Jeremiah P. Ostriker

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (414)2152.23 Total impact

  • Source
    S. Pellegrini · L. Ciotti · J. P. Ostriker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ISM evolution of elliptical galaxies experiencing feedback from accretion onto a central black hole was studied recently with high-resolution 1D hydrodynamical simulations including radiative heating and pressure effects, a RIAF-like radiative efficiency, mechanical input from AGN winds, and accretion-driven starbursts. Here we focus on the observational properties of the models in the X-ray band (nuclear luminosity; hot ISM luminosity and temperature; temperature and brightness profiles during quiescence and during outbursts). The nuclear bursts last for ~10^7 yr, with a duty-cycle of a few X (10^-3-10^-2); the present epoch bolometric nuclear emission is very sub-Eddington. The ISM thermal luminosity \lx oscillates in phase with the nuclear one; this helps reproduce statistically the observed large \lx variation. In quiescence the temperature profile has a negative gradient; thanks to past outbursts, the brightness profile lacks the steep shape typical of inflowing models. Outbursts produce disturbances in these profiles. Most significantly, a hot bubble from shocked hot gas is inflated at the galaxy center; the bubble would be conical in shape, and show radio emission. The ISM resumes a smooth appearance on a time-scale of ~200 Myr; the duty-cycle of perturbances in the ISM is of the order of 5-10%. From the present analysis, additional input physics is important in the ISM-black hole coevolution, to fully account for the properties of real galaxies, as a confining external medium and a jet. The jet will reduce further the mass available for accretion (and then the Eddington ratio $l$), and may help, together with an external pressure, to produce flat or positive temperature gradient profiles (observed in high density environments). Alternatively, $l$ can be reduced if the switch from high to low radiative efficiency takes place at a larger $l$ than routinely assumed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011
  • G. S. Novak · J. Ostriker · L. Ciotti
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011
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    Ludwig Oser · Thorsten Naab · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Peter H. Johansson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyze 40 cosmological re-simulations of individual massive galaxies with present-day stellar masses of M * > 6.3 × 1010M ☉ in order to investigate the physical origin of the observed strong increase in galaxy sizes and the decrease of the stellar velocity dispersions since redshift z ≈ 2. At present 25 out of 40 galaxies are quiescent with structural parameters (sizes and velocity dispersions) in agreement with local early-type galaxies. At z = 2 all simulated galaxies with M * 1011M ☉ (11 out of 40) at z = 2 are compact with projected half-mass radii of ≈0.77 (±0.24) kpc and line-of-sight velocity dispersions within the projected half-mass radius of ≈262 (±28) km s–1 (3 out of 11 are already quiescent). Similar to observed compact early-type galaxies at high redshift, the simulated galaxies are clearly offset from the local mass-size and mass-velocity dispersion relations. Toward redshift zero the sizes increase by a factor of ~5-6, following R 1/2∝(1 + z)α with α = –1.44 for quiescent galaxies (α = –1.12 for all galaxies). The velocity dispersions drop by about one-third since z ≈ 2, following σ1/2∝(1 + z)β with β = 0.44 for the quiescent galaxies (β = 0.37 for all galaxies). The simulated size and dispersion evolution is in good agreement with observations and results from the subsequent accretion and merging of stellar systems at z 2, which is a natural consequence of the hierarchical structure formation. A significant number of the simulated massive galaxies (7 out of 40) experience no merger more massive than 1:4 (usually considered as major mergers). On average, the dominant accretion mode is stellar minor mergers with a mass-weighted mass ratio of 1:5. We therefore conclude that the evolution of massive early-type galaxies since z ≈ 2 and their present-day properties are predominantly determined by frequent "minor" mergers of moderate mass ratios and not by major mergers alone.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Yin-Zhe Ma · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Gong-Bo Zhao
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this Letter, we investigate the potential power of the Cosmic Mach Number (CMN), which is the ratio between the mean velocity and the velocity dispersion of galaxies as a function of cosmic scales, to constrain cosmologies. We first measure the CMN from 5 catalogues of galaxy peculiar velocity surveys at low redshift (0.002<z<0.03), and use them to contrast cosmological models. Overall, current data is consistent with the WMAP7 LCDM model. We find that the CMN is highly sensitive to the growth of structure on scales 0.01<k<0.1 h/Mpc in Fourier space. Therefore, modified gravity models, and models with massive neutrinos, in which the structure growth generally deviates from that in the LCDM model in a scale-dependent way, can be well differentiated from the LCDM model using future CMN data.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
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    D. Clay Hambrick · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Thorsten Naab · Peter H. Johansson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies with active galactic nuclei (AGN) have typically employed feedback that is purely local: i.e., an injection of energy to the immediate neighborhood of the black hole. We perform GADGET-2 simulations of massive elliptical galaxies with an additional feedback component: an observationally calibrated X-ray radiation field which emanates from the black hole and heats gas out to large radii from the galaxy center. We find that including the heating and radiation pressure associated with this X-ray flux in our simulations enhances the effects which are commonly reported from AGN feedback. This new feedback model is twice as effective as traditional feedback at suppressing star formation, produces 3 times less star formation in the last 6 Gyr, and modestly lowers the final BH mass (30%). It is also significantly more effective than an X-ray background in reducing the number of satellite galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011
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    Luca Ciotti · Jeremiah P. Ostriker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of feedback (radiative and mechanical) from massive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies is not in doubt, given the well established relation among black hole mass and galaxy optical luminosity. Here, with the aid of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations, we discuss how this feedback affects the hot ISM of isolated elliptical galaxies of different mass. The cooling and heating functions include photoionization plus Compton heating, the radiative transport equations are solved, and the mechanical feedback due to the nuclear wind is also described on a physical basis; star formation is considered. In the medium-high mass galaxies the resulting evolution is highly unsteady. At early times major accretion episodes caused by cooling flows in the recycled gas produced by stellar evolution trigger AGN flaring: relaxation instabilities occur so that duty cycles are small enough to account for the very small fraction of massive ellipticals observed to be in the QSO-phase, when the accretion luminosity approaches the Eddington luminosity. At low redshift all models are characterized by smooth, very sub-Eddington mass accretion rates. The mass accumulated by the central black hole is limited to range observed today, even though the mass lost by the evolving stellar population is roughly two order of magnitude larger than the black hole masses observed in elliptical galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011
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    Ludwig Oser · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Thorsten Naab · Peter H. Johansson · Andreas Burkert
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation appear to show a two-phase character with a rapid early phase at z>2 during which in-situ stars are formed within the galaxy from infalling cold gas followed by an extended phase since z<3 during which ex-situ stars are primarily accreted. In the latter phase massive systems grow considerably in mass and radius by accretion of smaller satellite stellar systems formed at quite early times (z>3) outside of the virial radius of the forming central galaxy. These tentative conclusions are obtained from high resolution re-simulations of 39 individual galaxies in a full cosmological context with present-day virial halo masses ranging from 7e11 M_sun h^-1 < M_vir < 2.7e13 M_sun h^-1 and central galaxy masses between 4.5e10 M_sun h^-1 < M_* < 3.6e11 M_sun h^-1. The simulations include the effects of a uniform UV background, radiative cooling, star formation and energetic feedback from SNII. The importance of stellar accretion increases with galaxy mass and towards lower redshift. In our simulations lower mass galaxies ($M_* < 9e10 M_sun h^-1) accrete about 60 per cent of their present-day stellar mass. High mass galaxy ($M_* > 1.7e11 M_sun h^-1) assembly is dominated by accretion and merging with about 80 per cent of the stars added by the present-day. In general the simulated galaxies approximately double their mass since z=1. For massive systems this mass growth is not accompanied by significant star formation. The majority of the in-situ created stars is formed at z>2, primarily out of cold gas flows. We recover the observational result of archaeological downsizing, where the most massive galaxies harbor the oldest stars. We find that this is not in contradiction with hierarchical structure formation. Most stars in the massive galaxies are formed early on in smaller structures, the galaxies themselves are assembled late. Comment: 13 pages, 13 figures, submitted
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    D. C. Hambrick · J. P. Ostriker · P. H. Johansson · T. Naab
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Even though the dark-matter power spectrum in the absence of biasing predicts a number density of haloes n(M) ∝M−2 (i.e. a Schechter α value of −2) at the low-mass end (M < 1010 M⊙), hydrodynamic simulations have typically produced values for stellar systems in good agreement with the observed value α≃−1. We explain this with a simple physical argument and show that an efficient external gas-heating mechanism (such as the UV background included in all hydro codes) will produce a critical halo mass below which haloes cannot retain their gas and form stars. We test this conclusion with gadget-2-based simulations using various UV backgrounds, and for the first time we also investigate the effect of an X-ray background. We show that at the present epoch α depends primarily on the mean gas temperature at the star-formation epoch for low-mass systems (z≲ 3): with no background we find α≃−1.5, with UV only α≃−1.0 and with UV and X-rays α≃−0.75. We find the critical final halo mass for star formation to be ∼4 × 108 M⊙ with a UV background and ∼7 × 108 M⊙ with UV and X-rays.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Ena Choi · Luca Ciotti · Gregory S. Novak · and Daniel Proga
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deposition of mechanical feedback from a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in an active galactic nucleus into the surrounding galaxy occurs via broad-line winds which must carry mass and radial momentum as well as energy. The effect can be summarized by the dimensionless parameter where w is the efficiency with which accreted matter is turned into wind energy in the disk surrounding the central SMBH. The outflowing mass and momentum are proportional to η, and many prior treatments have essentially assumed that η = 0. We perform one- and two-dimensional simulations and find that the growth of the central SMBH is very sensitive to the inclusion of the mass and momentum driving but is insensitive to the assumed mechanical efficiency. For example in representative calculations, the omission of momentum and mass feedback leads to a hundred-fold increase in the mass of the SMBH to over 1010 M ☉. When allowance is made for momentum driving, the final SMBH mass is much lower and the wind efficiencies that lead to the most observationally acceptable results are relatively low with w 10–4.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Gregory S. Novak · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Luca Ciotti
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We extend the black hole (BH) feedback models of Ciotti, Ostriker, and Proga to two dimensions. In this paper, we focus on identifying the differences between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We examine a normal, isolated $L_*$ galaxy subject to the cooling flow instability of gas in the inner regions. Allowance is made for subsequent star formation, Type Ia and Type II supernovae, radiation pressure, and inflow to the central BH from mildly rotating galactic gas which is being replenished as a normal consequence of stellar evolution. The central BH accretes some of the infalling gas and expels a conical wind with mass, momentum, and energy flux derived from both observational and theoretical studies. The galaxy is assumed to have low specific angular momentum in analogy with the existing one-dimensional case in order to isolate the effect of dimensionality. The code then tracks the interaction of the outflowing radiation and winds with the galactic gas and their effects on regulating the accretion. After matching physical modeling to the extent possible between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional treatments, we find essentially similar results in terms of BH growth and duty cycle (fraction of the time above a given fraction of the Eddington luminosity). In the two-dimensional calculations, the cool shells forming at 0.1--1 kpc from the center are Rayleigh--Taylor unstable to fragmentation, leading to a somewhat higher accretion rate, less effective feedback, and a more irregular pattern of bursting compared to the one-dimensional case.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Hy Trac · Paul Bode · Jeremiah P. Ostriker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present templates for the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) angular power spectrum based on four models for the nonlinear gas distribution. The frequency-dependent SZ temperature fluctuations, with thermal (TSZ) and kinetic (KSZ) contributions, are calculated by tracing through a dark matter simulation, processed to include gas in dark matter halos and in the filamentary intergalactic medium. Different halo gas models are compared to study how star formation, energetic feedback, and nonthermal pressure support influence the angular power spectrum. The standard model has been calibrated to reproduce the stellar and gas fractions and X-ray scaling relations measured from low redshift clusters and groups. The other models illustrate the current theoretical and empirical uncertainties relating to properties of the intracluster medium. Relative to the standard model, their angular power spectra differ by approximately 50% (TSZ), 20% (KSZ), and 40% (SZ at 148 GHz) for l=3000, sigma_8=0.8, and homogeneous reionization at z=10. The angular power spectrum decreases in amplitude as gas mass and binding energy is removed through star formation, and as gas is pushed out to larger radii by energetic feedback. With nonthermal pressure support, less pressure is required to maintain hydrostatic equilibrium, thus reducing the thermal contribution to the SZ power. We also calculate the SZ templates as a function of sigma_8 and quantify this dependence. Assuming C_l is proprotional to (sigma_8/0.8)^alpha, the effective scaling index ranges from 7<alpha_tsz<9, 4.5<alpha_ksz<5.5, and 6.5<alpha_sz(148 GHz)<8 at l=3000 for 0.6<sigma_8<1. The template spectra are publicly available and can be used when fitting for the SZ contribution to the cosmic microwave background on arcminute scales. Comment: 14 pages, 10 figures, to be submitted to ApJ
    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Ena Choi · Luca Ciotti · Gregory S. Novak · Daniel Proga
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deposition of mechanical feedback from a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in an active galactic nucleus (AGN) into the surrounding galaxy occurs via broad-line winds which must carry mass and radial momentum as well as energy. The effect can be summarized by the dimensionless parameter $\eta=dot{M_outflow}/dot{M_accretion}= (2 \epsilon_w c^2)/v_w^2$ where ($\epslion_w \equiv dot{E}_w/(dot{M_accretion} c^2)$) is the efficiency by which accreted matter is turned into wind energy in the disc surrounding the central SMBH. The outflowing mass and omentum are proportional to $\eta$, and many prior treatments have essentially assumed that $\eta=0$. We perform one- and two-dimensional simulations and find that the growth of the central SMBH is very sensitive to the inclusion of the mass and momentum driving but is insensitive to the assumed mechanical efficiency. For example in representative calculations, the omission of momentum and mass feedback leads to an hundred fold increase in the mass of the SMBH to over $10^{10} \Msun$. When allowance is made for momentum driving, the final SMBH mass is much lower and the wind efficiencies which lead to the most observationally acceptable results are relatively low with $\epsilon_w \lesssim 10^{-4}$. Comment: 10 pages, 8 figures, resubmitted to ApJ, added references
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010
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    Luca Ciotti · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Daniel Proga
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We find, from high-resolution hydro simulations, that winds from active galactic nuclei effectively heat the inner parts (≈100 pc) of elliptical galaxies, reducing infall to the central black hole; and radiative (photoionization and X-ray) heating reduces cooling flows at the kpc scale. Including both types of feedback with (peak) efficiencies of 3 × 10–4w 10–3 and of EM 10–1.3 respectively, produces systems having duty cycles, central black hole masses, X-ray luminosities, optical light profiles, and E+A spectra in accord with the broad suite of modern observations of massive elliptical systems. Our main conclusion is that mechanical feedback (including energy, momentum, and mass) is necessary but the efficiency, based on several independent arguments, must be a factor of 10 lower than is commonly assumed. Bursts are frequent at z > 1 and decline in frequency toward the present epoch as energy and metal-rich gas are expelled from the galaxies into the surrounding medium. For a representative galaxy of final stellar mass 3 × 1011M ☉, roughly 3 × 1010M ☉ of recycled gas has been added to the interstellar medium (ISM) since z 2 and, of that, roughly 63% has been expelled from the galaxy, 19% has been converted into new metal-rich stars in the central few hundred parsecs, and 2% has been added to the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the remaining 16% in the form of hot X-ray emitting ISM. The bursts occupy a total time of 170 Myr, which is roughly 1.4% of the available time. Of this time, the central supermassive black hole would be seen as a UV or optical source for 45% and 71% of the time, respectively. Restricting to the last 8.5 Gyr, the bursts occupy 44 Myr, corresponding to a fiducial duty cycle of 5 × 10–3.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Claire N. Lackner · Jeremiah P. Ostriker
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examine two extreme models for the build-up of the stellar component of luminous elliptical galaxies. In one case, we assume the build-up of stars is dissipational, with centrally accreted gas radiating away its orbital and thermal energy; the dark matter (DM) halo will undergo adiabatic contraction and the central DM density profile will steepen. For the second model, we assume the central galaxy is assembled by a series of dissipationless mergers of stellar clumps that have formed far from the nascent galaxy. In order to be accreted, these clumps lose their orbital energy to the DM halo via dynamical friction, thereby heating the central DM and smoothing the DM density cusp. The central DM density profiles differ drastically between these models. For the isolated elliptical galaxy, NGC 4494, the central DM densities follow the power laws r –0.2 and r –1.7 for the dissipational and dissipationless models, respectively. By matching the dissipational and dissipationless models to observations of the stellar component of elliptical galaxies, we examine the relative contributions of dissipational and dissipationless mergers to the formation of elliptical galaxies and look for observational tests that will distinguish between these models. Comparisons to strong lensing brightest cluster galaxies yield median (M */L) B ratios of 2.1 ± 0.8 and 5.2 ± 1.7 at z 0.39 for the dissipational and dissipationless models, respectively. For NGC 4494, the best-fit dissipational and dissipationless models have (M */L) B = 2.97 and 3.96. Comparisons to expected stellar mass-to-light ratios from passive evolution and population syntheses appear to rule out a purely dissipational formation mechanism for the central stellar regions of giant elliptical galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Yan-Fei Jiang · Luca Ciotti · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · and Anatoly Spitkovsky
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both radiative and mechanical feedback from active galactic nuclei have been found to be important for the evolution of elliptical galaxies. We compute how a shock may be driven from a central black hole into the gaseous envelope of an elliptical galaxy by such feedback (in the form of nuclear winds) using high resolution one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We calculate the synchrotron emission from the electron cosmic rays accelerated by the shocks (not the jets) in the central part of elliptical galaxies, and we also study the synchrotron spectrum's evolution using the standard diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, which is routinely applied to supernova remnants. We find quantitative consistency between the synchrotron radio emission produced via this mechanism with extant observations of elliptical galaxies which are undergoing outbursts. Additionally, we also find that synchrotron optical and X-ray emission can co-exist inside elliptical galaxies during a specific evolutionary phase subsequent to central outbursts. In fact, our calculations predict a peak synchrotron luminosity of ~1.3 × 106L ☉ at the frequency 5 GHz (radio band), of ~1.1 × 106L ☉ at 4.3 × 1014 Hz (corresponding to the absolute magnitude –10.4 in R band), and of ~1.5 × 107L ☉ at 2.4 × 1017 Hz (soft X-ray, 0.5-2.0 keV band).
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We create realistic, full-sky, half-arcminute resolution simulations of the microwave sky matched to the most recent astrophysical observations. The primary purpose of these simulations is to test the data reduction pipeline for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) experiment; however, we have widened the frequency coverage beyond the ACT bands to make these simulations applicable to other microwave background experiments. Some of the novel features of these simulations are that the radio and infrared galaxy populations are correlated with the galaxy cluster populations, the CMB is lensed by the dark matter structure in the simulation via a ray-tracing code, the contribution to the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signals from galaxy clusters, groups, and the IGM has been included, and the gas prescription to model the SZ signals matches the most recent X-ray observations. Regarding the contamination of cluster SZ flux by radio galaxies, we find for 148 GHz (90 GHz) only 3% (4%) of halos have their SZ decrements contaminated at a level of 20% or more. We find the contamination levels higher for infrared galaxies. However, at 90 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M_{200} > 2.5 x 10^{14} Msun and z<1.2 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 20% or more. At 148 GHz, less than 20% of clusters with M_{200} > 2.5 x 10^{14} Msun and z<0.8 have their SZ decrements filled in at a level of 50% or larger. Our models also suggest that a population of very high flux infrared galaxies, which are likely lensed sources, contribute most to the SZ contamination of very massive clusters at 90 and 148 GHz. These simulations are publicly available and should serve as a useful tool for microwave surveys to cross-check SZ cluster detection, power spectrum, and cross-correlation analyses.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Jeremiah P Ostriker · Charlotte V Kuh · James A Voytuk
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the NRC, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2010
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What breakthrough advances will petascale computing bring to various science and engineering fields? Experts in everything from astronomy to seismology envision the opportunities ahead and the impact they'll have on advancing our understanding of the world.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Computing in Science and Engineering
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    D. Clay Hambrick · Jeremiah P. Ostriker · Thorsten Naab · Peter H. Johansson
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We find that the amount and nature of the assumed ionizing background can strongly affect galaxy formation and evolution. Galaxy evolution simulations typically incorporate an ultraviolet background which falls off rapidly above z=3; e.g., that of Haardt & Madau (1996). However, this decline may be too steep to fit the WMAP constraints on electron scattering optical depth or observations of intermediate redshift (z ~ 2-4) Ly-alpha forest transmission. As an alternative, we present simulations of the cosmological formation of individual galaxies with UV backgrounds that decline more slowly at high redshift: both a simple intensity rescaling and the background recently derived by Faucher-Giguere (2009), which softens the spectrum at higher redshifts. We also test an approximation of the X-ray background with a similar z-dependence. We find for the test galaxies that an increase in either the intensity or hardness of ionizing radiation generically pushes star formation towards lower redshifts: although overall star formation in the simulation boxes is reduced by 10-25%, the galaxies show a factor of ~2 increase in the fraction of stars within a 30 kpc radius that are formed after z=1. Other effects include late gas inflows enhanced up to 30 times, stellar half-mass radii decreased by up to 30%, central velocity dispersions increased up to 40%, and a strong reduction in substructure. The magnitude of the effects depends on the environmental/accretion properties of the particular galaxy. Comment: 10 emulateapj pages, 10 figures; accepted by ApJ
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Jeremiah P Ostriker · Charlotte Kuh
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Science

Publication Stats

40k Citations
2,152.23 Total Impact Points


  • 2013-2015
    • Columbia University
      • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1969-2015
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1975-2012
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • Departamento de Anatomía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
    • CA Technologies
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2007
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Theoretical Division
      Los Alamos, California, United States
  • 2002-2005
    • Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • University of Bologna
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy DIFA
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1993-2001
    • TRI/Princeton
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2000
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1991
    • University of Texas at Austin
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 1990
    • Ibaraki University
      • Department of Physics
      Mito-shi, Ibaraki, Japan
  • 1983
    • Hokkaido University
      • Division of Physics
      Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1982
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1973-1978
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1976
    • University of Colorado at Boulder
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
    • Pasadena City College
      Pasadena, Texas, United States