[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting extreme habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from extreme habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to extreme environments.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in patients with hyper-response to ovulation induction for intrauterine insemination (IUI).
Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who were initially treated with IUI in our centre between Jan 2007 and Oct 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS) found in 50 patients was then treated with IVF-ET following informed consent.
The fresh transfer had 42 cycles and a total of 87 embryos were transferred. Urine pregnancy tests were positive in 15 patients and fetal heart beat was detected in 12 patients by transvaginal ultrasound, from which 3 patients had two fetuses, 2 patients had three fetuses, and 7 patients had a single fetus. The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 28.5% (12/42) for the fresh embryo transfer. A total of 21 cycles of frozen embryo transfer with up to 55 embryos were conducted for patients who were not pregnant at the end of fresh embryo transfer cycles or who did not receive fresh embryo transfer in the first place. Urine pregnancy tests were positive in 10 patients and fetal heart beat was detected in 8 patients. The clinical pregnancy rate was 38.1% (8/21) for frozen embryo transfer.
We conclude that IVF-ET is an effective method for patients with hyper-response to ovulation induction in IUI.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on retinal neovascularization (NV) and neuroprotection in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model.
Neonatal C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12 and then returned to room air. TMP (200 mg/kg) or normal saline was given daily from P12 to P17. Immunostaining, HE staining, TUNEL assay, and RT-PCR were used to assess the effects of TMP on retinal neurovascular repair.
TMP effectively prevented pathologic NV and accelerated physiologic revascularization by enhancing the formation of endothelial tip cells at the edges of the repairing capillary networks and preserving the astrocytic template in the avascular retina. TMP also prevented morphologic changes and significantly decreased TUNEL-positive cells in the avascular retina by rescuing neurons such as amacrine, rod bipolar, horizontal, and Müller cells. In TMP-treated mice retinas, there was a less obvious loss of amacrine cell bodies and their distinct bands; the number of both rod bipolar and horizontal cell bodies, as well as the density of their dendrites in the outer plexiform layer, was greater than that in OIR control mice. TMP not only decreased the loss of alignment of Müller cell bodies and distortion of processes but reduced the reactive expression of GFAP in Müller cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA expression were downregulated in TMP-treated mice retinas.
TMP improved neurovascular recovery by preventing NV and protecting retinal astroglia cells and neurons from ischemia-induced cell death partially due to its downregulation of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA expression.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-viral gene delivery systems based on cationic polymers have faced limitations related to their relative low gene transfer efficiency, cytotoxicity and system instability in vivo. In this paper, a flexible and pompon-like dendrimer composed of poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) G4.0 as the inner core and poly (L-glutamic acid) grafted low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PLGE) as the surrounding multiple arms was synthesized (MGI dendrimer). The novel MGI dendrimer was designed to combine the merits of size-controlled PAMAM G4.0 and the low toxicity and flexible chains of PLGE. In phosphate-buffered saline dispersions the well-defined DNA/MGI complex above a N/P ratio of 30 showed good stability with particle sizes of approximately 200 nm and a comparatively low polydispersity index. However, the particle size of the DNA/25 kDa polyethylenimine (DNA/PEI 25K) complex was larger than 700 nm under the same salt conditions. The shielding of the compact amino groups at the periphery of flexible PAMAM and biocompatible PLGE chains in MGI resulted in a dramatic decrease of the cytotoxicity compared to native PAMAM G4.0 dendrimer. The in vitro transfection efficiency of DNA/MGI dendrimer complex was higher than that of PAMAM G4.0 dendrimer. Importantly, in serum-containing medium, DNA/MGI complexes at their optimal N/P ratio maintained the same high levels of transfection efficiency as in serum-free medium, while the transfection efficiency of native PAMAM G4.0, PEI 25K and Lipofectamine 2000 were sharply decreased. In vivo gene delivery of pVEGF165/MGI complex into balloon-injured rabbit carotid arteries resulted in significant inhibition of restenosis by increasing VEGF165 expression in local vessels. Therefore, the pompon-like MGI dendrimer may be a promising vector candidate for efficient gene delivery in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of spatial and temporal variations in the microbial community in the abandoned tailings impoundment of a Pb-Zn mine
revealed distinct microbial populations associated with the different oxidation stages of the tailings. Although Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum spp. were consistently present in the acidic tailings, acidophilic archaea, mostly Ferroplasma acidiphilum, were predominant in the oxidized zones and the oxidation front, indicating their importance to generation of acid mine drainage.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) was combined with the Fenton-like technology to simultaneously generate electricity and degrade refractory contaminants in both anode and cathode chambers. The maximum power density achieved was 15.9 W/m(3) at an initial pH of 3.0 in the MFC. In the anode chamber, approximately 100% of furfural and 96% COD were removed at the end of a cycle. In the cathode chamber, the Fenton-like reaction with FeVO(4) as a catalyst enhanced the removal of AO7 and COD. The removal rates of AO7 and COD reached 89% and 81%, respectively. The optimal pH value and FeVO(4) dosage toward degrading AO7 were about 3.0 and 0.8 g, respectively. Furthermore, a two-way catalyst mechanism of FeVO(4) and the contaminant degradation pathway in the MFC were explored.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Bioresource Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By constructing a dual-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC), experiments were carried out using an initial glucose concentration of 1 000 mg/L with different nitrobenzene (NB) concentrations (0, 50, 150 and 250 mg/L) as the MFC's fuel. Results showed that with an external resistance of 1 000 omega, the initial glucose concentration of 1 000 mg/L and the initial NB concentrations of 0, 50, 150, 250 mg/L, the operation periods were 55.7, 51.6, 45.9 and 32.2 h, respectively, the maximum voltage outputs were 670, 597, 507, and 489 mV, the maximum volumetric power densities were 28.57, 20.42, 9.29, and 8.47 W/m3, and the electric charges were 65.10, 43.50, 35.48, and 30.32 C. The MFC could use the NB and glucose mixtures as fuel and generated stable electricity outputs. The degradation rates of NB in the MFC in all cases reached up to 100% and COD removals in the MFC were 87% - 98%. However, the electricity generation was negligible when using 250 mg/L NB as the sole fuel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles demonstrated that the presence of NB resulted in changes of the dominant bacterial species on the electrodes.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: fertile women the patterns of proteome during the prereceptive (day 2 after LH surge) and receptive (day 7 after LH surge) phases were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. A total of 31 differentially expressed proteins (17 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated) were identified between the two phases, which is helpful in understanding the biological mechanisms underlying human endometrial receptivity. (Fertil Steril (R) 2011;95:1161-3. (C) 2011 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Fertility and sterility
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Veratryl alcohol (VA) is a product from the biodegradation of lignocellulosic biomass. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility whether VA could be used as the fuel of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate power. Two types of MFCs, a two-chamber MFC and a single-chamber air-cathode MFC, were set up for experiments. In the two-chamber MFC, average maximum current outputs higher than 700 microA were obtained using various mixtures of glucose and VA as the fuel. The highest power density of 35.17 W m(-3) was achieved using the mixture of 1000 mg L(-1) glucose and 50 mg L(-1) VA as the fuel. With 500 mg L(-1) VA as the fuel in the MFC, we obtained an average maximum current output of 181 microA. In the single-chamber MFC, the maximum current output reached up to 178 microA with 500 mg L(-1) VA in the fed-batch mode and the maximum CE reached 23.77% with 100 mg L(-1) VA. At the end of all operation cycles of the MFCs, the glucose and VA were undetectable in the solution, and the removal efficiencies of COD were between 75% and 88%. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the dominant species on the anode biofilm did not change significantly with the different substrates, but the abundance of some species increased greatly. The scanning electron micrographs showed that the most abundant bacteria on the electrode were bacilli. The dominant species belonged to bacteroidetes and proteobacterium.
No preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of nitrobenzene (NB) on electricity generation and simultaneous biodegradation of NB were studied with two types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs): a ferricyanide-cathode MFC with NB as the anodic reactant and a NB-cathode MFC. Compared to controls without NB, the presence of NB in the anode of the first MFC decreased maximum voltage outputs, maximum power densities and Coulombic efficiencies. No electricity was generated from the first MFC using NB as the sole fuel; however, the second MFC using NB as the electron acceptor generated electricity successfully with a maximum voltage of 400mV. NB was degraded completely within 24h in both anode and cathode chambers. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles demonstrated that the presence of NB caused changes in relative abundance of the dominant bacterial species and emergence of new bacteria on the anodes.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Bioresource Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indole is a typical refractory and inhibitory compound present in coking wastewater. The aim of this study was to investigate possible electricity generation with indole degradation in the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Experiments were conducted in two types of the MFC: a continuous-fed MFC (C-MFC) and a batch-fed MFC (B-MFC). In the C-MFC, the maximum power densities reached 45.4, 51.2, and 2.1 W/m(3), respectively, from using 1000 mg/L glucose, a mixture of 1000 mg/L glucose and 250 mg/L indole, and 250 mg/L indole as the fuel. When using 250 mg/L indole as the fuel, the removal efficiency of indole was up to 88% within 3 h. Increasing indole concentrations from 250 to 1500 mg/L resulted in decrease of the maximum power densities from 2.1 to 0.8 W/m(3), and average degradation rates from 41.7 to 8.9 mg/(Lh). Compared with the C-MFC, the B-MFC increased the maximum power densities from 2.1 to 3.3 W/m(3) and the coulombic efficiencies from 0.7% to 81.5%. Microbial community analyses showed that the addition of indole obviously changes the microbial community of the anode electrode, including the changes of relative abundance and emergence of new species. The results should be useful for treatment of wastewater containing indole.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of hazardous materials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G and HLA-I (which includes HLA-A, -B, -C, -E and -F, but is without HLA-G) in the cleavage embryo and its supernatant, and related the results to embryo development including growth rate and grade. In total, 136 day-3 cleavage embryos were used for detection of HLA-G and 24 embryos for HLA-I without HLA-G by immunohistochemistry. The expression of HLA-I was examined by western blot in the lysates of a further 63 day-3 cleavage embryos; soluble HLA-I in the culture supernatant of embryos with detectable HLA-I was also examined by western blot. It was found that 90 of 136 (66.2%) cleavage embryos expressed HLA-G, whereas 23 of 24 (95.8%) embryos expressed HLA-I without HLA-G. HLA-G expression typically showed an even and symmetrical pattern of distribution in each blastomere. HLA-I without HLA-G in cleavage-stage embryos is typically scattered around the blastomere surface. The expression of HLA-G but without HLA-I in cleavage-stage embryos was significantly associated with embryo grade (P < 0.001) and cell number (P = 0.03). In conclusion, HLA-I is expressed on day-3 cleavage embryos, and HLA-G expression on preimplantation embryos is related to embryo development, including embryo growth rate and embryo grade.
No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Reproductive biomedicine online
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the association of altered expression of annexin IV in human endometrium during the implantation window and endometrial receptivity.
A comparative proteomic strategy, in a combination of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), was adopted to search for proteome alternations of pre-receptive (day LH + 2) versus receptive (LH + 7) endometria. The location and abundance of the identified differentially expressed protein- annexin IV were analyzed by immunostaining and western blot.
By comparing protein profiles of LH + 2 and LH + 7 samples, we found a protein up-regulated 2.12 times in LH + 7 samples, with a relative molecular weight of 36,000 and an isoelectric point near pH 5.8. It was characterized using mass spectrometry and was identified as annexin IV. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an altered localization of annexin IV--in the epithelia on day LH + 2, and both in the epithelia and stroma cells on day LH + 7. Protein levels of annexin IV were up-regulated on day LH + 7 compared with that on day LH + 2 by Western blot. Integrated optical density of the object (OPTDI) was 46.249 +/- 32.376 and 249.507 +/- 31.959, respectively (P = 0.004).
Our study indicates endometrial samples obtained by microbiopsy are available for proteomics studies. It seems possible that the increased expression of annexin IV during the implantation window plays an important role in the morphological differentiation of the uterus to the receptive state.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In southern China, the average carrier rates of alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia in the population are as high as 10.3% and 2.8%, respectively. Because of the high rates, they are known as ‘social diseases’ in some regions. In this study, the fluorescent gap PCR, which can detect the alpha-thalassemia Southeast Asia deletion (SEA deletion), was applied in four clinical applications of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on four couples, among whom both partners were alpha-thalassemia carriers. Two patients became pregnant and two healthy babies were born, which confirmed the PGD results. The single cell multiplex nested PCR followed by reverse dot blot (RDB), which can simultaneously detect the 16 beta-thalassemia mutations in the Chinese population, was applied in four clinical PGD cycles on four couples among whom both partners were beta-thalassemia carriers. One pregnancy was achieved and it resulted in a live healthy birth, which confirmed the results of PGD. The amplification efficiencies of the two protocols described above were 89.5% and 93.9%, respectively. The allele drop-out (ADO) rates of these two protocols were 5.9% and 10.9%, respectively.
These studies represent the successful applications of PGD protocols that can detect more than 95% of alpha- and beta -thalassemia mutations in the Chinese population. Copyright
No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Prenatal Diagnosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop single-cell fluorescent gap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in couples at risk of having child with alpha-thalassemia.
Single cell fluorescent gap PCR which can detect the alpha-thalassemia Southeast Asia deletion (-SEA deletion), was applied to single lymphocytes and blastomeres which coming from four clinical PGD cycles.
The Single cell fluorescent gap PCR can detect the alpha-thalassemia -SEA deletion, which account for 94% of hydrop fetalis in Chinese population with an amplification efficiency of 90.0% (72/80) and allele drop-out (ADO) rate of 8.3% (6/72) in lymphocytes. In four clinical PGD cycles, a total 38 embryos were detected and 38 blastomeres were obtained. Thirty-four blastomeres were amplified with the amplification efficiency of 89.5% (34/38) and ADO rate of 5.9% (2/34). Eleven embryos were shown to be normal homozygous, eight embryos were shown to be heterozygous and 15 embryos were shown to be affected homozygous. Eleven embryos were transferred back to the uterus of the patients. Two pregnancy achieved, resulting in two live healthy births, which confirmed the results of PGD.
This first reported unaffected pregnancy resulting from PGD using fluorescent gap PCR for alpha-thalassemia demonstrates that this technique, as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis, is a reliable and effective way to help those carrier couples to get a healthy baby.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the applicability of the polymorphic marker closely linked with beta-globin gene for the preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in couples at risk of having child with beta-thalassemia.
Single cell multiplex nested PCR which coamplifies the beta-globin gene and the closely linked polymorphic marker, HumTHO1 gene, was applied in six clinical PGD cycles for four couples with beta-thalassemia.
In six clinical PGD cycles, a total of 44 embryos were biopsied and 44 blastomeres were obtained. Forty-one blastomeres were amplified and thirty-five embryos were given definite diagnoses. Fourteen embryos were transferred back to the uterus of the patients and one pregnancy went on well and ended with one live healthy birth, which confirmed the results of PGD. The average amplification efficiency of single blastomere was 89.7% and the average allele drop-out(ADO) rate was 14.4%. The coamplification of HumTHO1 could help to detect the existence of ADO and contamination.
This is the first report on unaffected pregnancy resulting from PGD using multiplex nested PCR in China. The simultaneous amplification of polymorphic marker closely linked to beta-globin gene(HumTHO1) could help to resist the risk of misdiagnosis in PGD caused by ADO and contamination.
No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop single-cell multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in couples at risk of having child with beta-thalassemia.
Primers were designed and synthesized according to the documented mutation sites common among Chinese. Venous blood was collected from 4 pairs of husband and wife, all heterozygotes for beta-thalassemia, and underwent multiple nested PCR. Intraooplasmic sperm injection and mechanical bio psy was used to obtain single blastomere. Multiplex nested PCR was used to detect the CD41-42 mutation and the closely linked polymorphic marker, HumTHO1 gene or CD41-42, CD41-28, IVSII654 mutation and HumTHO1 gene in the single blastomeres from four clinical PGD cycles. The normal embryos with high scores capable of continuing to divide were transplanted into the uteri. The process of gestation was observed.
200 lymphocytes were amplified by nested PCR. The average amplification rate of the most common 16 beta-thalassemia mutations in Chinese population was 91.3% and the average rate of allele drop out for different sites was 17.0% without differences between any 2 sites. During the 4 PGD cycles 33 embryos underwent bioassay with a success rate of 100%. 33 blastomeres were obtained to undergo PCR, of which 30 were successfully amplified with an amplification rate of 90.9%. Explicit diagnosis was obtained in 26 of the 30 embryos: 7 normal homozygotes, 11 heterozygotes, and 8 abnormal or complex heterozygotes. One or more embryos were transferred back into the uteri of the 4 women and clinical pregnancy occurred in one woman. Five weeks after the implantation B-mode ultrasonography showed monocyesis, and in the 17th week of gestational period paracentesis of cord blood showed normal homozygote. At last a normal female infant confirming the PGD result had been born, which was the first reported unaffected pregnancy resulting from PGD using multiplex nested PCR for couples as beta-thalassemia gene carriers. The results of diagnosis for embryo all corresponded to those for blastomere. The average ADO rate of blastomere was 13.3% (4/30).
PGD using multiplex nested PCR, as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis, is a reliable and effective way to help couples-carriers of pathogenetic genes to get a healthy baby.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To find out the expression of soluble human leukocyte antigen G (sHLA-G) and its relationship to the cleavage embryo development.
One hundred and seventy-seven day 3 cleavage embryos were detected for sHLA-G by immunohistochemistry.
sHLA-G was detected in 57.1% cleavage embryos. The positive rate of sHLA-G in cleavage embryos developed from dipronucleate fertilized eggs was 66.2% (90/136), that developed from tripronucleate fertilized eggs was 26.8% (11/41). There was significant difference between these two groups (P < 0.01). The positive rate of sHLA-G in the grade 1 cleavage embryos developed from dipronucleate fertilized eggs was 64.3% (18/28), that in the grade 2 cleavage embryos developed from dipronucleate fertilized eggs was 91.7% (66/72), that in the grade 3 cleavage embryos developed from dipronucleate fertilized eggs was 16.7% (6/36), there were significant differences between these different embryo grades (P < 0.01), and the intensity of sHLA-G had negative relationship with the embryo grades (r = -0.503). The positive rate of sHLA-G in the first class cleavage embryos developed from tripronucleate fertilized eggs was 88.9% (32/36), that from dipronucleate fertilized eggs was 64.3% (18/28). There was significant difference in these two groups (P < 0.01). The intensity of sHLA-G in cleavage embryos developed from tripronucleate fertilized eggs was higher than that from dipronucleate fertilized eggs. The positive rate of sHLA-G in the cleavage embryos developed from dipronucleate fertilized eggs whose cell number was less than 4 was 56.7% (34/60), that from dipronucleate fertilized eggs whose cell number ranged from 5 to 6 was 67.9% (36/53), and that from dipronucleate fertilized eggs whose cell number ranged from 7 to 8 was 87.0% (20/23). There were no significant differences in these three groups. The intensity of sHLA-G had no significant difference between embryos with different cell number (P > 0.05), but it had relationship with the cell number (r = 0.267).
Cleavage embryos express sHLA-G which is related with the embryo development.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical programs for preventing beta-thalassemia are presently based on prospective carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis. This paper report an achievement of a pregnancy with unaffected embryos using in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), for a couple at risk of having children with beta-thalassemia.
A couple carrying different thalassemia mutations, both a codon 41 - 42 mutation and the IVS II 654 mutation, received standard IVF treatment, with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsiy, single cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA analysis. Only unaffected or carrier embryos were transferred to the uterine cavity. After confirmation of pregnancy, a prenatal diagnosis was performed.
Of a total of 13 embryos analyzed for beta-globin mutations, PGD indicated that 2 were normal, 3 were affected, and 6 were carriers. Diagnosis could not be made in the other 2 embryos. Three embryos were transferred to the uterus on the third day after oocyte retrieval. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy with one blighted ovum. The prenatal genetic diagnosis revealed that both fetuses were unaffected, and two healthy boys were born, confirming the results of PGD.
We developed a single-cell based primer extension preamplification (PEP)-PCR assay for the detection of beta-thalassemia mutations. The assays were efficient and accurate at all stages of the procedure, and resulted in the birth of PGD-confirmed beta-thalassemia free children in China. PEP was used here in PGD for beta-thalassemia.
No preview · Article · May 2004 · Chinese medical journal