Jong Soo Kim

Pukyong National University, Busan, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (133)430.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chicken pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), such as embryonic stem cells and blastoderm cells, have been used to study development and differentiation in chicken. However, chicken PSCs are not widely used because they are hard to maintain in long-term culture. Recent reports suggest that chicken somatic cells can be reprogrammed to pluripotent state by defined factors to form induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These chicken iPSCs showed pluripotent differentiation potential and could be maintained in long-term culture. However, intracytoplasmic remodeling during reprogramming of chicken cells remains largely unknown. Here, we generated chicken iPS like cells (ciPSLCs) from chicken embryonic fibroblasts by using a retroviral expression system encoding human reprogramming factors. These ciPSLCs could be maintained for more than 10 passages and expressed the endogenous chicken pluripotency markers, cNonog and cSox2. Moreover, the ciPSLCs showed higher nucleus to cytoplasm ratio and contained globular mitochondria with immature cristae. This morphology was similar to that of mammalian pluripotent stem cells, but different from that of avian somatic cells, which showed lower nucleus to cytoplasm ratio and mature mitochondria. These results suggest that intracytoplasmic organelles in differentiated somatic cells could be successfully remodeled into the pluripotent state during reprogramming in chicken.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Stem Cells and Development
  • Jong Soo Kim · Yean Ju Hong · Hyun Woo Choi · Sol Choi · Jeong Tae Do
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    ABSTRACT: Somatic cells may be reprogrammed into pluripotent cells by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. However, some of the hurdles that affect the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells include extremely low efficiency and slow reprogramming. In the present study, we examined the effects of small molecules on cellular reprogramming and found that 8-Bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), an analog of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), improves the reprogramming efficiency of reprogrammable mouse fibroblasts induced with dox in serum replacement medium. Interestingly, treatment with 8-Br-cAMP in mouse embryonic stem cell culture conditions does not affect reprogramming into the pluripotent state; however, reprogramming efficiency is significantly enhanced by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) in serum replacement medium. Therefore, our results suggest that PKA signaling is unnecessary and may in fact act as a barrier to reprogramming into pluripotent stem cells.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Stem cells and development
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We sought to identify the clinical outcome and predictors for ischemic stroke recurrence in adults with symptomatic moyamoya disease (MMD). Methods: We analyzed 104 adult MMD patients with ischemic stroke or TIA registered at our institution. All patients underwent digital subtraction angiography and single photon emission computed tomography to measure disease severity and cerebral vascular reserve (CVR). A Cox regression model was used to identify predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke. Results: Fifty-nine patients were non-surgically treated and 45 patients were surgically treated. In the non-surgical group, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of ischemic stroke recurrence was 1.6% in the first year and 11.8% in the 5th year. Hypertension (hazard ratio [HR]=0.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.99), diabetes (HR=35.16, 95% CI 2.61-474.16), presence of steno-occlusive lesion in posterior cerebral arteries (HR=17.53, 95% CI 2.02-152.43), and extended or global decreased CVR (HR=13.62, 95% CI 1.55-119.84) were independent predictors of recurrence. In the surgical group, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of ischemic stroke recurrence was 24.4% in the first year and 24.4% in the 5th year. Half of the recurred patients experienced recurrent ischemic strokes postoperatively. Diabetes was the only predictor of recurrent ischemic stroke (HR=6.17, 95% CI 1.31-29.14). Conclusions: In non-surgically treated MMD, PCA stenosis and CVR were identified as predictors of ischemic stroke recurrence. Diabetes was an independent predictor of recurrent ischemic stroke in both non-surgical and surgically treated MMD groups.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of the neurological sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate morphological factors associated with rupture in anterior communicating artery (AcomA) aneurysms and to investigate the significance of AcomA fenestration as a risk factor for aneurysm rupture. Methods: The clinical and radiologic findings of 255 patients with AcomA aneurysms treated with coil embolization between January 2005 and March 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the associations between morphological variables and rupture status. Results: The number of patients with AcomA fenestration was 17 out of 255 (6.6 %). There were no statistically significant differences between the fenestration group and non-fenestration group in clinical and morphological characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression tests showed that superior direction of aneurysm dome (OR 2.802, p = 0.023), presence of a bleb (OR 5.998, p < 0.001), high aspect ratio (OR 3.138, p = 0.009), size greater than 7 mm (OR 3.356, p = 0.013), and AcomA fenestration (OR 4.135, p = 0.026) were significantly associated with AcomA aneurysm rupture. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that a fenestrated AcomA is associated with risk of aneurysm rupture. Therefore, AcomA fenestration can be considered as an important morphological risk factor for rupture, along with other known risk factors such as the direction of aneurysm dome, a bleb, high aspect ratio, and size.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the translation of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) involved in the growth and development of a variety of cells, including primordial germ cells (PGCs) which play an essential role in germ cell development. However, the target mRNAs and the regulatory networks influenced by miRNAs in PGCs remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate a novel miRNAs control PGC development through targeting mRNAs involved in various cellular pathways. We reveal the PGC-enriched expression patterns of nine miRNAs, including miR-10b, -18a, -93, -106b, -126-3p, -127, -181a, -181b, and -301, using miRNA expression analysis along with mRNA microarray analysis in PGCs, embryonic gonads, and postnatal testes. These miRNAs are highly expressed in PGCs, as demonstrated by Northern blotting, miRNA in situ hybridization assay, and miRNA qPCR analysis. This integrative study utilizing mRNA microarray analysis and miRNA target prediction demonstrates the regulatory networks through which these miRNAs regulate their potential target genes during PGC development. The elucidated networks of miRNAs disclose a coordinated molecular mechanism by which these miRNAs regulate distinct cellular pathways in PGCs that determine germ cell development.1.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Moleculer Cells
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    ABSTRACT: A 4.8-MJ capacitive pulsed-power system (PPS) was designed and fabricated for electromagnetic launcher (EML) experiment. The PPS consists of eight 600-kJ segments, which can be operated independently. In each segment, six 100-kJ capacitor bank modules, a charging power supply, a dump and charge panel, and control circuit were integrated. The capacitor bank modules in the segment are charged at the same voltage up to 10 kV, but the trigger time of each module can be set up differently. The overall PPS system is controlled by a control program, which sets charging voltage and trigger time of each module and monitors the states of system component. All the control signals are transmitted through fiber optic communication. The 48 unit modules are connected in parallel to EML with high-voltage coaxial cables. A current amplitude of more than 1 MA and a pulsewidth of several milliseconds were achieved by the PPS. The PPS has been applied to several tens of firing experiments of EML successfully. The design, fabrication, and the test results of the 4.8-MJ PPS were described in this paper.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: We evaluated the relationship between symptomatic and angiographic changes in untreated cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas (CSdAVFs), focusing on venous drainage patterns. Methods: The clinical and radiologic features of 34 cases of untreated CSdAVF were retrospectively reviewed. We classified venous drainage patterns as type I (only antegrade drainage), type II (combined antegrade drainage and venous reflux), type III (venous reflux without antegrade drainage), or type IV (stasis or occlusion of venous reflux). Symptom changes were categorized as improvement, aggravation of initial symptoms, or symptom pattern change. Results: Twenty-one patients (61 %) showed symptom changes during follow-up (median, 12; range, 3-151 months). In the symptom improvement group (n = 10), patients who underwent follow-up angiography (n = 4) exhibited spontaneous occlusion. In the symptom aggravation group (n = 4), new venous reflux developed in 2 patients (type I to type II) and spontaneous occlusion in 2 patients (type III to spontaneous occlusion). In the symptom pattern change group (n = 7), 2 patients showed new venous reflux (type I to type II), and 5 showed stasis or occlusion of an engorged ophthalmic vein (type II or III to type IV). Angiographic regression was observed in all type III and IV patients, and cortical venous reflux (CVR) developed in 1 type I patient. Conclusion: Symptom changes correlated with chronological angiographic changes. Without treatment, most CSdAVFs behaved benignly and had a low incidence of CVR. Therefore, close observation is a possible protocol for managing CSdAVFs that have tolerable symptoms, no CVR, and no antegrade drainage despite aggravation or fluctuation in symptoms.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated in vivo from reprogrammable mice. These in vivo iPSCs display features of totipotency, i.e., they differentiate into the trophoblast lineage, as well as all 3 germ layers. Here, we developed a new reprogrammable mouse model carrying an Oct4-GFP reporter gene to facilitate the detection of reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells. Without doxycycline administration, some of the reprogrammable mice developed aggressively growing teratomas that contained Oct4-GFP(+) cells. These teratoma-derived in vivo PSCs were morphologically indistinguishable from ESCs, expressed pluripotency markers, and could differentiate into tissues of all 3 germ layers. However, these in vivo reprogrammed PSCs were more similar to in vitro iPSCs than ESCs and did not contribute to the trophectoderm of the blastocysts after aggregation with 8-cell embryos. Therefore, the ability to differentiate into the trophoblast lineage might not be a unique characteristic of in vivo iPSCs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: We report detailed analysis of the thin film morphology (molecular packing, molecular conformational order, and vertical phase separation) - performance (charge transport, photocurrent generation, and photovoltaic performance) relationships under nanowire formation and subsequent thermal annealing in polymer:fullerene blends. Nanowires of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are formed by controlled precipitation from solution and blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) to form bulk heterojunction thin films. The formation of nanowires and further thermal annealing result in increased molecular order of the P3HT, where the short-range conformational order is maximised by annealing at 100 °C and decreases when annealed at higher temperatures, but the quality of long-range molecular packing and lamellar packing distance increase with annealing temperature up to 150 °C. The long-range order correlates strongly with an increase in hole mobility, but the reduction in short-range conformational order indicates a slight reduction in planarity of the conjugated backbone in this aggregated polymer morphology. Photoconductive atomic force microscopy reveals enhancemed connectivity of the hole transporting nanowire network as a result of thermal annealing. Additionally, we find that the nanowire morphology results in a favourable vertical phase separation, with PCBM enrichment at the electron-extracting surface in the conventional architecture, which is contrary to the non-nanowire case. This effect is further encouraged by thermal annealing, resulting in an enhancement of open-circuit voltage, and represents a morphological advantage over conventional P3HT:PCBM devices. Our study identifies an important interplay between long-range and short-range molecular order in charge generation, transport, extraction, and hence solar cell device performance.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: After preliminary tests using a small 25 mm-caliber electromagnetic launcher, a larger mid-caliber launcher has been designed and fabricated. The launcher has a rectangular bore of 40 mm 50 mm, where the rails are separated by 50 mm from each other and are 5.6 m long. To deliver an electrical current to the launcher, a new 4.8-MJ pulsed power supply (PPS) consisting of eight 600-kJ segments has been constructed. The 600-kJ segment is a basic building block of PPS operated independently. It contains a controller, a charger, a safety circuit, and six 100-kJ unit modules. Each unit module in the segment is composed of a 100 kJ capacitor bank, a thyristor switch, a crowbar diode, and a pulse-forming inductor. The modules in a segment are charged to the same voltage, but they are designed to have different triggering times to make a flexible shape of current waveform. The electrical parameters of the PPS were determined through the discharges of the unit modules and those of the rails were measured by launch experiments or short circuit tests at the ends of the rails. Launch experiments have been done using several current waveforms. The current of 1 MA in a few milliseconds accelerated the armatures of several hundred grams in mass to velocities near 2 km/s. In this paper, the design and basic performance of the constructed PPS and the electromagnetic launcher are presented.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of symptomatic coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). This retrospective study evaluated 456 patients who received examination for MMD between 1995 and 2012. We reviewed the patients' medical history and coronary imaging, including conventional coronary angiography and coronary computed tomography angiogram (CTA). Among 456 patients with MMD, 21 (4.6%) patients were found to have symptomatic CHD. Ten patients were treated with coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous coronary intervention for unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Eleven were treated with medication for stable angina (n = 6) and variant angina with mild degree of stenosis (n = 5).The median age of these patients was 44 yr (range, 27-59). The median Framingham score at diagnosing MMD was < 1% (range, < 1%-16%). The old age was associated with CHD in uni- and multivariate analyses (P = 0.021, OR, 1.053; 95% CI, 1.008-1.110). Considering low age of onset and low stroke risk factor, CHD might be a systemic manifestation that is clinically relevant to MMD. Graphical Abstract
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Korean medical science
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    ABSTRACT: Reprogramming is one of the most essential areas of research in stem cell biology. Despite this importance, the mechanism and correlates of reprogramming remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the cytoplasmic remodeling and changes in metabolism that occur during reprogramming and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Specifically, we examined the cellular organelles of three pluripotent stem cells, embryonic (ESCs), induced pluripotent (iPSCs), and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), by electron microscopy. We found that the cellular organelles of primed pluripotent EpiSCs were more similar to those of naïve pluripotent ESCs and iPSCs than somatic cells. EpiSCs, as well as ESCs and iPSCs, contain large nuclei, poorly developed endoplasmic reticula, and underdeveloped cristae; however, their mitochondria were still mature relative to the mitochondria of ESCs and iPSCs. Next, we differentiated these pluripotent stem cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro and compared the morphology of organelles. We found that the morphology of organelles of NSCs differentiated from ESCs, iPSCs, and EpiSCs were indistinguishable from brain-derived NSCs. Finally, we examined the changes in energy metabolism that accompanied mitochondrial remodeling during reprogramming and differentiation. We found that the glycolytic activity of ESCs and iPSCs was greater than that of EpiSCs, and that the glycolytic activity of EpiSCs was greater than that of NSCs differentiated from ESCs, iPSCs, and EpiSCs. These results suggest that a change in cellular state is accompanied by dynamic changes in the morphology of cytoplasmic organelles and corresponding changes in energy metabolism.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Stem Cells and Development
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    ABSTRACT: Photoluminescent hybrids of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) and terbium ions (Tb3+) were synthesized by using a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP), click chemistry and coordination chemistry. Initially, acetylene functionalized PCL (alkyne-PCL-COOH) was prepared by using ROP of ε-caprolactone with propargyl alcohol, and azide-substituted POSS (POSS-N3) was prepared by using the reaction of chloropropyl-heptaisobutyl-substituted POSS with NaN3. The click reaction between alkyne-PCL-COOH and POSS-N3 afforded POSS-g-PCL, which was subsequently coordinated with Tb3+ ions in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline to produce POSS-g-PCL-Tb3+-Phen. The structures and compositions of the hybrids were investigated by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical properties of POSS-g-PCL-Tb3+-Phen complexes were characterized by using photoluminescence spectroscopy, which showed four high emission bands centered at 489, 545, 584, and 620 nm with excitation at 330 nm. The emission spectra of the europium-ion-coordinated hybrids, POSS-g-PCL-Eu3+-Phen, had four high-intensity peaks, 594, 617, 652 and 686 nm, for an excitation wavelength of 352 nm.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal- Korean Physical Society
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    Jong Soo Kim · Jeong Bum Bae · Jang Won Seo · Woo Chan Park
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate cross-sectional areas of conjunctiva and tear meniscus of conjunctivochalasis using Fourier-Domain RTVue-100 optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after conjunctivochalasis surgery.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society
  • Jong Soo Kim · Hyun Woo Choi · Yean Ju Hong · Jeong Tae Do
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    ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by overexpression of defined transcription factors. iPS cells can perpetually self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of an organism. iPS cells were first generated through infection with retroviruses that contain reprogramming factors. However, development of an exogene-free iPS cell generation method is crucial for future therapeutic applications, because integrated exogenes result in the formation of tumors in chimeras and regain pluripotency after differentiation in vitro. Here, we describe a method to generate iPS cells by transfection of plasmid vectors and to convert partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed iPS cells by switching from mouse ESC culture conditions to KOSR-based media with bFGF. We also describe basic methods used to characterize fully reprogrammed iPS cells.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of heteroatom substitution from a silicon atom to a germanium atom in donor-acceptor type low band gap copolymers, poly[(4,4′-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (PSiBTBT) and poly[(4,4′-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]germole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (PGeBTBT), are studied. The optoelectronic and charge transport properties of these polymers are investigated with a particular focus on their use for organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices in blends with phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). It is found that the longer C-Ge bond length, in comparison to C-Si, modifies the molecular conformation and leads to a more planar chain conformation in PGeBTBT than PSiBTBT. This increase in molecular planarity leads to enhanced crystallinity and an increased preference for a face-on backbone orientation, thus leading to higher charge carrier mobility in the diode configuration. These results provide important insight into the impact of the heavy atom substitution on the molecular packing and device performance of polymers based on the poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT) backbone.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Advanced Energy Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Direct reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells entails the obliteration of somatic cell memory and the reestablishment of epigenetic events. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been created by reprogramming somatic cells through the transduction of reprogramming factors. During cell reprogramming, female somatic cells must overcome at least one more barrier than male somatic cells in order to enter a pluripotent state, as they must reactivate an inactive X chromosome (Xi). In this study, we investigated whether the sex of somatic cells affects reprogramming efficiency, differentiation potential, and the post-transcriptional processing of Xist RNA after reprogramming. There were no differences between male and female iPS cells with respect to reprogramming efficiency or their differentiation potential in vivo. However, reactivating Xi took longer than reactivating pluripotency-related genes. We also found that direct reprogramming leads to gender appropriate posttranscriptional reprogramming: like male embryonic stem (ES) cells, male iPS cells expressed only the long Xist isoform, whereas female iPS cells, like female ES cells, expressed both the long and short isoforms.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Cell Science
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    ABSTRACT: Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells by transduction of exogenous reprogramming factors. After induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are established, exogenous genes are silenced. In the pluripotent state, retroviral genes integrated in the host genome are kept inactive through epigenetic transcriptional regulation. In the present study, we tried to determine whether exogenous genes remain silenced or are reactivated upon loss of pluripotency or on differentiation by using an in vitro system. We induced differentiation of iPS cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro; the NSCs appeared morphologically indistinguishable from brain-derived NSCs and stained positive for the NSC markers Nestin and Sox2. These iPS cell-derived NSCs (iPS-NSCs) were also capable of differentiating into all three neural subtypes. Interestingly, iPS-NSCs spontaneously formed aggregates on long-term culture and showed reactivation of the Oct4-GFP marker, which was followed by the formation of ES cell-like colonies. The spontaneously reverted GFP-positive (iPS-NSC-GFP+) cells expressed high levels of pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog) and formed germline chimeras, indicating that iPS-NSC-GFP+ cells had the same pluripotency as the original iPS cells. The reactivation of silenced exogenous genes was tightly correlated with the downregulation of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) during differentiation of iPS cells. This phenomenon was not observed in doxycycline-inducible iPS cells, where the reactivation of exogenous genes could be induced only by doxycycline treatment. These results indicate that pluripotency can be regained through reactivation of exogenous genes, which is associated with dynamic change of Dnmt levels during differentiation of iPS cells. Stem Cells 2014
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Stem Cells

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. To examine the demographic characteristics, clinical features, surgical outcomes, and long-term prognoses of epiblepharon in Korean children. Methods. Epiblepharon patients who were followed for ≥ 6 month following surgical correction between January 2005 and December 2013. The patient demographics, clinical features, concomitant disorders, surgical outcomes, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. Results. A total of 768 epiblepharon records were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 6.55 ± 2.37 years. At presentation, 712 patients (92.8%) complained of typical epiblepharon symptoms. The mean patient age at surgery was 6.95 ± 2.52 years, with 629 patients (81.9%) on the lower lid and 72 patients (9.4%) on the upper lid and 82 patients (10.7%) undergoing surgery on both lids. The eyelid was well everted with no recurrence in 740 patients (96.4%). Conclusion. Epiblepharon frequently occurs in Korean children and is correctable with a simple surgery. Recurrence and serious complications do not occur often, and any suspicions of epiblepharon should be investigated. A thorough ocular examination can lead to a correct diagnosis and timely corrective surgery. Most procedures are successful and prevent secondary complications that often occur with uncorrected epiblepharon.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Ophthalmology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
430.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Pukyong National University
      • Division of Systems Management and Engineering
      Busan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2012-2015
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Animal Biotechnology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yonsei University
      • Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011-2015
    • Imperial College London
      • Centre for Plastic Electronics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • CHA University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2006-2015
    • Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute-KERI
      Busan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2005-2015
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      • • Samsung Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003-2015
    • Hanyang University
      • • Department of Biomedical Science
      • • Major in Anatomy and Cell Biology
      • • Department of Food and Nutrition
      • • Department of Industrial Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Dankook University
      • College of Dentistry
      Eidō, North Chungcheong, South Korea
    • Dong-A University
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Busan, Busan, South Korea
  • 2007-2014
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
      Geijitsu, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2003-2014
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007-2013
    • Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003-2012
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2002-2012
    • Ajou University
      • • Department of Gastroenterology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Korea Food and Drug Administration
      Seishō-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
    • Chungbuk National University
      Chinsen, Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
  • 2003-2007
    • Korea University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004-2006
    • University of Ulsan
      • Department of Biological Science
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea