[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants that are associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) or the risk of obesity in Caucasian or Asian populations. We examined whether these variants are individually associated with obesity in Chinese children, and also assessed their cumulative effects and predictive value for obesity risk in Chinese children.
We genotyped 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and conducted association analyses for 32/40 SNPs with an estimated minor allele frequency >1 % in 2 030 unrelated Chinese children, including 607 normal-weight, 718 overweight, and 705 obese individuals from two cross-sectional study groups. Logistic regression and linear regression under the additive model were used to examine associations, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCROC) was reported as prediction summary.
We identified obesity association for 6 SNPs near SEC16B, RBJ, CDKAL1, TFAP2B, MAP2K5 and FTO (odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.19 to 1.41, nominal two-sided P-values < 0.05). Association (Bonferroni corrected) of rs543874 near SEC16B and rs2241423 near MAP2K5 had presumably stronger effects on obesity in Chinese children than in Caucasian populations. Their risk alleles were also associated with BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) variability. We demonstrated the cumulative effects of the 32 SNPs on obesity risk (per risk allele: OR = 1.06, 95 % CI: 1.03-1.11, P = 4.84 × 10(-4)) and BMI-SDS (β = 0.04, 95 % CI: 0.02-0.06, P = 3.69 × 10(-7)). The difference in AUCROC for a model with covariates (age, age square, sex and study group) and the model including covariates and all 32 SNPs was 2.8 % (P = 0.0002).
While six SNPs were individually associated with obesity in Chinese children, the 32 common variants identified by recent GWA studies had cumulative effects and resulted in a limited increase in the AUCROC predictive value for childhood obesity.
Preview · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Blood pressure (BP) is positively associated with height in childhood; however its relationship with components of height is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between ratio of height components, leg-to-trunk ratio (LTR) and high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-17.
Data of 149 073 participants enrolled in Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health in 2010 were used. HBP was defined according to sex-, age- and height-specific references. LTR was calculated by dividing leg length by sitting height and categorized as low, medium and high according to sex- and age-specific z-score.
Larger LTR was associated with declined levels of BP across the height and age spectrum in both sexes. Boys and girls with high LTR were associated with decreases of 5.4 (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 6.2) and 2.7(2.0, 3.4) % in HBP, respectively, compared with their peers of low LTR. A similar pattern was also observed in different age, urban/rural area and body mass index strata.
Low LTR was associated with elevated risk of HBP in youths. Our findings support using LTR to identify children and adolescents at elevated risk of hypertension in early life.
No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Understanding the urban-rural gap in childhood blood pressure (BP) is crucial to alleviate the urban-rural disparity in burden of hypertension in the future. This study investigated trends in urban-rural BP disparity and the influence of body mass index among Chinese children between 1985 and 2010.
Data included 1 010 153 children aged 8-17 years enrolled in the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health, a successive national cross-sectional survey. High BP was defined according to age-sex- and height-specific 95th percentile. Multi-variable linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the urban-rural BP differentials.
Although urban children had greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than rural counterparts, rural children revealed higher levels of BP across the consecutive 25-year periods. The urban-rural disparity in prevalence of high systolic BP decreased from 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.3, 2.6) % to 0.2 (-0.1, 0.4) % in boys and 3.7 (3.5, 4.0) % to 0.6 (0.3, 0.8) % in girls between 1985 and 2010 after adjusting for confounding factors. Further adjustment of body mass index did not change the urban-rural disparity and its trend. The similar results were also observed for diastolic BP.
Despite the urban-rural disparity in BP decreased between 1985 and 2010, rural children constantly showed higher BP levels than their urban counterparts. Since these differentials in BP cannot be explained by obesity, study of other potential factors could provide further opportunity to bridge this gap.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The European Journal of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI) can explain only 1.18-1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS) have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7-17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom's MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05), and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007). These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, both in urban and rural areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited rigid data regarding children and adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. A national random controlled school-based obesity intervention program was developed in the mainland of China.
The study was designed as a national multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving more than 70,000 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years from 7 provinces in China. In each center, about 12-16 primary and secondary schools, with totally at least 10000 participants were randomly selected (Primary: Secondary = 1:1). All of the selected schools were randomly allocated to either intervention or control group (Intervention: Control = 1:1).The multi-components school-based and family-involved scheme was conducted within the intervention group for 9 month, while students in the control group followed their usual health practice. The intervention consisted of four components: a) Create supportive school and family environment, b) Health lifestyles education and related compulsory physical activities, c) Instruct and promote school physical education, d) Self-monitor obesity related behaviors. Four types of outcomes including anthropometric, behavioral, blood chemical and physical fitness were measured to assess the effectiveness of the intervention program.
This is the first and largest multi-centered school-based obesity intervention program with the consideration of geographical and social-demographic characteristics of the rapidly increased obesity prevalence of Chinese children and adolescent. The intervention is based on Social Cognitive Theory and Social-Ecological Model of Health, and follows a stepwise approach guided by PRECEDE-PROCEED (P-P) Model and Intervention Map. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based national childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China.
January 22, 2015;
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background With regard to the global childhood obesity epidemic, it is imperative that effective lifestyle interventions are devised to combat childhood obesity. This paper describes the development and implementation of a comprehensive (a combination of diet and physical activity (PA)), social cognitive behaviour modification intervention using accelerometry and a dietary diary to tackle child overweight and obesity. The comprehensive intervention effect was evaluated in a comparison with diet only, PA only and a no-treatment control group. Methods A pilot study was conducted with a non-randomized cluster design. Four hundred thirty-eight overweight and obese children aged 7–12 years from ten primary schools in Beijing were recruited to receive a one-year intervention. Participants were allocated into one of four groups: the comprehensive intervention group; the PA only group (Happy 10 program); the diet only group (nutrition education program); and a control group. The effects of intervention on adiposity, blood pressure, and biochemical indicators were assessed by examining 2-way interactions (time × intervention) in linear mixed models. Means and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the adjusted changes between post-intervention and baseline relative to changes in the control group were calculated and reported as effect sizes. Results The percentage of body fat in the comprehensive intervention group showed a significant relative decrease (adjusted change: −1.01 %, 95 % CI: (−1.81, −0.20) %) compared with the PA only, diet only or control groups (P < 0.001). Systolic blood pressure significantly decreased in the comprehensive intervention group (adjusted change: −4.37 mmHg, 95 % CI: (−8.42, −0.33) mmHg), as did diastolic blood pressure (adjusted change: −5.50 mmHg, 95 % CI (−8.81, −2.19) mmHg) (P < 0.05). Compared with the other two intervention groups and the control group, positive adjusted changes in fasting glucose in the comprehensive group were found, although not for the biochemical lipid metabolism indicators. Positive but non-significant adjusted changes in body mass index and waist circumference were observed. Conclusions Compared with the diet or PA only intervention groups, the current comprehensive program had superior positive effects on body fat percentage and blood pressure but not on the biochemical lipid metabolism indicators in Chinese overweight and obese children. Future randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up studies are required to elaborate the findings of the current intervention. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02228434
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood pressure to height ratio (BPHR) has been suggested as a simple method for screening children with hypertension, but its discriminatory ability in young children is not as good as that in older children. Using data of 89,664 Chinese children aged 7 to 11 years, the authors assessed whether modified BPHR (BP:eHT13) was better than BPHR in identifying young children with hypertension. BP:eHT13 was estimated as BP/(height+7×(13-age in years)). Using Youden's index, the thresholds of systolic/diastolic BP:eHT13 for identifying prehypertension and hypertension were 0.67/0.44 and 0.69/0.45, respectively. These proposed thresholds revealed high sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and area under the curve (AUC), ranging from 0.874 to 0.999. In addition, BP:eHT13 showed better AUCs and fewer cutoff points than, if not similar to, two existing BPHR references. BP:eHT13 generally performed better than BPHR in discriminating BP abnormalities in young children and may improve early hypertension recognition and control.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Clinical Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Information on the relationship between sleep duration and obesity among children in urban Guangzhou, China is limited. This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in children aged 6–18 years.
The sample consisted of 11,830 children aged 6–18 years. The children were randomly selected from 13 schools in three urban districts of Guangzhou. The study was conducted from September to November 2013. The height and weight of the children were measured. Adiposity status was estimated using body mass index and according to the cut point in China criteria. In the structured questionnaire, children reported daily sleep hours (less than 7 h, 7–9 h and more than 9 h), weekly food intake amount (including vegetables, fruit, sugar beverages and meat), physical activity and sedentary time. A caretaker would answer the questionnaire on behalf of a child aged below nine.
A total of 8,760 children (49.0 % boys) completed the study. The prevalence of obesity was 8.4 % (9.8 % in boys and 5.7 % in girls). Adjusted for age, diet and physical activity/sedentary behaviour, the odds ratio (OR) for obesity comparing sleeping <7 h (short sleep duration, SSD) with ≥9 h (long sleep duration, LSD) was 0.70 (95 % CI: 0.69–0.72) among boys and 1.73 (95 % CI: 1.71–1.74) among girls. Stratified by age, OR for boys aged 6–12 years comparing SSD with LSD was 0.60 (95 % CI: 0.55–0.66); by contrast, OR was 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.30–1.37) for boys aged 13–18 years.
Short sleep duration is associated with increased chances of obesity among girls and 13- to 18-year-old boys, but the chances of obesity are decreased among 6- to 12-year-old boys. Age and gender should be regarded as specific characteristics for the effects of short sleep on obesity.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To determine the best anthropometric index among body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) and to derive optimal thresholds for predicting CVD risk factors in Chinese children.
A total of 2563 children aged 8-12 years were recruited in Guangzhou, China. Anthropometric indices were measured in all participants. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively), glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured in a subsample of 1609 children.
In partial correlation analyses, the highest coefficients were found for WC in four risk factors in both genders. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that WC was comparably consistent among the best in predicting BP and risk factor clustering, WC and WSR were the best in predicting HDL-C and TG in boys; WC, slightly better than BMI, was the best in distinguishing high BP and risk factor clustering in girls. In contrast, WHR was consistently the poorest index in both genders. Optimal age- and gender-specific thresholds to identify individual and clustering risk factors were provided; the thresholds for WC were 57.4-80.4 cm and 55.8-69.6 cm in boys and girls, respectively.
WC was the comparatively consistent and best predictor of CVD risk factors compared with WSR and BMI, although the differences were small and depended on the type of risk factor and gender, and WHR was consistently the poorest predictor in Chinese children.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Understanding trends in blood pressure (BP) in childhood is crucial to addressing and reducing the burden of adulthood hypertension and associated mortality in the future. In view of growing obesity in Chinese children, we sought to investigate the trends in BP and the influence of body mass index (BMI) on them.
Design, setting and participants We included 1 010 153 children aged 8–17 years, with completed records from a large national successive cross-sectional survey, the Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health, between 1985 and 2010.
Main outcome measurements BP was measured according to the recommendation of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group, and the elevated BP was based on sex-, age- and height-specific 95th centile of the recommendation.
Results The adjusted mean systolic BP in boys and girls decreased by 3.9 and 5.6 mm Hg between 1985 and 2005, and increased by 1.3 and 1.0 mm Hg between 2005 and 2010, respectively. Corresponding adjusted prevalence of elevated systolic BP in boys and girls declined from 5.1% and 5.5% to 3.5% and 2.5% between 1985 and 2005, and increased to 4.9% and 3.5% in 2010, respectively. Adjusted mean BMI of boys and girls in 2010 was 2.0 and 1.2 kg/m2 higher than those in 1985, respectively. The prevalence of obesity rose from 0% to 3.4% in boys and 0.9% in girls. Further adjusting for BMI did not change these trends in systolic BP. A similar pattern was also observed in diastolic BP.
Conclusions After declining for 20 years, BP levels in Chinese children started to climb upwards. These trends in BP cannot be fully explained by BMI. The investigation of other determinants of BP may provide additional opportunity to curb the current upward BP trend in Chinese children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 7- to 17-year-old children and adolescents in China and to examine the relationship between MetS and its associated early-life factors.
Data were collected using a standard parent/guardian questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Each participant underwent a complete anthropometric evaluation. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF; 2007) for children and adolescents.
Guangzhou, a large city in South China, September 2013.
A total of 1770 children and adolescents were enrolled in the study, including 913 girls (51.6 %) and 857 boys (48.4 %).
The overall prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents was 1.1% (n,19), which was higher in boys
(1.4 %) than in girls (0.8 %). Multivariate analysis indicated that high birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity (OR=2·86; 95 % CI 1.62, 5.06) and MetS (OR=3.61; 95 % CI 1.33, 9.82). Furthermore, >6 months of maternal breast-feeding was inversely associated with MetS (OR=0.39;95 %
CI 0.16, 0.98).
Based on IDF criteria, the prevalence of MetS among southern Chinese children was significantly lower than that in other populations. High birth weight was significantly associated with abdominal obesity and MetS, and breast-feeding for longer than 6 months was inversely associated with MetS in South China
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Public Health Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown.
To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010.
We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis.
In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period.
A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Global Health Action
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2) encodes a protein that has a biological effect on regulation of adipocyte metabolism and body weight. This study aimed to investigate the association of INSIG2 gene -102G>A polymorphism with obesity related phenotypes in Chinese children and test gender-specific effects. Methods. The 2,030 independent individuals aged from 7 to 18 years, including 705 obese cases and 1,325 nonobese controls, were recruited from local schools. We measured the obesity-related phenotypes and detected the serum lipids. We genotype -102G>A polymorphism by using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results. In all individuals, we found that the GG/GA genotype of INSIG2 -102G>A polymorphism was associated with risk of severe obesity (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.36, and P = 0.012) under the dominant model. The association with severe obesity existed only in boys (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15-3.17, P = 0.012). The GG/GA genotype of -102G>A polymorphism was also associated with higher waist circumference (β = 2.61 cm, P = 0.031) in boys. No similar association was found in girls. The polymorphism was not associated with other obesity-related phenotypes, neither in all individuals nor in gender-specific population. Conclusions. This study identified a gender-specific effect of INSIG2 -102G>A polymorphism on risk of severe obesity and waist circumference in Chinese boys.
Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the awareness rate of obesity risk factors among children and adolescents, and to provide the basis for preventing their obesity.
The students selected by using stratified cluster sampling method, were measured for the body height, weight, and waist circumference, and were surveyed for the awareness rate of obesity risk factors by using the questionnaire. The distribution characteristics of awareness on obesity risk factors were analyzed.
The awareness rate of obesity risk factors was 74.1%, and there was no significant difference on the awareness rate of obesity risk factors between the males [71.2% (247/347)] and females [77.2% (257/333)], the abdominal obesity students [73.5% (202/275)] and non-abdominal obesity students [74.6% (302/405)], the overall obesity students [74.3% (185/249)] and non-overall obesity students [74.0% (319/431)], respectively. However, the awareness rate of obesity risk factors among the primary school students was 81.9% (272/332) that was higher than that of the middle school students [66.7% (232/348)] (P<0.05). Compared with the primary school students, the non-awareness risk of obesity risk factors would increase among the middle school students (OR=2.23, P<0.05).
The overall awareness rate of obesity risk factors is not high among children and adolescents, especially among middle school students.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether eliminating overweight and obesity could effectively reduce the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in Chinese children. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of contribution of overweight and obesity associated with HBP in Chinese children, and assess the theoretical HBP prevalence if overweight and obesity were eliminated.
Data on 197,191 participants aged 7-17 years with complete records from the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health conducted in 2010 were included. The population attributable risk of overweight and obesity for HBP was calculated.
The prevalence of HBP was 6.8% and 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively. HBP in about 22.9% (95% CI 21.5, 24.2%) of boys and 14.7% (95% CI 13.5, 15.8%) of girls could be attributable to overweight and obesity. If both overweight and obesity were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP theoretically could be reduced to 5.2% in boys and 5.0% in girls. Similar results were found in different age and urban/rural area groups.
Eliminating overweight and obesity could theoretically lead to a moderate reduction in the prevalence of HBP in Chinese children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the influence factors of body image dissatisfaction among children and adolescents with normal weight.
The primary and middle school students who were selected from Changping district of Bejing city using the stratified cluster sampling method were measured body height, weight, and waist circumference. Body image cognitive attitude of students or their parents was surveyed using 'Ma figural shape'. The cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was surveyed by self-designed questionnaires. The students with normal weight were selected according to 'reference norm for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents (WGOC) in 2005' and 'reference norm for screening underweight in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-19 years'. The association between body image dissatisfaction and cognitive attitude of obesity risk factors was analyzed for each gender.
The study validly surveyed and measured 680 students, and there were 36.6% (249/680) students with overweight or obesity, 4.0% (27/680) students with underweight, and 59.4% (404/680) students with normal weight. Prevalence of body image satisfaction, expecting to be thinner, and to be fatter in students with normal weight was 32.7% (132/404), 35.1% (142/404), and 32.2% (130/404), respectively. The prevalence of expecting to be thinner in females and middle students was higher than that in males and primary students (46.4% (102/220) vs 21.8% (40/184)), (39.8% (88/221) vs 29.5% (54/183)), respectively; χ(2) values were 26.65 and 4.67 respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of expecting to be fatter in males was higher than that in females ((42.9% (79/184) vs 23.2% (51/220)) (χ(2) = 17.91, P < 0.001). The concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between students and their parent was 60.4% (244/404), and the consistency coefficient was 0.41 (P < 0.001). The factors including parents expecting their children to be thinner, the negative attitude on less drinking sugary beverages and having breakfast per day might increase the risks of children expecting to be thinner in males, the OR (95% CI) value were 5.20 (1.51-17.89), 3.43 (1.11-10.59), and 6.53(1.14-37.58), respectively. The parents expecting their children to be fatter might increase the risk of children expecting to be fatter in males, the OR (95% CI) value were 7.57 (3.47-16.52). The factors including parents expecting their children to be thinner, and the positive attitude on less eating high calorie snacks might increase the risk of children expecting to be thinner in females, the OR (95% CI) value were 65.74 (8.45-511.21) and 3.03 (1.01-9.09), respectively. The parents expecting their children to be thinner or fatter might increase the risk of children expecting to be fatter in females, the OR (95% CI) value were 17.38 (1.53-197.74) and 9.64 (3.98-23.35), respectively.
The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among students with normal weight was high, and the concordance ratio on body image cognitive attitude between themselves and their parents was low. Guiding students to have the correct cognitive attitude on less drinking sugary beverages, having breakfast per day, and less eating high calorie snacks may be conducive to prevent body image dissatisfaction.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the correlation between children and adolescents' body shape parameters and parent's dissatisfaction on it.
Stratified cluster sampling method was used to select students and their parents, and height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), skinfold thichness of the students were measured. Body image from parents was studied through the 'Ma body figural shape'. Correlation between body shape parameters and dissatisfaction towards them from the parents was analyzed under both simple- and multiple-level methods.
The overall prevalence of dissatisfaction on body-shapes from parents was 69.0%, including 28.6% of the parents expecting children to be fat (PEBF) while, 40.4% of the parents expecting their children to be thin (PEBT). In males, parameters as height, weight, WC, HC, skin fold thickness, BMI in PEBT were 1.9 cm, 11.9 kg, 13.2 cm, 8.8 cm, 32.3 mm, 4.7 kg/m(2) respectively, all higher than the satisfaction from the parents (PBIS) (all P < 0.05), and these parameters were 2.3 cm, 7.1 kg, 7.2 cm, 5.8 cm, 14.1 mm, 2.3 kg/m(2) higher in PBIS than that of PEBF, respectively (all P < 0.05). In females, parameters as weight, WC, HC, skinfold thickness, BMI in PEBT appeared to be 8.6 kg, 9.1 cm, 6.6 cm, 21.9 mm, 3.5 kg/m(2) higher than that of PBIS (all P < 0.01), and were 5.5 kg, 5.9 cm, 5.4 cm, 10.4 mm, 1.8 kg/m(2) higher in PBIS than that of PEBF, respectively, plus the difference of height was 3.6 cm more (P < 0.01). Differences of body shape on parameters between PEBT and PBIS were larger in primary school students than in middle school students. However, the differences of body shape parameters between PBIS and PEBF appeared higher in middle school students than in primary school male students, but were higher in female students in primary than in middle school students.
The prevalence of body dissatisfaction related to children and adolscents' body shape parameters from parents was high. Parents in the PEBT group seemed to have paid more attention to children's body shape parameters at low age. However, parents in PEBF group might have paid more attention to children's body shape parameters at high age in males or at low age in females.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To screen the coding region of melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) for mutations in children, analyze the association of the identified variants with obesity-related phenotypes, and predict the potential functions of the identified variants.
A case-control study was conducted in 160 severely obese children and 100 normal-weight controls, all aged 7-18 years. Their anthropometric data were collected and blood tests were performed. The coding region of MC4R gene was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing, and the potential functions of the identified variants were predicted by related online databases.
Three heterozygous missense mutations were identified in obese children (Val95Ile, Val166Ile and Val179Ala), and one heterozygous missense mutation was found in controls (Met218Thr). Val103Ile variant was found to be carried by seven subjects in the obese group and six in the control group (P>0.05). Val179Ala was a newly identified heterozygous mutation. No significant differences in BMI, weight, waist circumstance, hip circumstance, serum lipid parameters, fasting glucose, and body fat percentage were found between Val95Ile, Val166Ile or Val179Ala mutation carriers and non-carriers in obese children. The function prediction of the variants showed that all the five identified variants influenced the protein function.
Five variants were identified in the coding region of MC4R gene, among which Val179Ala was newly identified. All the five variants might influence the protein function as evidenced by online prediction.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics