[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a novel adjunctive method, which can minimize the lung ischemic-reperfusion injury and inflammatory response. This study evaluated the protective effect of pulmonary perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution in corrections of congenital heart defects with pulmonary hypertension.
Between June 2009 and December 2009, 24 consecutive infants with congenital heart defects and pulmonary hypertension were randomly divided into perfused group (n = 12) and control group (n = 12). Oxygen index, alveolar-arterial O2 gradient, serum levels of malondialchehyche (MDA), interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -10, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and P-selectin were measured before commencement and serially for 48 hours after termination of bypass.
Oxygenation values were better preserved in the perfused group than in the control group. The serum levels of IL-6 increased immediately after CPB in both groups and returned to baseline at 48 hours after CPB,but it was restored faster and earlier in the perfused group. The serum levels of IL-8, sICAM-1, and MDA remained at baseline at each point after CPB in the perfused group and elevated significantly immediately after CPB in the control group, except for sICAM-1. The serum level of IL-10 increased immediately after CPB and decreased to baseline at 48 hours after CPB in both groups, but the IL-10 level in the perfused group was significantly higher than in the control group at 12 hours after CPB. The serum P-selectin levels in the control group immediately after CPB were significantly higher than prebypass levels. Moreover, there were no significant differences in postoperative clinical characters, except for the intubated time.
In infants with congenital heart defects, pulmonary perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution during cardiopulmonary bypass could ameliorate lung function and reduce the inflammatory response.
Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the efficacy of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) repair and to conclude the factors impacting the peri-operative death rate.
The clinical data of 145 infants under 1 year old who underwent the TAPVC repair from January 2001 to July 2008 was analyzed. There were 94 male and 51 female patients. The mean age when the repair was performed was (7 ± 3) months, and the average weight was (6.3 ± 1.6) kg. As to the pulmonary connection type, 77 patients were supracardiac (53.1%), 47 patients were cardiac (32.4%), 9 patients were intracardiac (6.2%), and the remaining 12 patients were mixed (8.3%). Pre-surgery echocardiography showed that 21 patients had pulmonary venous obstruction (12 patients were supracardiac type, 3 patients were cardiac type, 3 patients were intracardiac type, and 3 patients were mixed type).
All patients underwent two-ventricle anatomy correction (the cases of complex malformations had been excluded). Peri-operative mortality was 11.7% (17/145). Because of the significant improvement in the surgical techniques, anesthesiology, cardiopulmonary bypass and the management of ICU in January 2006, the population was divided into two groups: A (before January 2006) and B (after January 2006). Peri-operative mortality decreased from 19.0% in group A to 6.2% in group B(P = 0.020). After analysis, it was determined that the factors impacting mortality were which group the patient belongs to, whether he/she had preoperative pulmonary vein obstruction and how big the atril septel connection was. The operative technique to keep the anastomotic aperture adequate and prophylaxis pulmonary hypertensive episodes contributed to the improvement on the mortality rate. There had been no case of repeating the surgery because of pulmonary venous obstruction during peri-operative care period.
Improvements of the surgical technique as well as the treatment in preoperative and postoperative have led to the reduction of the mortality. Preoperative pulmonary vein obstruction is still an important factor that contributes to early mortality.
No preview · Article · May 2010 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the experience with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for cardiorespiratory support of 100 patients.
Retrospective analysis of the medical files of 100 patients submitted to the implant of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system for cardiorespiratory assistance of acute and refractory cardiogenic shock from December 2004 to September 2008. There were 67 males and 33 females, age ranged from 5 d to 76 years with a mean of (28+/-26) years, body mass ranged from 3.8 to 100.0 kg with a mean of (42+/-30) kg. The inter-surface of the ECMO equipment system was completely coated by heparin-coating technique. All patients were applied veno-artery ECMO and activated clotting time was maintained between 120 and 180 s and heparin usage dose was 5 to 20 Uxkg(-1)xh(-1). Mean blood flow was 40 to 220 mlxkg(-1)min(-1) during ECMO assistant period.
The shortest ECMO time was 12 to 504 h with a mean of (119+/-80) h. Sixty-one patients (61.0%) weaned off successfully from ECMO, 55 of them (90.2%) were discharged and 6 died of post-operative complications. Thirty-nine patients could not weaned off from ECMO. Total survival discharge rate was 55.0%. Mean aortic pressure before ECMO in survived patients was significantly higher than that of dead patients (P=0.038). Lactic acid concentration of artery blood before ECMO in survived patients was significantly lower than that of dead patients (P=0.005).
ECMO is an effective mechanical assistant therapy method for cardiac and pulmonary failure after cardiac surgery. Earlier usage of ECMO for heart lung failure patient and avoiding the main organs from un-recovery trauma are key success.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To retrospectively review the experience in repair of interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and associated cardiac anomaly.
From January 1997 to January 2008, 36 patients with interrupted aortic arch and associated cardiac anomaly underwent surgical treatment. There were 22 male and 14 female. Mean age of the 35 children patients was 2.8 years, with a range from 2 months to 7 years. There was a 31 years old adult patient. Types of interrupted aortic arch include 30 cases of type A and 6 cases of type B. In all 36 patients, 33 cases had patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and intracardiac abnormality, including 28 cases of simple anomaly as ventricular septal defect and 5 cases of complex anomaly, two cases were single IAA arch without PDA and other cardiac defect, one case had no intracardiac anomaly but PDA. For 33 patients with PDA and intracardiac anomaly, median sternotomy was used to simultaneously repair interrupted aortic arch and intracardiac defect in 31 cases, left thoracotomy and median sternotomy were applied to repair IAA and intracardiac anomaly respectively in one case, one patient had palliative repair. For three patients without intracardiac anomaly, left thoracotomy was applied in two cases, median sternotomy and abdominotomy were used in one adult patient. Techniques of operation for interrupted aortic arch include 16 cases of conduit connection, 9 cases of direct anastomosis, 9 cases of direct anastomosis with patch augmentation, 1 case of subclavian flap aortoplasty. In all 31 cases of one-stage operation through median sternotomy, selective cerebral perfusion was used in 17 patients, deep hypothermia and low flow were applied in 8 cases, deep hypothermia circulatory arrest was performed in 6 patients.
There were 5 hospital deaths. Three cases died of pulmonary infection, 1 case died of of pulmonary hypertension crisis, and another case died of postoperative low cardiac output, which was misdiagnosed before operation. Seven cases had other main postoperative complications. Thirty-one survivors were followed up from 3 months to 5 years, there was no late death and reoperation.
One-stage repair through median sternotomy using selective cerebral perfusion or deep hypothermia and low flow can be applied to most of the cases with associated cardiac anomaly.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The benefits of pulsatile over nonpulsatile perfusion has been widely debated in pediatric cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To evaluate the role of pulsatile perfusion in pediatric complicated patients with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery, we performed pulsatile CPB and compared several effects with nonpulsatile perfusion. Pediatric patients (n = 24) diagnosed as typical tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) were randomly divided into two groups: pulsatile perfusion (PP) group and nonpulsatile perfusion (NP) group. Pulsatile perfusion patients used modified roller pump PP during cross-clamping period in CPB, although NP cases used roller pump continuous flow perfusion during CPB. We monitored hemodynamic status and inflammatory media in blood samples over time in all patients. Effective PP can be monitored in PP patients and pulse pressure (DeltaP) was significantly higher in PP group than NP group (p < 0.01). Inflammatory media peaked at the time CPB was weaned off. In PP patients, IL-8 and TNF-alpha were lower after cross-clamp off and intensive care unit period than in NP cases. Free plasma hemoglobin concentration in PP group at preclamp off and CPB weaned off were higher than that of NP group (p < 0.05). Pulsatile perfusion can be successfully applied in pediatric perfusion. Pulsatile perfusion had the role of reducing concentration of inflammatory media in pediatric patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the experience in repair of aortic coarctation with intracardiac anomaly in infants and toddlers.
From January 2000 to December 2006, 84 infants and children diagnosed as aortic coarctation with intracardiac anomaly underwent surgical treatment. Mean age of the patients was 13.5 months, with a range from 1 month to 3 years. Mean body weight was 7.3 kg, with a range from 3.3 to 15 kg. Twelve patients complicated with complex intracardiac anomaly. Seventy-two patients complicated with ventricular septal defect and other simple anomaly. Twenty-one patients had hypoplasia of the aortic arch. Sixty-two patients had one-stage repair. Median sternotomy was used to simultaneously repair coarctation and intracardiac defect in 49 patients. Left thoracotomy and median sternotomy were applied to repair aortic coarctation and intracardiac anomaly respectively in 13 patients. Twenty-two patients had staged repair. Operational techniques for aortic coarctation include 42 patients of patch aortoplasty, 30 patients of resection and end-to-end anastomosis, 6 patients of subclavian flap aortoplasty, 3 patients of vascular bypass, and 1 patient of balloon dilation. In all 49 patients of one-stage operation through median sternotomy, selective cerebral perfusion was used in 43 patients, deep hypothermia low flow was applied in 4 patients, deep hypothermia circulatory arrest was performed in 2 patients.
There were 8 hospital deaths. The mortality is 9.5%. Among 8 deaths, 3 patients were misdiagnosed.
Surgeries for aortic coarctation with intracardiac anomaly have satisfactory short-term results in infants and toddlers. One-stage repair through median sternotomy can be applied to most of the patients. Selective cerebral perfusion with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest in lower body can protect the brain and other vital organs.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three techniques have been developed as the surgical management for patients with anomalies of ventriculoarterial connection, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary outflow tract obstruction (stenosis): the Rastelli, Lecompte, (REV), and Nikaidoh procedures. This study was designed to compare these procedures in terms of hemodynamics of the reconstructed biventricular outflow tract, early clinical consequences, and follow-up.
Between March 2004 and September 2006, a total of 30 consecutive patients underwent double root translocation procedures (modified Nikaidoh n = 11, REV n = 7, Rastelli n = 12). In the Nikaidoh procedure, both aortic and pulmonary roots were translocated. A single-valved bovine jugular vein patch was used to repair the stenotic pulmonary artery in both Nikaidoh and REV procedures. The Senning procedure was added for those with atrioventricular discordance.
The Nikaidoh procedure was the most time-consuming in terms of mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamp times. The average mechanical ventilation time was significantly shorter in the Rastelli group (63.3 +/- 89 hours) than that in the Nikaidoh group (188.7 +/- 159 hours, P = .016), but not different from that in the REV group (76.4 +/- 112.5 hours, P = .395). Two patients in the REV group and 1 in the Rastelli group died. There were no in-hospital or late deaths in the Nikaidoh group. Postoperative echocardiography demonstrated physiologic hemodynamics in the left ventricular outflow tract and normal heart function in the Nikaidoh group. Abnormal flow pattern in the left ventricular outflow tract was noted in both REV and Rastelli groups. There were no late deaths or reoperations in any group during follow-up.
The modified Nikaidoh procedure is a better surgical option for transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary stenosis in terms of physiologic cardiac hemodynamics. Its long-term benefits need to be evaluated with a larger number of patients and longer follow-up.
Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial protection during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) is a multifactorial problem in which maintaining stable systemic hemodynamics is very important. In this study passive graft perfusion (PGP) was applied to investigate the effect during and after OPCABG as evaluated by cardiac troponin I (CTnI) and hemodynamic indexes.
Thirty first-time patients underwent OPCABG under one surgeon. They were randomly divided into two groups: The passive graft perfusion group (PGP, n = 15) received distal coronary perfusion during the anastomosis and immediate graft perfusion after the distal anastomosis. The control group, no graft perfusion group, (NGP, n = 15) received no graft perfusion after the distal anastomosis. The results of the two protocols were evaluated by concentration of CTnI and hemodynamic indexes before induction and after operation.
There were no statistically significant differences between these two groups in their perioperation parameters. The level of CTnI increased postoperatively, reached its peak at 6 hours (P < 0.05) and recovered by the 6 days postoperative. Compared with the control group the concentration of CTnI in the PGP group was significantly lower at 6 and 24 hours (P < 0.01). Compared with the NGP group, cardiac index (CI) in the PGP group was higher at 12 and 24 hours after operation (P < 0.05). The period of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the PGP group than in the NGP group (P < 0.05).
PGP can increase the flow to the myocardium and shorten the heart ischemia time, thus maintain stable systemic hemodynamics, supply a satisfactory CI after surgery and improve surgery outcome.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To improve the long term outcomes of the surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection, we performed ascending aorta and total aortic arch replacement combined with transaortic stented graft implantation into the descending aorta for acute and chronic type A aortic dissection.
From April 2003 to March 2004, 40 consecutive patients with acute or chronic Stanford type A aortic dissection underwent this procedure. Right axillary artery cannulation was routinely used for cardiopulmonary bypass and selected cerebral perfusion. The stented elephant trunk was implanted through the aortic arch under hypothermic circulatory arrest. The stented elephant trunk was a 10 cm long self expandable graft. Enhanced electric beam computed tomography (EBCT) was performed in each patient before discharge, three month after surgery, and once each year after discharge to evaluate the postoperative time course of the residual false lumen.
Cardiopulmonary bypass time was (166 +/- 38) min, average cross clamp time was (107 +/- 28) min, and average selective cerebral perfusion and lower body arrest time was (30 +/- 15) min. The in-hospital mortality was 5% (2/40). One patient died of multi-organ failure postoperatively and another died of cerebral infarction 2 month after surgery. One suffered from spinal cord injury perioperatively. There was no late death during follow up.
Ascending aorta and total aortic arch replacement combined with transaortic stented graft implantation into the descending aorta is an effective way in closing the residual false lumen of the descending aorta and might contribute to the better long term outcomes of type A aortic dissection. Our half mortality of 2 patients suffering acute renal failure suggests that this group may be candidates for medical or delayed surgical intervention. Conversely, our 5% mortality rate for those renal intact patients warrant aggressive and expeditious surgical treatment.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of conventional ultrafiltration and modified ultrafiltration in protecting patients' pulmonary function during cardiopulmonary bypass.
Thirty infants patients (less than 7 kg) were divided into two groups: conventional ultrafiltration group (CUF, n = 15) and modified ultrafiltration group (MUF, n = 15). The volume of ultrafiltration, transfusion, hematocrit (HCT) before and after ultrafiltration, patients' respiration function (respiration index, A-aDO2, airway pressure), the time of mechanical ventilation and ICU in the two groups were respectively monitored.
The transfusion in MUF group was significantly less than in CUF group (P < 0.01), and the volume of ultrafiltration in MUF group was significantly more than in CUF group (P < 0.01). The time of mechanical ventilation and ICU staying in MUF group were significantly shorter in MUF group than that in CUF group (P < 0.05). At 12 and 24 hours after operations, the A-aDO2 in MUF group was lower than that in CUF group (P < 0.05), and the respiratory index in MUF group was higher than that in CUF group (P < 0.05).
The modified ultrafiltration can effectively improve pulmonary function after operations for low weight infants.
No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae