[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We report a paraneoplastic neuropathy with severe motor involvement following sensory-ataxic disturbance. Anti-disialosyl immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody was detected in the course of malignant lymphoma of diffuse large B-cell type, which usually spares the motor system. Onset was subacute, with relapsing and remitting sensory ataxia, muscle weakness, bulbar palsy, respiratory paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia; only neck rotation was retained in the terminal stage. Autopsy showed no lymphoma cells infiltrating the nervous system. Motor neurons survived in the spinal cord, but mean diameter of the ventral spinal nerve roots was reduced considerably. The gracile fasciculus and the sural nerve were more markedly degenerated than proximal portions. Morphometric study showed that most of the proximal motor and sensory axons did not extend distally. This autopsy report provides further definition of a neuropathy associated with malignant lymphoma and IgM antibodies against disialosyl residues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Quiver (Quv) is a non-sense mutation of neurofilament protein L subunit (NF-L) that causes neurofilament deficiency with preserved microtubules in Japanese quail. Anti-NF-M and anti-NF-H mAbs stained cell bodies of motor neurons in Quv embryo spinal cords much more intense than those in control spinal cords. Volume of motor neurons in Quv spinal cords increased to 2.3 times of control motor neurons. Immunoblot of Quv spinal cords revealed a relative increase in non- and hypo-phosphorylated NF-M and NF-H, and a decrease in the total amount of NFs. Quv sciatic nerves showed faintly reacted phosphorylated NF-M and NF-H. These results suggest that deficiency of assembled neurofilament results in decreased axonal transport of NFs and accumulation of NFs in cell bodies of spinal motor neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical range of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6), we screened CAG repeat expansion in the voltage-dependent alpha 1A calcium channel gene (CACNL1A4) in 71 ataxic patients in 60 families; 54 patients in 43 families with hereditary ataxia and 17 sporadic patients. Thirteen patients with SCA6 were detected to have elongated CAG in CACNL1A4. Of these, 7 patients had been diagnosed as having hereditary cerebellar cortical atrophy, and 6 patients had been found to have sporadic occurrence. One patient showed distinct pontine atrophy with prominent horizontal or oblique gaze nystagmus which is an unusual feature in sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy. For the efficient screening of SCA6, we would propose testing CAG repeat expansion in CACNL1A4, in patients with one of two markers: (1) horizontal or oblique gaze nystagmus without other eye movement disorders, (2) pure cerebellar atrophy, even if occurrence is sporadic. We should note that the pontine atrophy could also be caused by CAG repeat expansion in CACNL1A4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein are two major molecular motors responsible for fast axonal transport. As visualized by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies, both motors were found to be distributed throughout the cell bodies, dendrites and axons of motor neurons in normal human spinal cords. Large axonal swellings, spheroids, in the spinal cords of patients with motor neuron disease showed massive accumulation of kinesin co-localized with highly phosphorylated neurofilaments. Of 114 spheroids in five spinal cords, 87% were stained heavily with the three anti-kinesin antibodies used in this study. Cytoplasmic dynein was scarce or absent in most of the spheroids. These findings suggest that kinesin selectively accumulates in the spheroids of motor neuron axons, causing disturbance of the machinery for anterograde fast axonal transport in motor neuron disease.
Article · Aug 1998 · Journal of the Neurological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Kinesin is a major molecular motor responsible for anterograde axonal transport. Chicks were injected with beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to induce axonal swellings in spinal motor neurons and spinal sensory ganglion neurons. Cylindrical swollen axons were found in the anterior horn and anterior funiculus of the spinal cord, anterior root, and spinal ganglia. All of the axonal swellings were heavily stained with two anti-kinesin monoclonal antibodies. The swellings were mildly stained with an anti-cytoplasmic dynein and anti-tubulin antibodies, and weakly stained with an anti-tau antibody. These suggest the isolated disturbance of kinesin transport with neurofilament accumulation in IDPN intoxication.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A 55-year-old woman was treated at our hospital for multiple sclerosis. Therapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids and cyclosporin. In the 7th week after these drugs were discontinued the patient developed acute liver failure due to fulminant hepatitis (FH) and died. Post-mortem examination showed massive liver necrosis. Serologic examination was negative for hepatitis B virus-related markers. Antihepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) antibody and serum HCV RNA were negative on admission, but HCV RNA appeared concurrently with the onset of FH. Although HCV infection rarely causes FH, it was considered to be the cause of FH in this patient, since there were no other causes of acute liver injury. We suspect that underlying immunologic abnormalities in conjunction with HCV infection may have precipitated the FH.