K. Iwasawa

University of Barcelona, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (250)753.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The XMM-LSS, XMM-COSMOS, and XMM-CDFS surveys are complementary in terms of sky coverage and depth. Together, they form a clean sample with the least possible variance in instrument effective areas and PSF. Therefore this is one of the best samples available to determine the 2-10 keV luminosity function of AGN and its evolution. The samples and the relevant corrections for incompleteness are described. A total of 2887 AGN is used to build the LF in the luminosity interval 10^42-10^46 erg/s, and in the redshift interval 0.001-4. A new method to correct for absorption by considering the probability distribution for the column density conditioned on the hardness ratio is presented. The binned luminosity function and its evolution is determined with a variant of the Page-Carrera method, improved to include corrections for absorption and to account for the full probability distribution of photometric redshifts. Parametric models, namely a double power-law with LADE or LDDE evolution, are explored using Bayesian inference. We introduce the Watanabe-Akaike information criterion (WAIC) to compare the models and estimate their predictive power. Our data are best described by the LADE model, as hinted by the WAIC indicator. We also explore the 15-parameter extended LDDE model recently proposed by Ueda et al., and find that this extension is not supported by our data. The strength of our method is that it provides: un-absorbed non-parametric estimates; credible intervals for luminosity function parameters; model choice according to which one has more predictive power for future data.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton monitoring campaign in 2014/2015 of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 1068. During the August 2014 observation, we detect with NuSTAR a flux excess above 20 keV ($32\pm6 \%$) with respect to the December 2012 observation and to a later observation performed in February 2015. We do not detect any spectral variation below 10 keV in the XMM-Newton data. The transient excess can be explained by a temporary decrease of the column density of the obscuring material along the line of sight (from N$_{\rm H}\simeq10^{25}$ cm$^{-2}$ to N$_{\rm H}=6.7\pm1.0\times10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$), which allows us for the first time to unveil the direct nuclear radiation of the buried AGN in NGC 1068 and to infer an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity L$_{\rm X}=7^{+7}_{-4} \times 10^{43}$ erg s$^{-1}$.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present new IRAM 30m spectroscopic observations of the $\sim88$ GHz band, including emission from the CCH (n=1-0) multiplet, HCN (1-0), HCO+ (1-0), and HNC (1-0), for a sample of 58 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). By combining our new IRAM data with literature data and Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy, we study the correspondence between these putative tracers of dense gas and the relative contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation to the mid-infrared luminosity of each system. We find the HCN (1-0) emission to be enhanced in AGN-dominated systems ($\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\rangle=1.84$), compared to composite and starburst-dominated systems ($\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\rangle=1.14$, and 0.88, respectively). However, some composite and starburst systems have L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}$ ratios comparable to those of AGN, indicating that enhanced HCN emission is not uniquely associated with energetically dominant AGN. After removing AGN-dominated systems from the sample, we find a linear relationship (within the uncertainties) between $\log_{10}$(L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$) and $\log_{10}$(L$_{IR}$), consistent with most previous findings. L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L$_{IR}$, typically interpreted as the dense gas depletion time, appears to have no systematic trend with L$_{IR}$ for our sample of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies, and has significant scatter. The galaxy-integrated HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) emission do not appear to have a simple interpretation, in terms of the AGN dominance or the star formation rate, and are likely determined by multiple processes, including density and radiative effects.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In active galactic nuclei (AGN)-galaxy co-evolution models, AGN winds and outflows are often invoked to explain why super-massive black holes and galaxies stop growing efficiently at a certain phase of their lives. They are commonly referred to as the leading actors of feedback processes. Evidence of ultra-fast (v>0.05c) outflows in the innermost regions of AGN has been collected in the past decade by sensitive X-ray observations for sizable samples of AGN, mostly at low redshift. Here we present ultra-deep XMM-Newton and Chandra spectral data of an obscured (Nh~2x10^{23} cm^-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10keV~4x10^{44} erg/s) quasar (named PID352) at z~1.6 (derived from the X-ray spectral analysis) in the Chandra Deep Field-South. The source is characterized by an iron emission and absorption line complex at observed energies of E~2-3 keV. While the emission line is interpreted as being due to neutral iron (consistent with the presence of cold absorption), the absorption feature is due to highly ionized iron transitions (FeXXV, FeXXVI) with an outflowing velocity of 0.14^{+0.02}_{-0.06}c, as derived from photoionization models. The mass outflow rate - ~2 Msun/yr - is similar to the source accretion rate, and the derived mechanical energy rate is ~9.5x10^{44} erg/s, corresponding to 9% of the source bolometric luminosity. PID352 represents one of the few cases where indications of X-ray outflowing gas have been observed at high redshift thus far. This wind is powerful enough to provide feedback on the host galaxy.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    F Vito · R Gilli · C Vignali · A Comastri · M Brusa · N Cappelluti · K Iwasawa

    Full-text · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
  • F Vito · R Gilli · C Vignali · A Comastri · M Brusa · N Cappelluti · K Iwasawa

    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
  • F Vito · R Gilli · C Vignali · A Comastri · M Brusa · N Cappelluti · K Iwasawa

    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
  • F Vito · R Gilli · C Vignali · A Comastri · M Brusa · N Cappelluti · K Iwasawa

    No preview · Conference Paper · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from the deep XMM-Newton observations of the two brightest X-ray sources in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS), PID 203 (z=0.544) and PID 319 (z=0.742). The long exposure of 2.5 Ms over a 10 year period (net 4 yr with a 6 yr gap) makes it possible to obtain high quality X-ray spectra of these two Type I AGN with X-ray luminosity of 10^44 erg/s, typical luminosity for low-redshift PG quasars, track their X-ray variability both in flux and spectral shape. Both sources showed X-ray flux variability of ~10-20 per cent in rms which is similar in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-7 keV) bands. PID 203, which has evidence for optical extinction, shows modest amount of absorption (nH~1e21cm^-2) in the X-ray spectrum. Fe K emission is strongly detected in both objects with EW~0.2 keV. The lines in both objects are moderately broad and exhibit marginal evidence for variability in shape and flux, indicating that the bulk of the line emission come from their accretion disks rather than distant tori.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the hard-band (2–10 keV) X-ray luminosity function (HXLF) of 0.5–2 keV band selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) at high redshift. We have assembled a sample of 141 AGN at 3 < z ≲ 5 from X-ray surveys of different size and depth, in order to sample different regions in the LX − z plane. The HXLF is fitted in the range log LX ∼ 43–45 with standard analytical evolutionary models through a maximum likelihood procedure. The evolution of the HXLF is well described by a pure density evolution, with the AGN space density declining by a factor of ∼10 from z = 3 to 5. A luminosity-dependent density evolution model, which, normally, best represents the HXLF evolution at lower redshift, is also consistent with the data, but a larger sample of low-luminosity (log LX < 44), high-redshift AGN is necessary to constrain this model. We also estimated the intrinsic fraction of AGN obscured by a column density log NH ≥ 23 to be 0.54 ± 0.05, with no strong dependence on luminosity. This fraction is higher than the value in the Local Universe, suggesting an evolution of the luminous (LX > 1044 erg s−1) obscured AGN fraction from z = 0 to z > 3.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The obscured accretion phase in BH growth is a key ingredient in many models linking the AGN activity with the evolution of their host galaxy. At present, a complete census of obscured AGN is still missing. The purpose of this work is to assess the reliability of the [NeV] emission line at 3426 A to pick up obscured AGN up to z~1 by assuming that [NeV] is a reliable proxy of the intrinsic AGN luminosity and using moderately deep X-ray data to characterize the amount of obscuration. A sample of 69 narrow-line (Type 2) AGN at z=0.65-1.20 were selected from the 20k-zCOSMOS Bright galaxy sample on the basis of the presence of the [NeV] emission. The X-ray properties of these galaxies were then derived using the Chandra-COSMOS coverage of the field; the X-ray-to-[NeV] flux ratio, coupled with X-ray spectral and stacking analyses, was then used to infer whether Compton-thin or Compton-thick absorption were present in these sources. Then the [NeV] luminosity function was computed to estimate the space density of Compton-thick (CT) AGN at z~0.8. Twenty-three sources were detected by Chandra, and their properties are consistent with moderate obscuration (on average, ~a few 10^{22} cm^-2). The X-ray properties of the remaining 46 X-ray undetected Type 2 AGN were derived using X-ray stacking analysis. Current data indicate that a fraction as high as ~40% of the present sample is likely to be CT. The space density of CT AGN with logL_2-10keV>43.5 at z=0.83 is (9.1+/-2.1) 10^{-6} Mpc^{-3}, in good agreement with both XRB model expectations and the previously measured space density for objects in a similar redshift and luminosity range. We regard our selection technique for CT AGN as clean but not complete, since even a mild extinction in the NLR can suppress [NeV] emission. Therefore, our estimate of their space density should be considered as a lower limit.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Heavily obscured, Compton Thick (CT, NH>10^24 cm-2) AGN may represent an important phase in AGN/galaxy co-evolution and are expected to provide a significant contribution to the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) at its peak. Through direct X-ray spectra analysis, we selected 39 heavily obscured AGN (NH>3x10^23 cm-2) in the 2 deg^2 XMM-COSMOS survey. Thanks to deeper Chandra data available in the field, we can define 10 of these sources as bona-fide CT, spanning a large range of redshift and luminosity, and estimate the efficiency of our selection to be of the order of 80%. We collected the multi-wavelength information available for these sources, to study the distribution of BH mass (MBH), Eddington ratio (lambda_Edd), stellar mass (M*), specific star formation rate (sSFR) in comparison with a sample of unobscured AGN. We find that highly obscured sources tend to have significantly smaller MBH and higher lambda_Edd with respect to unobscured sources. The sSFR of highly obscured sources is consistent with the one observed for main sequence star forming galaxies, at all redshift. We also present and briefly discuss optical spectra, broad band spectral energy distribution (SED) and morphology for the sample of 10 CT AGN. Both the optical spectra and SED agree with the classification as highly obscured sources: all the available optical spectra are dominated by the stellar component of the host galaxy, and an highly obscured torus component is needed in the SED of all the CT sources. Exploiting the high resolution Hubble images, we show that these highly obscured sources have a significantly larger merger fraction with respect to other X-ray selected samples of AGN. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings in the context of AGN/galaxy co-evolutionary models, and compare our results with the predictions of CXB synthesis models.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38? ?m of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., ?9.7 ?m, ?ice, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW6.2 ?m decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L IR/L 8 ?m) and the PAH fraction at 8 ?m but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ~6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s 9.7 ?m < ?1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ~11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H2)/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H2)/L(PAH) ratio with increasing L(H2). While star formation appears to be the dominant process responsible for exciting the H2 in most of the GOALS galaxies, a subset of LIRGs (~10%) shows excess H2 emission that is inconsistent with PDR models and may be excited by shocks or AGN-induced outflows.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ~ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L IR, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 J 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L IR, log R midCO, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 () and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R midCO higher and lower than , respectively.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: MWC 656 (=HD 215227) was recently discovered to be the first binary system composed of a Be star and a black hole (BH). We observed it with XMM-Newton, and detected a faint X-ray source compatible with the position of the optical star, thus proving it to be the first Be/BH X-ray binary. The spectrum analysis requires a model fit with two components, a blackbody plus a power law, with keV and a photon index Γ = 1.0 ± 0.8, respectively. The non-thermal component dominates above 0.8 keV. The obtained total flux is F(0.3- erg cm–2 s–1. At a distance of 2.6 ± 0.6 kpc the total flux translates into a luminosity L X = (3.7 ± 1.7) × 1031 erg s–1. Considering the estimated range of BH masses to be 3.8-6.9 M ☉, this luminosity represents (6.7 ± 4.4) × 10–8L Edd, which is typical of stellar-mass BHs in quiescence. We discuss the origin of the two spectral components: the thermal component is associated with the hot wind of the Be star, whereas the power-law component is associated with emission from the vicinity of the BH. We also find that the position of MWC 656 in the radio versus X-ray luminosity diagram may be consistent with the radio/X-ray correlation observed in BH low-mass X-ray binaries. This suggests that this correlation might also be valid for BH high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) with X-ray luminosities down to ~10–8L Edd. MWC 656 will allow the accretion processes and the accretion/ejection coupling at very low luminosities for BH HMXBs to be studied.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: There are a number of very high energy sources in the Galaxy that remain unidentified. Multi-wavelength and variability studies, and catalogue searches, are powerful tools to identify the physical counterpart, given the uncertainty in the source location and extension. This work carries out a thorough multi-wavelength study of the unidentified, very high energy source HESS J1858+020 and its environs. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations at 610 MHz and 1.4 GHz have been done to obtain a deep, low-frequency radio image of the region surrounding HESS J1858+020. Archival radio, infrared, and X-ray data have been analysed as well. This observational information, combined with molecular data, catalogue sources, and a nearby Fermi gamma-ray detection of unidentified origin, are combined to explore possible counterparts to the very high energy source. We provide with a deep radio image of a supernova remnant that might be related to the GeV and TeV emission in the region. We confirm the presence of an H II region next to the supernova remnant and coincident with molecular emission. A potential region of star formation is also identified. We identify several radio and X-ray sources in the surroundings. Some of these sources are known planetary nebulae, whereas others may be non-thermal extended emitters and embedded young stellar objects. Three old, background Galactic pulsars also neighbour HESS J1858+020 along the line of sight. The region surrounding HESS J1858+020 is rich in molecular structures and non-thermal objects that may potentially be linked to this unidentified very high energy source. In particular, a supernova remnant interacting with nearby molecular clouds may be a good candidate, but a star forming region, or a non-thermal radio source of yet unclear nature, may also be behind the gamma-ray source. Further observational studies are needed.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA Cycle 0 observations at 1.3mm of LESS J033229.4-275619 (XID403), an Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy at $z=4.75$ in the Chandra Deep Field South hosting a Compton-thick QSO. The source is not resolved in our data at a resolution of $\sim$0.75 arcsec, placing an upper-limit of 2.5 kpc to the half-light radius of the continuum emission from heated-dust. After deconvolving for the beam size, however, we found a $\sim3\sigma$ indication of an intrinsic source size of $0.27\pm0.08$ arcsec (Gaussian FWHM), which would correspond to $r_{half}\sim0.9\pm0.3$ kpc. We build the far-IR SED of XID403 by combining datapoints from both ALMA and Herschel and fit it with a modified blackbody spectrum. For the first time, we measure the dust temperature $T_d=58.5\pm5.3$ K in this system, which is comparable to what has been observed in other high-z submillimeter galaxies. The measured star formation rate is SFR=$1020\pm150$ $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, in agreement with previous estimates at lower S/N. Based on the measured SFR and source size, we constrain the SFR surface density to be $\Sigma_{SFR}>26\;M_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$kpc$^{-2}$ ($\sim200\;M_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$kpc$^{-2}$ for $r_{half}\sim0.9$ kpc). The compactness of this starburst is comparable to what has been observed in other local and high-z starburst galaxies. If the gas mass measured from previous [CII] and CO(2-1) observations at low resolution is confined within the same dust region, assuming $r_{half}\sim0.9\pm0.3$ kpc, this would produce a column density of $N_H\sim0.3-1.1\times10^{24}$cm$^{-2}$ towards the central SMBH, similar to the column density of $\approx1.4\times10^{24}$cm$^{-2}$ measured from the X-rays. Then, in principle, if both gas and dust were confined on sub-kpc scales, this would be sufficient to produce the observed X-ray column density without any need of a pc-scale absorber [abridged].
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We study the incidence of nuclear obscuration on a complete sample of 1310 AGN selected on the basis of their rest-frame 2-10 keV X-ray flux from the XMM-COSMOS survey, in the redshift range 0.3<z<3.5. We classify the AGN as obscured or un-obscured on the basis of either the optical spectral properties and the overall SED or the shape of the X-ray spectrum. The two classifications agree in about 70% of the objects, and the remaining 30% can be further subdivided into two distinct classes: at low luminosities X-ray un-obscured AGN do not always show signs of broad lines or blue/UV continuum emission in their optical spectra, most likely due to galaxy dilution effects; at high luminosities broad line AGN may have absorbed X-ray spectra, which hints at an increased incidence of small-scale (sub-parsec) dust-free obscuration. We confirm that the fraction of obscured AGN is a decreasing function of the intrinsic X-ray luminosity, while the incidence of absorption shows significant evolution only for the most luminous AGN, which appear to be more commonly obscured at higher redshift. We find no significant difference between the mean stellar masses and star formation rates of obscured and un-obscured AGN hosts. We conclude that the physical state of the medium responsible for obscuration in AGN is complex, and mainly determined by the radiation environment (nuclear luminosity) in a small region enclosed within the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black hole, but is largely insensitive to the wider scale galactic conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: In the recent years massive protostars have been suggested to be high-energy emitters. Among the best candidates is IRAS 16547-4247, a protostar that presents a powerful outflow with clear signatures of interaction with its environment. This source has been revealed to be a potential high-energy source because it displays non-thermal radio emission of synchrotron origin, which is evidence of relativistic particles. To improve our understanding of IRAS 16547-4247 as a high-energy source, we analyzed XMM-Newton archival data and found that IRAS 16547-4247 is a hard X-ray source. We discuss these results in the context of a refined one-zone model and previous radio observations. From our study we find that it may be difficult to explain the X-ray emission as non-thermal radiation coming from the interaction region, but it might be produced by thermal Bremsstrahlung (plus photo-electric absorption) by a fast shock at the jet end. In the high-energy range, the source might be detectable by the present generation of Cherenkov telescopes, and may eventually be detected by Fermi in the GeV range.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: There is X-ray, optical, and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopic evidence that the late-stage ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Mrk 273 hosts a powerful active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the exact location of the AGN and the nature of the nuclei have been difficult to determine due to dust obscuration and the limited wavelength coverage of available high-resolution data. Here we present near-infrared integral-field spectra and images of the nuclear region of Mrk 273 taken with OSIRIS and NIRC2 on the Keck II Telescope with laser guide star adaptive optics. We observe three spatially resolved components, and analyze the local molecular and ionized gas emission lines and their kinematics. We confirm the presence of the hard X-ray AGN in the southwest nucleus. In the north nucleus, we find a strongly rotating gas disk whose kinematics indicate a central black hole of mass 1.04 +/- 0.1 x 10^9 Msun. The H2 emission line shows an increase in velocity dispersion along the minor axis in both directions, and an increased flux with negative velocities in the southeast direction; this provides direct evidence for a collimated molecular outflow along the axis of rotation of the disk. The third spatially distinct component appears to the southeast, 640 and 750 pc from the north and southwest nuclei, respectively. This component is faint in continuum emission but shows several strong emission line features, including [Si vi] 1.964 {\mu}m which traces an extended coronal-line region. The geometry of the [Si vi] emission combined with shock models and energy arguments suggest that [Si vi] in the southeast component must be at least partly ionized by the SW AGN or a putative AGN in the northern disk, either through photoionization or through shock-heating from strong AGN- and circumnuclear starburst-driven outflows. This lends support to a scenario in which Mrk 273 may be a dual AGN system.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

8k Citations
753.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010-2015
    • University of Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2011-2014
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2012-2013
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1997-2011
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2010
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2005-2010
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2006-2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2004
    • INO - Istituto Nazionale di Ottica
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1999-2002
    • Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992-1999
    • Columbia University
      • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1992-1997
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Cell Science
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1993
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Physics II
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan