[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormone regulation of ion transport in the kidney tubules is essential for fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in vertebrates. A large body of evidence has suggested that transporters and channels exist in multiprotein regulatory complexes; however, relatively little is known about the composition of these complexes or their assembly. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in particular is tightly regulated by the salt-regulatory hormone aldosterone, which acts at least in part by increasing expression of the serine-threonine kinase SGK1. Here we show that aldosterone induces the formation of a 1.0-1.2-MDa plasma membrane complex, which includes ENaC, SGK1, and the ENaC inhibitor Nedd4-2, a key target of SGK1. We further show that this complex contains the PDZ domain-containing protein connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras isoform 3 (CNK3). CNK3 physically interacts with ENaC, Nedd4-2, and SGK1; enhances the interactions among them; and stimulates ENaC function in a PDZ domain-dependent, aldosterone-induced manner. These results strongly suggest that CNK3 is a molecular scaffold, which coordinates the assembly of a multiprotein ENaC-regulatory complex and hence plays a central role in Na(+) homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (Tsc22d3-2) is a widely expressed dexamethasone-induced transcript that has been proposed to be important in immunity, adipogenesis, and renal sodium handling based on in vitro studies. To address its function in vivo, we have used Cre/loxP technology to generate mice deficient for Tsc22d3-2. Male knockout mice were viable but surprisingly did not show any major deficiencies in immunological processes or inflammatory responses. Tsc22d3-2 knockout mice adapted to a sodium-deprived diet and to water deprivation conditions but developed a subtle deficiency in renal sodium and water handling. Moreover, the affected animals developed a mild metabolic phenotype evident by a reduction in weight from 6 months of age, mild hyperinsulinemia, and resistance to a high-fat diet. Tsc22d3-2-deficient males were infertile and exhibited severe testis dysplasia from postnatal d 10 onward with increases in apoptotic cells within seminiferous tubules, an increased number of Leydig cells, and significantly elevated FSH and testosterone levels. Thus, our analysis of the Tsc22d3-2-deficient mice demonstrated a previously uncharacterized function of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein in testis development.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent kinase, Akt2, plays a central role in mediating insulin effects in glucose-metabolizing tissues. Akt2 knockout mice display insulin resistance with a reactive increase in pancreatic islet mass and hyperinsulinemia. The related phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent kinase, serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3), is essential for normal postnatal hair follicle development but plays no apparent role in glucose homeostasis. We report here an unexpected role of SGK3 in islet β-cell function, which is revealed in Akt2/SGK3 double-knockout (DKO) mice. DKO mice have markedly worse glucose homeostasis than Akt2 single-null animals, including greater baseline glucose, and greater rise in blood glucose after glucose challenge. However, surprisingly, our data strongly support the idea that this exacerbation of the glucose-handling defect is due to impaired β-cell function, rather than increased insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. DKO mice had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels, lower β-cell mass, reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and greater sensitivity to exogenous insulin than Akt2 single nulls. We further demonstrated that SGK3 is strongly expressed in normal mouse islets and, interestingly, that β-catenin expression is dramatically lower in the islets of DKO mice than in those of Akt2(-/-)/SGK3(+/+) or Akt2(-/-)/SGK3(+/-) mice. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that SGK3 plays a previously unappreciated role in glucose homeostasis, likely through direct effects within β-cells, to stimulate proliferation and insulin release, at least in part by controlling the expression and activity of β-catenin.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in the regulation of a number of cellular processes including growth, metabolism, and ion transport. mTOR is found in two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which phosphorylate distinct substrates and regulate distinct cellular processes. SGK1 is an mTORC2 substrate, which is a key regulator of epithelial Na(+) transport mediated by the epithelial sodium channel. Although it is known that SGK1 physically interacts with mTORC2, it is unknown which mTORC2 component mediates this interaction or whether this interaction plays a physiologically relevant role in specific activation of SGK1. Here we identify mSIN1 as the mTORC2 component that mediates interaction with SGK1 and demonstrate that this interaction is required for SGK1 phosphorylation and epithelial sodium channel activation. We used the yeast two-hybrid system coupled with random mutagenesis to identify a mutant mSIN1 (mSIN1/Q68H), which does not interact with SGK1. Expression of this mutant does not restore SGK1 phosphorylation to wild-type levels in mSIN1-deficient murine embryo fibroblasts. Furthermore, in kidney epithelial cells, mSIN1/Q68H has a dominant-negative effect on SGK1 phosphorylation and on SGK1-dependent Na(+) transport. Interestingly, this interaction appears to be specific in that another mTORC2 substrate, Akt, does not interact with mSIN1, and its phosphorylation and activity are unaffected by the Q68H mutation. These data support the conclusion that mTORC2 uses distinct strategies to phosphorylate different substrates and suggest a mechanism for mTORC2 specificity in the regulation of diverse cellular processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) is a multifunctional protein kinase that markedly influences various cellular
processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, glucose metabolism, and sodium (Na+) transport via the epithelial Na+ channel, ENaC. SGK1 is a short-lived protein, which is predominantly targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to undergo
rapid proteasome-mediated degradation through the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) system. We show here that the aldosterone-induced
chaperone, GILZ1 (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein-1) selectively decreases SGK1 localization to ER as well as its interaction with ER-associated E3 ubiquitin ligases, HRD1 and
CHIP. GILZ1 inhibits SGK1 ubiquitinylation and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation, thereby prolonging its half-life
and increasing its steady-state expression. Furthermore, comparison of the effect of GILZ1 with that of proteasome inhibition
(by MG-132) supports the idea that these effects of GILZ1 are secondary to physical interaction of GILZ1 with SGK1 and enhanced
recruitment of SGK1 to targets within an “ENaC regulatory complex,” thus making less SGK1 available to the ERAD machinery.
Finally, effects of GILZ1 knockdown and overexpression strongly support the idea that these effects of GILZ1 are functionally
important for ENaC regulation. These data provide new insight into how the manifold activities of SGK1 are selectively deployed
and strengthened through modulation of its molecular interactions, subcellular localization, and stability.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 2 (sgk2) is 80% identical to the kinase domain of sgk1, an important mediator of mineralocorticoid-regulated sodium (Na(+)) transport in the distal nephron of the kidney. The expression pattern and role in renal function of sgk2 are virtually uncharacterized. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of rodent kidney coupled with real-time RT-PCR of microdissected rat kidney tubules showed robust sgk2 expression in the proximal straight tubule and thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Sgk2 expression was minimal in distal tubule cells with aquaporin-2 immunostaining but significant in proximal tubule cells with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) immunostaining. To ascertain whether mineralocorticoids regulate expression of sgk2 in a manner similar to sgk1, we examined sgk2 mRNA expression in the kidneys of adrenalectomized rats treated with physiological doses of aldosterone together with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization showed that, unlike sgk1, sgk2 expression in the kidney was not altered by aldosterone treatment. Based on the observation that sgk2 is expressed in proximal tubule cells that also express NHE3, we asked whether sgk2 regulates NHE3 activity. We heterologously expressed sgk2 in opossum kidney (OKP) cells and measured Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity by Na(+)-dependent cell pH recovery. Constitutively active sgk2, but not sgk1, stimulated Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity by >30%. Moreover, the sgk2-mediated increase in Na(+)/H(+) exchange activity correlated with an increase in cell surface expression of NHE3. Together, these results suggest that the pattern of expression, regulation, and role of sgk2 within the mammalian kidney are distinct from sgk1 and that sgk2 may play a previously unrecognized role in the control of transtubular Na(+) transport through NHE3 in the proximal tubule.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · AJP Renal Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SGK3, which previously has been shown to play a key role in hair follicle development in mice, is a member of the AGC family of serine-threonine kinases. Mice lacking SGK3 have abnormal follicle cycling, which begins shortly after birth and ameliorates substantially with age. However, this developmental abnormality is not recapitulated in mice lacking closely related kinases Akt1, Akt2, or Akt3. To examine whether Akt2 interacts with SGK3 in postnatal hair development, we have generated and characterized Akt2/SGK3 double knockouts (DKOs). We find that the DKO mice have a defect in hair growth that is markedly worse than that of SGK3(-/-) mice and does not ameliorate with age. Morphologically, this defect is characterized by accelerated entry into catagen and through anagen, irregular hair follicle orientation, and increased expression of sebaceous glands. The defect is preceded by a profound failure to increase follicle matrix cell nuclear beta-catenin accumulation and proliferation at the onset of morphogenesis. Furthermore, in cultured keratinocytes, transfected Akt2 and SGK3 both stimulate transcription of a beta-catenin-LEF1-dependent reporter gene. Thus, SGK3 and Akt2 both appear to play important roles in postnatal hair follicle morphogenesis, likely because of their redundant regulation of beta-catenin-dependent transcriptional processes, which control hair follicle cell proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hormonal control of transepithelial sodium (Na(+)) transport utilizes phosphatidylinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K) and Raf-MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-ERK-dependent signaling pathways, which impact numerous cell functions. How signals transmitted by these pathways are sorted and appropriately transmitted to alter Na(+) transport without altering other physiologic processes is not well understood. Here, we report the identification of a signaling complex that selectively modulates the cell surface expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), an ion channel that is essential for fluid and electrolyte balance in mammals. Raf-1 and the ubiquitin ligase, Nedd4-2, are constitutively-expressed inhibitory components of this ENaC regulatory complex, which interact with, and decrease the expression of, cell surface ENaC. The activities of Nedd4-2 and Raf-1 are inhibited cooperatively by the PI3K-dependent kinase serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1), and the Raf-1-interacting protein glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ1), which are aldosterone-stimulated components of the complex. Together, SGK1 and GILZ1 synergistically stimulate ENaC cell surface expression. Interestingly, GILZ1 and SGK1 do not have synergistic, and in fact have opposite, effects on an unrelated activity, FKHRL1-driven gene transcription. Together, these data suggest that GILZ1 and SGK1 provide a physical and functional link between the PI3K- and Raf-1-dependent signaling modules and represent a unique mechanism for specifically controlling Na(+) transport without inappropriately activating other cell functions.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathways implicated in the control of epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-dependent Na(+) transport in renal collecting duct cells share substantial parallels with those implicated in insulin-regulated glucose metabolism. Notably, both are inhibited by wortmannin and LY294002 and signal through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent kinases SGK1 and Akt. The inhibitor pattern is thought to reflect dependence on PI3K activity since wortmannin and LY294002 are both effective inhibitors of this kinase. However, these inhibitors block a variety of kinases from different families and lack specificity within the PI3K family. To begin to dissect more precisely the pathways required for signaling and for control of Na(+) transport in renal collecting duct cells, we have examined the effect of a set of PI3K inhibitors, which selectively block distinct subsets of PI3K catalytic subunit isoforms. We have found that ENaC-dependent Na(+) transport was blocked by inhibitors of the p110-alpha isoform of PI3K, but not by inhibitors of p110-beta, -gamma, or -delta. Inhibitors that block Na(+) current also blocked SGK1 and Akt phosphorylation. In contrast to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle cells, p110-beta inhibition did not enhance sensitivity to p110-alpha inhibition. These data support the conclusion that ENaC-dependent Na(+) current is controlled exclusively by p110-alpha, the same isoform that is the principal mediator of insulin effects on glucose metabolism, and lacks any dependence on p110-beta. These findings further underscore the extent to which Na(+) and glucose regulation are intertwined and provide additional insight into the interconnections between diabetes and hypertension.
Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · American journal of physiology. Renal physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) is expressed in both epithelial and immune tissues and modulates a variety of cellular functions, including proliferation and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. A number of reports have described various GILZ activities, focusing on a single isoform with molecular mass of approximately 17 kDa, now termed GILZ1. In GILZ immunoblots using a newly developed antiserum, we detected multiple species in extracts from cultured kidney cells. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that one of these represented a previously uncharacterized distinct isoform of GILZ, GILZ2. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to clone cDNAs corresponding to four isoforms, which, in addition to GILZ1 and GILZ2, included new isoforms GILZ3 and GILZ4. Heterologous expression of these four GILZ isoforms in cultured cells revealed striking functional differences. Notably, GILZ1 was the only isoform that significantly stimulated ENaC-mediated Na+ current in a kidney collecting duct cell line, although GILZ2 and GILZ3 also stimulated ENaC surface expression in HEK 293 cells. GILZ1 and GILZ3, and to a lesser extent GILZ2, inhibited ERK phosphorylation. Interestingly, GILZ4, which had no effect on either ENaC or ERK, potently suppressed cellular proliferation, as did GILZ1, but not GILZ2 or GILZ3. Finally, rat and mouse tissues all expressed multiple GILZ species but varied in the relative abundance of each. These data suggest that multiple GILZ isoforms are expressed in most cells and tissues and that these play distinct roles in regulating key cellular functions, including proliferation and ion transport. Furthermore, GILZ inhibition of ERK appears to play an essential role in stimulation of cell surface ENaC but not in inhibition of proliferation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) 1 and SGK3 share the ability to upregulate several ion channels, including the epithelial Na(+) channel. Whereas SGK1 is under genomic control of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, SGK3 is constitutively expressed. The SKG1-knockout (sgk1(-/-)) mouse is seemingly normal when it is fed a standard diet, but its ability to retain NaCl is impaired when it is fed a salt-deficient diet. In the SGK3-knockout (sgk3(-/-)) mouse fed standard and salt-deficient diets, hair growth is strikingly delayed but NaCl excretion is normal. Thus the possibility was considered that SGK1 and SGK3 could mutually replace each other, thus preventing severe NaCl loss in sgk1(-/-) and sgk3(-/-) mice. We crossed SGK1- and SGK3-knockout mice and compared renal electrolyte excretion of the double mutants (sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-)) with that of their wild-type littermates (sgk1(+/+)/sgk3(+/+)). Similar to sgk3(-/-) mice, the sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) mice display delayed hair growth. Blood pressure was slightly, but significantly (P < 0.03), lower in sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) (102 +/- 4 mmHg) than in sgk1(+/+)/sgk3(+/+) (114 +/- 3 mmHg) mice, a difference that was maintained in mice fed low- and high-salt diets. Plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) than in sgk1(+/+)sgk3(+/+) mice fed control (511 +/- 143 vs. 143 +/- 32 pg/ml) and low-salt (1,325 +/- 199 vs. 362 +/- 145 pg/ml) diets. During salt depletion, absolute and fractional excretions of Na(+) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) (1.2 +/- 0.2 micromol/24 h g body wt, 0.12 +/- 0.03%) than in sgk1(+/+)/sgk3(+/+) (0.4 +/- 0.1 micromol/24 h g body wt, 0.04 +/- 0.01%) mice. The sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) mice share the delayed hair growth with sgk3(-/-) mice and the modestly impaired renal salt retention with sgk1(-/-) mice. Additional lack of the isoform kinase does not substantially compound the phenotype for either property.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase isoform SGK3 is expressed in the brain including hippocampal neurons. It is activated by phosphoinositide-3 (PI3) kinase and thus a putative target of neurotrophic factors. In vitro experiments pointed to the ability of SGK3 to regulate several transporters and ion channels including the AMPA receptor GluR1. In order to explore the in vivo functional significance of SGK3 in the regulation of spatial learning and exploratory behavior, we assessed the performance of SGK3 knockout mice (SGK3-/-) and their wild type littermates (SGK3+/+) in a place navigation task in the water-maze, radial maze in a battery of forced and free exploration tests, acoustic startle and a test for motoric coordination. According to water-maze and radial maze testing reference and working memory was intact in SGK3-/- mice. However, detailed analysis of swimming patterns of SGK3-/- mice in the water-maze revealed a deficit in precision and goal-directed navigation in space. SGK3-/- mice showed reduced exploratory activity, which was observed in several environments and increased centre field avoidance in the open-field. SGK3-/- mice further showed reduced darting behavior on open surfaces, indicating that the knock out may modify basic patterns of locomotion. In conclusion, lack of SGK3 leads to subtle behavioral defects which may result from deranged neuronal regulation of transporters and ion channels.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Behavioural Brain Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) is an aldosterone-regulated early response gene product that regulates the activity of several ion transport proteins, most notably that of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Recent evidence has established that SGK1 phosphorylates and inhibits Nedd4-2 (neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2), a ubiquitin ligase that decreases cell surface expression of the channel and possibly stimulates its degradation. The mechanistic basis for this SGK1-induced Nedd4-2 inhibition is currently unknown. In this study we show that SGK1-mediated phosphorylation of Nedd4-2 induces its interaction with members of the 14-3-3 family of regulatory proteins. Through functional characterization of Nedd4-2-mutant proteins, we demonstrate that this interaction is required for SGK1-mediated inhibition of Nedd4-2. The concerted action of SGK1 and 14-3-3 appears to disrupt Nedd4-2-mediated ubiquitination of ENaC, thus providing a mechanism by which SGK1 modulates the ENaC-mediated Na(+) current. Finally, the expression pattern of 14-3-3 is also consistent with a functional role in distal nephron Na(+) transport. These results demonstrate a novel, physiologically significant role for 14-3-3 proteins in modulating ubiquitin ligase-dependent pathways in the control of epithelial ion transport.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2006 · Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The steroid hormone aldosterone stimulates sodium (Na+) transport in tight epithelia by altering the expression of target genes that regulate the activity and trafficking of the
epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). We performed microarray analysis to identify aldosterone-regulated transcripts in mammalian
kidney epithelial cells (mpkC-CDc14). One target, glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ), was previously identified by serial analysis of gene
expression (SAGE); however, its function in epithelial ion transport was unknown. Here we show that GILZ expression is rapidly
stimulated by aldosterone in mpkCCDc14 and that GILZ, in turn, strongly stimulates ENaC-mediated Na+ transport by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. In Xenopus oocytes with activated ERK, heterologous GILZ expression consistently inhibited phospho-ERK expression and markedly stimulated
ENaC-mediated Na+ current, in a manner similar to that of U0126 (a pharmacologic inhibitor of ERK signaling). In mpkCCDc14 cells, GILZ transfection similarly consistently inhibited phospho-ERK expression and stimulated transepithelial Na+ transport. Furthermore, aldosterone treatment of mpkCCDc14 cells suppressed phospho-ERK levels with a time course that paralleled their increase of Na+ transport. Finally, GILZ expression markedly increased cell surface ENaC expression in epidermal growth factor-treated mammalian
kidney epithelial cells, HEK 293. These observations suggest a novel link between GILZ and regulation of epithelial sodium
transport through modulation of ERK signaling and could represent an important pathway for mediating aldosterone actions in
health and disease.
Preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xenopus oocyte coexpression experiments revealed the capacity of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase isoform 3 (SGK3) to up-regulate a variety of transport systems including the sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1. The present study explored the functional significance of SGK3-dependent regulation of intestinal transport. To this end, experiments were performed in gene targeted mice lacking functional sgk3 (sgk3(-/-)) and their wild type littermates (sgk3(+/+)). Oral food intake and fecal dry weight were significantly larger in sgk3(-/-) than in sgk3(+/+) mice. Glucose-induced current (I(g)) in Ussing chamber as a measure of Na(+) coupled glucose transport was significantly smaller in sgk3(-/-) than in sgk3(+/+) mouse jejunal segments. Fasting plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower in sgk3(-/-) than in sgk3(+/+) mice. Intestinal electrogenic transport of phenylalanine, cysteine, glutamine and proline were not significantly different between sgk3(-/-) and sgk3(+/+) mice. In conclusion, SGK3 is required for adequate intestinal Na(+) coupled glucose transport and impaired glucose absorption may contribute to delayed growth and decreased plasma glucose concentrations of SGK3 deficient mice. The hypoglycemia might lead to enhanced food intake to compensate for impaired intestinal absorption.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) is activated during and is required for hippocampal glutamate receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. It mediates the delivery of AMPA receptors to the neuronal surface. Among the downstream targets of PI3-kinase are three members of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase family, SGK1, SGK2 and SGK3. In Xenopus oocytes expressing the AMPA subunit GluR1, we show that SGK3, and to a lesser extent SGK2, but not SGK1, increase glutamate-induced currents by increasing the abundance of GluR1 protein in the cell membrane. We further show Sgk3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. According to Western blotting, the hippocampal abundance of GluR1 is significantly lower in gene-targeted mice lacking SGK3 (Sgk3−/−) than in their wild-type littermates (Sgk3+/+). The present observations disclose a novel mechanism in the regulation of GluR1.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · The Journal of Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) family are important mediators of growth factor and hormone signaling that, like their close relatives in the Akt family, are regulated by lipid products of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. SGK3 has been implicated in the control of cell survival and regulation of ion channel activity in cultured cells. To begin to dissect the in vivo functions of SGK3, we generated and characterized Sgk3 null mice. These mice are viable and fertile, and in contrast to mice lacking SGK1 or Akt2, respectively, display normal sodium handling and glucose tolerance. However, although normal at birth, by postpartum day 4 they have begun to display an unexpected defect in hair follicle morphogenesis. The abnormality in hair follicle development is preceded by a defect in proliferation and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in hair bulb keratinocytes. Furthermore, in cultured keratinocytes, heterologous expression of SGK3 potently modulates activation of beta-catenin/Lef-1-mediated gene transcription. These data establish a role for SGK3 in normal postnatal hair follicle development, possibly involving effects on beta-catenin/Lef-1-mediated gene transcription.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that increased extracellular osmolality stimulates expression and promoter activity of the type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR-A) gene in rat inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells through a mechanism that involves activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (Sgk) is thought to participate in the regulation of sodium handling in distal tubular segments. We sought to determine whether this kinase might be involved in the osmotic stimulation of NPR-A gene promoter activity. Exposure of cultured IMCD cells to an additional 75 mmol/L NaCl in culture media (final osmolality 475 mosm/kg) resulted in an approximately 4-fold increase in Sgk1 protein levels after 7 hours. The Sgk1 induction was almost completely inhibited by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, indicating that NaCl activates Sgk1 through the p38 MAPK pathway. Transient transfection of a mouse Sgk1 expression vector along with a -1590 NPR-A luciferase reporter resulted in an approximately 3-fold increment in reporter activity, which was significantly reduced by cotransfection with a kinase-dead Sgk1 mutant. The NaCl-dependent induction was partially blocked (approximately 40% inhibition) by cotransfection of the kinase-dead Sgk1 mutant. Neither Sgk1 nor the kinase-dead mutant had any effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) promoter activity, and the Sgk1 mutant and 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate were, to some degree, additive in reducing osmotically stimulated NPR-A promoter activity. Collectively, these data imply that Sgk1 operates over an eNOS-independent, p38 MAPK-dependent pathway in mediating osmotic induction of the NPR-A gene promoter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The year 2003 marks the 50th year since the unfolding of the chemical structures of both aldosterone and DNA. Since the recognition in the early 1960's that aldosterone and its cousin cortisol act through DNA binding proteins that alter gene transcription, research on these corticosteroid hormones and their receptors has attracted fervent attention, both for their importance in endocrine physiology, and as model systems for understanding gene regulation. Recently, aldosterone has emerged as arguably the single most important physiological regulator of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure in mammals, and has been implicated in a variety of disease states in humans. Moreover, its principal receptor, the mineralocorticoid receptor is increasingly recognized as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, as well as an important model system for understanding aspects of gene regulation. This increased insight into the functional and pathophysiologic importance of aldosterone has been accompanied by increased insight into its cellular and molecular mechanisms of action. Aldosterone acts in a variety of epithelial and non-epithelial tissues to influence extracellular fluid volume, blood pressure, salt appetite, and can under the appropriate conditions cause cardiac fibrosis. This review will address the current view of aldosterone's molecular mechanism of action in epithelia focusing primarily on the classical MR and on a particular MR target gene, SGK1.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have tested the commonly held hypothesis that glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) must dimerize via their DNA binding domain (DBD) to bind to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) and induce gene expression. Guided by the GR dimerization-deficient dim/dim knock-in mouse, which expresses normal mRNA levels of the strictly GR-dependent phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene, we analyzed in detail the regulation of the PNMT 5'-flanking region using wild-type GR (GRwt) and GR dimer mutants (GRdms). We demonstrated that mouse and rat PNMT 5'-regulatory fragments are more strongly induced by GRdms than by GRwt. Footprinting analysis revealed five regions where a GR-DBD peptide could bind. We delineated a 105-bp region containing two footprints with near-consensus glucocorticoid response elements and multiple half-sites that was sufficient for transactivation via both GRwt and GRdms. Finally, we demonstrated direct binding of GRdms proteins to this responsive region using EMSA. We propose that on a subset of GR-responsive promoters, exemplified by the PNMT gene, GRs can form concerted multimers in a manner that is independent of the DBD-dimer interface. We further suggest that protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions that support such complexes are essential for activation of this type of gene, and that DNA binding of GR might be essential to survival.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2004 · Molecular Endocrinology