involved in the oxidation of veratryl alcohol. On the basis of our current model, an electron pathway from Trp171 to the heme is envisaged, relevant for the oxidation of veratryl alcohol and possibly lignin. Beside the opening leading to the heme edge, which can accommodate small aromatic substrate molecules, a smaller channel giving access to the distal heme pocket was identified that is large enough for molecules such as hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, it was found that in LiP the bond between the heme iron and the Nepsilon2 atom of the proximal histidine residue is significantly longer than in cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP). The weaker Fe-N bond in LiP renders the heme more electron deficient and destabilizes high oxidation states, which could explain the higher redox potential of LiP as compared to CcP.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1999 · Journal of Molecular Biology
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    ABSTRACT: . beta-Mannanases hydrolyse the O-glycosidic bonds in mannan, a hemicellulose constituent of plants. These enzymes have potential use in pulp and paper production and are of significant biotechnological interest. Thermostable beta-mannanases would be particularly useful due to their high temperature optimum and broad pH tolerance. The thermophilic actinomycete Thermomonospora fusca secretes at least one beta-mannanase (molecular mass 38 kDa) with a temperature optimum of 80 degreesC. No three-dimensional structure of a mannan-degrading enzyme has been reported until now. . The crystal structure of the thermostable beta-mannanase from T. fusca has been determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method and refined to 1.5 A resolution. In addition to the native enzyme, the structures of the mannotriose- and mannohexaose-bound forms of the enzyme have been determined to resolutions of 1.9 A and 1.6 A, respectively. . Analysis of the -1 subsite of T. fusca mannanase reveals neither a favourable interaction towards the axial HO-C(2) nor a discrimination against the equatorial hydroxyl group of gluco-configurated substrates. We propose that selectivity arises from two possible mechanisms: a hydrophobic interaction of the substrate with Val263, conserved in family 5 bacterial mannanases, which discriminates between the different conformations of the hydroxymethyl group in native mannan and cellulose; and/or a specific interaction between Asp259 and the axial hydroxyl group at the C(2) of the substrate in the -2 subsite. Compared with the catalytic clefts of family 5 cellulases, the groove of T. fusca mannanase has a strongly reduced number of aromatic residues providing platforms for stacking with the substrate. This deletion of every second platform is in good agreement with the orientation of the axial hydroxyl groups in mannan.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 1998 · Structure
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    Luca Pontiggia · Kaspar Winterhalter · Sergio M Gloor
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    ABSTRACT: cGMP has been shown to either activate or inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity. Using mouse brain endothelial cells which express both ouabain-resistant alpha1 and ouabain-sensitive alpha2 and alpha3 isoforms, we show that cGMP reduces total Na,KATPase activity to about 58%. The inhibition is prevented by the protein kinase G (PKG)-specific inhibitor KT5823, indicating that cGMP-mediated activation of PKG leads to inhibition of the pump. A similar extent of inhibition is obtained with nitric oxide. cGMP-induced inhibition acts mainly on alpha1 isoforms but hardly affects alpha2/alpha3 isoforms. These data suggest that inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity by cGMP occurs in an isoform-selective manner in brain endothelial cells.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1998 · FEBS Letters
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    ABSTRACT: In the high-resolution crystal structures of two lignin peroxidase isozymes from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium a significant electron density at single bond distance from the C beta of Trp171 was observed and interpreted as a hydroxy group. To further clarify the nature of this feature, we carried out tryptic digestion of the enzyme and isolated the Trp171 containing peptide. Under ambient conditions, this peptide shows an absorbance spectrum typical of tryptophan. At elevated temperature, however, the formation of an unusual absorbance spectrum with lambda max = 333 nm can be followed that is identical to that of N-acetyl-alpha, beta-didehydrotryptophanamide, resulting upon water elimination from beta-hydroxy tryptophan. The Trp171 containing tryptic peptide isolated from the recombinant and refolded lignin peroxidase produced from Escherichia coli does not contain the characteristic 333 nm absorbance band at any temperature. However, treatment with 3 equiv of H2O2 leads to complete hydroxylation of Trp171. Reducing substrates compete with this process, e.g., in the presence of 0.5 mM veratryl alcohol, about 7 equiv of H2O2 is necessary for complete modification. We conclude that the hydroxylation at the C beta of Trp171 is an autocatalytic reaction which occurs readily under conditions of natural turnover, e.g., in the ligninolytic cultures of P. chrysosporium, which are known to contain an oxidase-based H2O2-generating system. No dependence on dioxygen was found for this oxidative process. Chemical modification of fungal lignin peroxidase with the tryptophan-specific agent N-bromo succinimide leads to a drastically reduced activity with respect to the substrate veratryl alcohol. This suggests that Trp171 is involved in catalysis and that electron transfer from this surface residue to the oxidized heme cofactor is possible under steady-state conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 1998 · Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: We have isolated and characterized the proteoglycan isoforms of versican from bovine brain extracts. Our approach included (i) cDNA cloning and sequencing of the entire open reading frame encoding the bovine versican splice variants; (ii) preparation of antibodies against bovine versican using recombinant core protein fragments and synthetic peptides; (iii) isolation of versican isoforms by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by anion exchange and hyaluronan affinity chromatography; and (iv) characterization by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Coomassie Blue staining or immunoblotting. Our results demonstrate that versican V2 is, together with brevican, a major component of the mature brain extracellular matrix. Versicans V0 and V1 are only present in relatively small amounts. Versican V2 migrates after chondroitinase ABC digestion with an apparent molecular mass of about 400 kDa, whereas it barely enters a 4-15% polyacrylamide gel without the enzyme treatment. The 400-kDa product is recognized by antibodies against the glycosaminoglycan-alpha domain and against synthetic NH2- and COOH-terminal peptides. Our preparations contain no major proteolytic products of versican, e.g. hyaluronectin or glial hyaluronate-binding protein. Having biochemical quantities of versican V2 available will allow us to test its putative modulatory role in neuronal cell adhesion and axonal growth.
    Preview · Article · Jul 1998 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Martin U. Kopp · Kaspar H. Winterhalter · Beat Trueb
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of collagen VI, an adhesive glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, is completely inhibited in virally transformed fibroblasts and in many cell lines derived from spontaneous mesenchymal tumors. Here we present evidence that DNA methylation plays an important role in this inhibition: (a) The mRNA level for DNA methyltransferase is highly increased in simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed fibroblasts compared with normal cells and this increase correlates with the decrease of the mRNA level for collagen VI. (b) Methylation of the alpha2(VI) collagen promoter in vitro abolishes promoter activity in a transient transfection assay. (c) Genomic sequencing reveals extensive methylation of the promoter region in SV40-transformed cells, but virtually no methylation of the corresponding region in normal cells. Increased methylation is also observed in a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. (d) Two of the cis-acting elements of the alpha2(VI) collagen promoter lose their affinity for transcription factor AP2 when methylated in vitro as demonstrated by gel retardation experiments. DNA methylation is therefore involved in the silencing of the alpha2(VI) collagen gene. It seems likely that the same mechanism is also responsible for the repression of other transformation-sensitive proteins.
    Preview · Article · Nov 1997 · European Journal of Biochemistry

Publication Stats

8k Citations
929.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001
    • Leiden University
      • Biophysical Structural Chemistry Research Group
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1970-2001
    • University of Zurich
      • • Institute of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Internal Medicine Unit
      • • The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research
      • • Institute of Virology
      • • Biochemisches Institut
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1970-1999
    • ETH Zurich
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1995
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1989-1995
    • Eawag: Das Wasserforschungs-Institut des ETH-Bereichs
      Duebendorf, Zurich, Switzerland
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Chemistry
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1994
    • Università degli Studi di Palermo
      Palermo, Sicily, Italy
  • 1993
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1979-1993
    • Hochschule für Technik Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 1991
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 1988
    • National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 1987
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 1977-1985
    • Universität Basel
      • Department of Biophysical Chemistry
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1980
    • Università degli Studi di Trento
      • Department of Physics
      Trient, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • 1973-1977
    • Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1976
    • Lund University
      • Department of Physical Chemistry
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1975
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 1972
    • The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Rome, New York, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1969
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, Washington, United States