John C. Wingfield

The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, United Kingdom

Are you John C. Wingfield?

Claim your profile

Publications (476)1359.07 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Environmental stressors increase the secretion of glucocorticoids that in turn can shorten telomeres via oxidative damage. Modification of telomere length, as a result of adversity faced early in life, can modify an individual’s phenotype. Studies in captivity have suggested a relationship between glucocorticoids and telomere length in developing individuals, however less is known about that relationship in natural populations. In order to evaluate the effect of early environmental stressors on telomere length in natural populations, we compared baseline corticosterone (CORT) levels and telomere length in nestlings of the same age. We collected blood samples for hormone assay and telomere determination from two geographically distinct populations of the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) that differed in brood size; nestlings body mass and primary productivity. Within each population we used path analysis to evaluate the relationship between brood size, body mass, baseline CORT and telomere length. Within each distinct population, path coefficients showed a positive relationship between brood size and baseline CORT and a strong and negative correlation between baseline CORT and telomere length. In general, nestlings that presented higher baseline CORT levels tended to present shorter telomeres. When comparing populations it was the low latitude population that presented higher levels of baseline CORT and shorter telomere length. Taken together our results reveal the importance of the condition experienced early in life in affecting telomere length, and the relevance of integrative studies carried out in natural conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Frontiers in Zoology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hematocrit is an easily measured parameter that can be used to assess changes in oxygen carrying capacity necessitated by fluctuations in metabolic demands. Most hematocrit studies draw conclusions from changes in hematocrit that occur over a small sampling interval without an understanding of the variation that exists across the annual cycle. White-crowned sparrows provide an excellent model system due to the existence of a resident subspecies (Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli) that serves as a natural control for a migrant subspecies (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Comparing these two subspecies allows for the investigation of adaptive physiological changes at each life-history stage (i.e., migration, breeding, molt, etc.) in response to changing metabolic demands. Of particular interest, this subspecies comparison, by both calendar month and life-history stage, allows for the separation of adaptive increases in hematocrit due to migration from the natural seasonal variation in hematocrit. Hematocrit levels for males and females ranged throughout the year between 42%–47% and 40%–47% in the resident and between 45%–58% and 45%–56% in the migrant. In both subspecies, hematocrit levels were elevated during the breeding season compared to the nonbreeding season, and levels were reduced in females during egg laying. When grouped by life-history stage, hematocrit levels were always higher in the migrant compared to the resident. During the months in which migration occurred, hematocrit levels were 10%–12% higher in the migrant compared to the resident subspecies. These data suggest differential regulation of hematocrit between the two subspecies that may be attributed to phenotypic plasticity or genetic differences.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three strikingly different alternative male mating morphs (aggressive 'independents', semicooperative 'satellites' and female-mimic 'faeders') coexist as a balanced polymorphism in the ruff, Philomachus pugnax, a lek-breeding wading bird. Major differences in body size, ornamentation, and aggressive and mating behaviors are inherited as an autosomal polymorphism. We show that development into satellites and faeders is determined by a supergene consisting of divergent alternative, dominant and non-recombining haplotypes of an inversion on chromosome 11, which contains 125 predicted genes. Independents are homozygous for the ancestral sequence. One breakpoint of the inversion disrupts the essential CENP-N gene (encoding centromere protein N), and pedigree analysis confirms the lethality of homozygosity for the inversion. We describe new differences in behavior, testis size and steroid metabolism among morphs and identify polymorphic genes within the inversion that are likely to contribute to the differences among morphs in reproductive traits.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Nature Genetics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seasonal breeding is widespread in vertebrates and involves sequential development of the gonads, onset of breeding activities (e.g. cycling in females) and then termination resulting in regression of the reproductive system. Whereas males generally show complete spermatogenesis prior to and after onset of breeding, females of many vertebrate species show only partial ovarian development and may delay onset of cycling (e.g. estrous), yolk deposition or germinal vesicle breakdown until conditions conducive for ovulation and onset of breeding are favorable. Regulation of this "brake" on the onset of breeding remains relatively unknown, but could have profound implications for conservation efforts and for "mismatches" of breeding in relation to global climate change. Using avian models it is proposed that a brain peptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), may be the brake to prevent onset of breeding in females. Evidence to date suggests that although GnIH may be involved in the regulation of gonadal development and regression, it plays more regulatory roles in the process of final ovarian development leading to ovulation, transitions from sexual to parental behavior and suppression of reproductive function by environmental stress. Accumulating experimental evidence strongly suggests that GnIH inhibits actions of gonadotropin-releasing hormones on behavior (central effects) and gonadotropin secretion (central and hypophysiotropic effects), and has direct actions in the gonad to inhibit steroidogenesis. Thus, actual onset of breeding activities leading to ovulation may involve environmental cues releasing an inhibition (brake) on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonad axis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · General and Comparative Endocrinology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals at the forefront of a range shift are likely to exhibit phenotypic traits that distinguish them from the population breeding within the historic range. Recent studies have examined morphological, physiological and behavioral phenotypes of individuals at the edge of their range. Several studies have found differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in response to acute restraint stress in individuals at the range limits. HPA axis activation leads to elevations in glucocorticoids that regulate physiology and behavior. Here we compare the hormonal profiles and morphometrics from Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) breeding at the northern limit of the population's range to those birds breeding within the historic population range. Birds breeding at the northern limit experienced a harsher environment with colder temperatures; however, we found no differences in arthropod prey biomass between the northern limit and more southern (historic) sites. Males at the northern limit had higher body condition scores (mass corrected for body size) compared to individuals within the historic range, but no differences were found in beak and tarsus lengths, wing chord, muscle profile or fat stores. In males during the pre-parental stage, before breeding commenced, HPA axis activity was elevated in birds at the northern limit of the range, but no differences were found during the parental or molt stages. Females showed no differences in HPA axis activity during the parental stage. This study suggests that "pioneering" individuals at the limits of their breeding range exhibit physiology and morphology that are distinct from individuals within the historic range.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Oecologia
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A species’ range can be thought of as a manifestation of the ecological niche in space. Within a niche, evolution has resulted in traits that maximize fitness. Across millennia, natural oscillations in temperature have caused shifts in the geographic location of appropriate habitat and with corresponding changes in species’ ranges. Contemporary climate change and human disturbance may lead to rapid range expansion or contractions with largely unknown consequences. Birds provide an excellent case study of this phenomenon with some taxa expanding range and others contracting even to the point of extinction. What leads some populations to expand while others contract? Are there physiological and behavioral attributes of “pioneers” at the forefront of a range shift/expansion? The concept of allostasis provides a framework with which to begin to evaluate when a species will be able to successfully expand into new habitat. This tool allows the integration of normal energetic demands (e.g. wear and tear of daily and seasonal routines) with novel challenges posed by unfamiliar and human altered environments. Allostasis is particularly attractive because it allows assessment of how individual phenotypes may respond differentially to changing environments. Here, we use allostasis to evaluate what characteristics of individuals and their environment permit successful range expansion. Understanding variation in the regulatory mechanisms that influence response to a novel environment will be fundamental for understanding the phenotypes of pioneers.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · General and Comparative Endocrinology
  • Source
    Jesse S. Krause · Simone L. Meddle · John C. Wingfield
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The general reproductive effort model attempts to predict the resources that will be allocated to a current reproductive bout or to future survival by aborting the current reproductive attempt. Life-history theory predicts that short-lived species should devote more resources toward a reproductive event because brood value is far greater compared with that of longlived species that have multiple breeding opportunities. Previous bird studies have used patterns of hormone secretion to understand the regulation of parental investment in response to environmental challenges, such as stress. The two key hormones investigated have been prolactin, which promotes parental investment, and corticosterone, which can reduce parental investment. Research on long-lived seabirds showed that prolactin levels decrease in response to a stressor, but the magnitude of the decline was positively correlated with future reproductive potential. However, little is known about the role of prolactin in short-lived species. Here we present prolactin and corticosterone data from a short-lived Arctic breeding, migratory songbird—the white-crowned sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii—at multiple stages of the breeding and nonbreeding seasons following standardized acute restraint stress. These data show that both prolactin and corticosterone are modulated seasonally. Corticosterone levels increased significantly in response to acute restraint stress during the breeding season in both sexes, but prolactin levels did not change in response to acute restraint stress at any stage of the annual cycle. We found no relationship between corticosterone or prolactin at either baseline or peak induced levels during any stage of breeding.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vertebrates, adjustments of physiology and behavior to environmental changes are often mediated by physiology, and more specifically by hormonal mechanisms. As a consequence, these mechanisms are thought to orchestrate life-history decisions in wild vertebrates. For instance, investigating the hormonal regulation of parental behavior is relevant to evaluate how parents modulate their effort according to specific environmental conditions. Surprisingly and despite being classically known as the 'parental hormone', prolactin has been overlooked in birds relative to this context. Our aim is to review evidence that changes in prolactin levels can mediate, at least to some extent, the response of breeding birds to environmental conditions. To do so, we first examine current evidence and limits for the role of prolactin in mediating parental behavior in birds. Second, we emphasize the influence of environmental conditions and stressors on circulating prolactin levels. In addition, we review to what extent prolactin levels are a reliable predictor of breeding success in wild birds. By linking environmental conditions, prolactin regulation, parental behavior, and breeding success, we highlight the potential role of this hormone in mediating parental decisions in birds. Finally, we also review the potential role of prolactin in mediating other life history decisions such as clutch size, re-nesting, and the timing of molt. By evaluating the influence of stressors on circulating prolactin levels during these other life-history decisions, we also raise new hypotheses regarding the potential of the prolactin stress response to regulate the orchestration of the annual cycle when environmental changes occur. To sum up, we show in this review that prolactin regulation has a strong potential to allow ecological physiologists to better understand how individuals adjust their life-history decisions (clutch size, parental behavior, re-nesting, and onset of molt) according to the environmental conditions they encounter and we encourage further research on that topic. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Hormones and Behavior
  • N. T. Ashley · D. Hasselquist · J. C. Wingfield

    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The physical and biological responses to rapid arctic warming are proving acute, and as such, there is a need to monitor, understand, and predict ecological responses over large spatial and temporal scales. The use of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) acquired from airborne and satellite sensors addresses this need, as it is widely used as a tool for detecting and quantifying spatial and temporal dynamics of tundra vegetation cover, productivity, and phenology. Such extensive use of the NDVI to quantify vegetation characteristics suggests that it may be similarly applied to characterizing primary and secondary consumer communities. Here, we develop empirical models to predict canopy arthropod biomass with canopy-level measurements of the NDVI both across and within distinct tundra vegetation communities over four growing seasons in the Arctic Foothills region of the Brooks Range, Alaska, USA. When canopy arthropod biomass is predicted with the NDVI across all four growing seasons, our overall model that includes all four vegetation communities explains 63% of the variance in canopy arthropod biomass, whereas our models specific to each of the four vegetation communities explain 74% (moist tussock tundra), 82% (erect shrub tundra), 84% (riparian shrub tundra), and 87% (dwarf shrub tundra) of the observed variation in canopy arthropod biomass. Our field-based study suggests that measurements of the NDVI made from air- and spaceborne sensors may be able to quantify spatial and temporal variation in canopy arthropod biomass at landscape to regional scales.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Ecological Applications

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic-breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migratory birds. Adjustments to coping strategies are therefore crucial, so here we examined the plasticity of the adrenocorticotropic stress response in two Arctic songbird species-the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) and Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)-breeding in northwest Greenland. Across the breeding season, the stress response was strongest at arrival and least robust during molt in male snow buntings. Snow bunting females had higher baseline but similar stress-induced corticosterone levels compared to males. Modification of the stress response was not due to adrenal insensitivity, but likely regulated at the anterior pituitary gland. Compared to independent nestlings and adult snow buntings, parental-dependent chicks had a more robust stress response. For Lapland longspurs, baseline corticosterone was highest at arrival in both male and females, and arriving males displayed a higher stress response compared to arriving females. Comparison of male corticosterone profiles collected at arrival in Greenland (76°N) and Alaska (67-71°N;) reveal that both species have higher stress responses at the more northern location. Flexibility in the stress response may be typical for birds nesting at the leading edges of their range and this ability will become more relevant as global climate change results in major shifts of breeding habitat and phenology for migratory birds. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A: 1-10, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A Ecological Genetics and Physiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑7PCB concentrations (range: 61–115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑7PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑7PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Environmental Pollution
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis peruviensis) from valleys in the Atacama Desert of Chile, live in an extremely stable environment, and exhibit overlap in molt and reproduction, with valley-specific differences in the proportion of birds engaged in both. To better understand the mechanistic pathways underlying the timing of life-history transitions, we examined the relationships among baseline and stress-induced levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone, and bacteria-killing ability of the blood plasma (BKA), as well as haemosporidian parasite infections and the genetic structure of two groups of sparrows from separate valleys over the course of a year. Birds neither molting nor breeding had the lowest BKA, but there were no differences among the other three categories of molt-reproductive stage. BKA varied over the year, with birds in May/June exhibiting significantly lower levels of BKA than the rest of the year. We also documented differences in the direction of the relationship between CORT and BKA at different times during the year. The direction of these relationships coincides with some trends in molt and reproductive stage, but differs enough to indicate that these birds exhibit individual-level plasticity, or population-level variability, in coordinating hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity with life-history stage. We found weak preliminary evidence for genetic differentiation between the two populations, but not enough to indicate genetic isolation. No birds were infected with haemosporidia, which may be indicative of reduced parasite pressure in deserts. The data suggest that these birds may not trade off among different life-history components, but rather are able to invest in multiple life-history components based on their condition. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · General and Comparative Endocrinology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seabirds often have high loads of contaminants. These contaminants have endocrine disrupting properties but their relationships with some endocrine mechanisms are still poorly investigated in free-living organisms. This is the case for the stress response which shifts energy investment away from reproduction and redirects it towards survival. In birds, this stress response is achieved through a release of corticosterone and is also accompanied by a decrease in circulating prolactin, an anterior pituitary hormone widely involved in regulating parental cares. We measured blood concentrations of some legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury (Hg) and examined their relationships with the corticosterone and prolactin responses of known-age (9–46 years old) incubating snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) to a standardized capture/handling stress protocol. In this Antarctic seabird, we also investigated whether high contaminant burden correlates with a higher occurrence of egg neglect, a frequently observed behavior in snow petrels. POPs and Hg were unrelated to age. Stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were positively related to POPs in both sexes, and stress-induced prolactin concentrations were negatively related to Hg in males. Egg-neglect behavior was not related to POPs burden, but males with higher Hg concentrations were more likely to neglect their egg. This suggests that in birds, relationships between age and contaminants are complex and that even low to moderate concentrations of POPs and Hg are significantly related to hormonal secretion. In this Antarctic species, exposure to legacy POPs and Hg could make individuals more susceptible to environmental stressors such as ongoing disturbances in Polar Regions.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the physical and biological responses to arctic warming proving acute, there is a need to monitor, understand, and predict ecological responses over large spatial and temporal scales. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been used to addresses this need, as it is a widely adopted tool for detecting and quantifying spatial and temporal dynamics of tundra vegetation cover, productivity, and phenology. Such extensive use of the NDVI to quantify vegetation characteristics suggests that it may be similarly applied to characterizing consumer communities. We developed empirical models to predict canopy arthropod biomass based on canopy-level measurements of the NDVI. We did this both across and within distinct tundra vegetation communities in the arctic tundra of Alaska. This research is a first step towards assessing the potential for datasets acquired by air and spaceborne sensors to quantify spatial and temporal dynamics in canopy arthropod biomass at landscape and regional scales. When canopy arthropod biomass was predicted with the NDVI across four growing seasons (2010 through 2013), our overall model, which included four distinct vegetation communities, explained 63% of the variance in canopy arthropod biomass. Each of our four vegetation community-specific models explained 74% (moist tussock tundra), 82% (erect shrub tundra), 84% (riparian shrub tundra), and 87% (dwarf shrub tundra) of the observed variation in canopy arthropod biomass.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Feb 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hormonal stress response is flexible and can be modulated by individuals according to its costs and benefits. Therefore, it is predicted that parents in poor body condition should modify their hormonal stress response, and thus, redirect energy allocation processes from parental care to self-maintenance when stressors occur. To test this prediction, most studies on free-living vertebrates have only focused on the stress response while the stress recovery – how quickly hormonal levels return to baseline values - has been neglected. Moreover, most studies have only focused on corticosterone –the primary mediator of allostasis - without paying attention to prolactin despite its major role in mediating parental behaviours. Here, we examined the effect of a short-term fasting event on the corticosterone and prolactin stress responses and recoveries, and we subsequently explored their relationships with parental decision in the snow petrel (Pagadroma nivea). By comparing the hormonal profiles of fasting and non-fasting snow petrels, we showed that parents modulate their corticosterone (but not prolactin) stress response according to their energetic status. We also described for the first time the hormonal stress recoveries in wild birds and found that they did not differ between fasting and non-fasting birds. Importantly, egg neglect was negatively correlated with circulating prolactin but not corticosterone levels in this species, demonstrating therefore a complex link between body condition, parental behavior and circulating corticosterone and prolactin levels. We suggest that both corticosterone and prolactin play a major role in the way parents adjust to stressors. This multiple signaling may allow parents to fine-tune their response to stressor, and especially, to activate specific allostasis-related mechanisms in a timely manner.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Hormones and Behavior
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Some sexually selected signals are thought to convey information about the current condition and genetic/epigenetic quality of the individual signaling, including the ability to resist parasites. However, it is unclear whether semistatic sexual signals that develop periodically and remain stable over protracted periods, such as avian breeding plumage, can relate to measures of current condition and health. We examined a semistatic signal (wing epaulet size) in male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) during the breeding season and looked for relationships between this trait and circulating testosterone (T), hematocrit, bacteria-killing ability (BKA) of the blood, and the infection status, richness, and abundance of four functional categories of parasite. We found that epaulet size was positively related to circulating levels of T and ectoparasite infections. We found no relationships between T and parasite infections. In adult males there was a negative relationship between T and BKA, whereas in yearling males there was no relationship. We found no evidence for a general reduction in immunocompetence in males with larger epaulets but rather an increase in susceptibility to specific types of parasites. Our results suggest that semistatic signals can be linked to measures of current condition, and we postulate that these relationships are modulated via activity levels related to breeding-season activities.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seabirds often have high loads of contaminants. These contaminants have endocrine disrupting properties but their relationships with some endocrine mechanisms are still poorly investigated in free-living organisms. This is the case for the stress response which shifts energy investment away from reproduction and redirects it towards survival. In birds, this stress response is achieved through a release of corticosterone and is also accompanied by a decrease in circulating prolactin, an anterior pituitary hormone widely involved in regulating parental cares. We measured blood concentrations of some legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and mercury (Hg) and examined their relationships with the corticosterone and prolactin responses of known-age (9–46 years old) incubating snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) to a standardized capture/handling stress protocol. In this Antarctic seabird, we also investigated whether high contaminant burden correlates with a higher occurrence of egg neglect, a frequently observed behavior in snow petrels. POPs and Hg were unrelated to age. Stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were positively related to POPs in both sexes, and stress-induced prolactin concentrations were negatively related to Hg in males. Egg-neglect behavior was not related to POPs burden, but males with higher Hg concentrations were more likely to neglect their egg. This suggests that in birds, relationships between age and contaminants are complex and that even low to moderate concentrations of POPs and Hg are significantly related to hormonal secretion. In this Antarctic species, exposure to legacy POPs and Hg could make individuals more susceptible to environmental stressors such as ongoing disturbances in Polar Regions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Science of The Total Environment
  • John C Wingfield
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Earth has always been a changeable place but now warming trends shift seasons and storms occur with greater frequency, intensity and duration. This has prompted reference to the modern era as the Anthropocene caused by human activity. This era poses great challenges for all life on earth and important questions include why and how some organisms can cope and others cannot? It is of heuristic value to consider a framework for types of environmental signals and how they might act. This is especially important as predictable changes of the environment (seasonality) are shifting rapidly as well as unpredictable changes (perturbations) in novel ways. What we need to know is how organisms perceive their environment, transduce that information into neuroendocrine signals that orchestrate morphological, physiological and behavioral responses. Given these goals we can begin to address the questions: do neuroendocrine systems have sufficient flexibility to acclimate to significant change in phenology, are genetic changes leading to adaptation necessary, or both? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

Publication Stats

30k Citations
1,359.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • The University of Sheffield
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008-2015
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior
      Davis, California, United States
    • Queen's University
      • Department of Biology
      Kingston, Ontario, Canada
  • 2006-2013
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Integrative Biology
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Integrative Biology
      Austin, TX, United States
  • 1975-2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Biology
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Friday Harbor Laboratories
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Oregon
      • Institute of Neuroscience
      Eugene, Oregon, United States
  • 2005
    • The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey
      Эгг Харбор Сити, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Tulsa
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States
  • 2004
    • Hiroshima University
      • Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences
      Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-ken, Japan
    • University of Oxford
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002-2004
    • University of Groningen
      • Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies (CEES)
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1997
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1991-1995
    • University of North Carolina at Greensboro
      • Department of Psychology
      Greensboro, NC, United States
  • 1994
    • University of Wollongong
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1992-1994
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      • Department of Biology
      Bloomington, Indiana, United States
    • Pomona College
      • Department of Biology
      Клермонт, California, United States
  • 1981-1990
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 1988
    • University of Victoria
      • Department of Biology
      Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1987-1988
    • The Rockefeller University
      • Center for Field Research in Ethology and Ecology
      New York, New York, United States