James D Best

Nanyang Technological University, Tumasik, Singapore

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Publications (205)900.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To use continuous glucose monitoring to examine the effects of insulin initiation with glargine, with or without glulisine, on glycaemic variability and glycaemia in a cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes receiving maximum oral hypoglycaemic agents in primary healthcare. Methods: We conducted a post hoc analysis of continuous glucose monitoring data from 89 participants at baseline and at 24 weeks after insulin commencement. Indicators of glycaemic variability (standard deviation, J-index and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion) and glycaemia (HbA1c , mean glucose, area under the glucose-time curve) were assessed. Multi-level regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of change. Results: Complete glycaemic variability data were available for 78 participants. Of these participants, 41% were women, their mean (sd) age was 59.2 (10.4) years, the median (interquartile range) diabetes duration was 10.4 (6.5, 13.3) years and the median (interquartile range) baseline HbA1c was 82.5 (71.6, 96.7) mmol/mol [9.7 (8.7, 11.0)%]. At baseline, BMI correlated negatively with standard deviation (r=-0.30) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (r=-0.26), but not with J-index; HbA1c correlated with J-index (r= 0.61) but not with mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and standard deviation. After insulin initiation the mean (sd) glucose level decreased [from 12.0 (3.0) to 8.5 (1.6) mmol/l; P<0.001], as did the median (interquartile range) J-index [from 66.9 (47.7, 95.1) to 36.9 (27.6, 49.8) mmol/l; P<0.001]. Baseline HbA1c correlated with a greater J-index reduction (r=-0.45; P<0.001). The mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and standard deviation values were unchanged. The baseline temporal profile, showing elevated postprandial morning glucose levels, was unchanged after insulin initiation, despite an overall reduction in glycaemia. Conclusion: Insulin initiation reduced hyperglycaemia but did not alter glycaemic variability in adults with Type 2 diabetes receiving maximum oral hypoglycaemic agents. The most significant postprandial excursions were seen in the morning, which identifies prebreakfast as the most effective target for short-acting insulin therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Diabetic Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess effectiveness and implementability of the public health programme Life! Taking action on diabetes in Australian people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) was a unique study assessing effectiveness of Life! that used a randomized controlled trial design. Intervention participants with AUSDRISK score ≥15 received 1 individual and 5 structured 90 min group sessions. Controls received usual care. Outcome measures were obtained for all participants at baseline and 12 months and, additionally, for intervention participants at 3 months. Per protocol set (PPS) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Results PPS analyses were considered more informative from our study. In PPS analyses, intervention participants significantly improved in weight (−1.13 kg, p=0.016), waist circumference (−1.35 cm, p=0.044), systolic (−5.2 mm Hg, p=0.028) and diastolic blood pressure (−3.2 mm Hg, p=0.030) compared with controls. Based on observed weight change, estimated risk of developing diabetes reduced by 9.6% in the intervention and increased by 3.3% in control participants. Absolute 5-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduced significantly for intervention participants by 0.97 percentage points from 9.35% (10.4% relative risk reduction). In control participants, the risk increased by 0.11 percentage points (1.3% relative risk increase). The net effect for the change in CVD risk was −1.08 percentage points of absolute risk (p=0.013). Conclusions MDPS effectively reduced the risk of diabetes and CVD, but the intervention effect on weight and waist reduction was modest due to the challenges in recruiting high-risk individuals and the abbreviated intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Diabetes Care
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To evaluate basal and prandial insulin initiation and titration in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in primary care and to explore the feasibility of retrospective-continuous glucose monitoring (r-CGM) in guiding insulin dosing. The new model of care features General Practitioners (GPs) and Practice Nurses (PNs) working in an expanded role, with Credentialed Diabetes Educator - Registered Nurse (CDE-RN) support. Methods: Insulin-naïve T2DM patients (HbA1c >7.5% [>58 mmol/mol] despite maximal oral therapy) from 22 general practices in Victoria, Australia commenced insulin glargine, with glulisine added as required. Each was randomised to receive r-CGM or self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Glycaemic control (HbA1c) was benchmarked against specialist ambulatory patients referred for insulin initiation. Results: Ninety-two patients mean age (range) 59 (28-77) years; 40% female; mean (SD) diabetes duration 10.5 (6.1) years participated. HbA1c decreased from (median (IQR)) 9.9 (8.8, 11.2)%; 85 (73, 99) mmol/mol to 7.3 (6.9, 7.8)%; 56 (52, 62) mmol/mol at 24 weeks (p < 0.0001). Comparing r-CGM (n = 46) with SMBG (n = 42), there were no differences in major hypoglycaemia (p=0.17) or ΔHbA1c (p = 0.31). More r-CGM than SMBG participants commenced glulisine (26/48 vs. 7/44; p < 0.001). Results were comparable to 82 benchmark patients, with similar low rates of major hypoglycaemia (2/89 vs. 0/82; p = 0.17) and less loss to follow up in the INITIATION group (3/92 vs. 14/82; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Insulin initiation and titration for T2DM patients in primary care was safe and improved HbA1c with low rates of major hypoglycaemia. CDE-RNs were effective in a new consultant role. r-CGM use in primary care was feasible and enhanced post-prandial hyperglycaemia recognition. Trial registration ACTRN12610000797077.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis: In the double-blind placebo-controlled Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes trial (n = 9,795), fenofibrate reduced major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes. Sex-related differences in fenofibrate response could be clinically relevant and were pre-specified analyses. Methods: Women (n = 3,657) and men (n = 6,138) with type 2 diabetes not using statins were assigned fenofibrate (200 mg/day) or placebo for 5 years. Effects on lipoproteins and total cardiovascular events were evaluated by sex. Results: Baseline total, LDL-, HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoproteins A-I and B differed between sexes, and these and triacylglycerol levels improved with fenofibrate in both sexes (all p < 0.001). Fenofibrate reduced total, LDL- and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B more in women (all p < 0.001), independent of menopausal status and statin uptake. Adjusted for covariates, fenofibrate reduced total cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular death, fatal and non-fatal stroke and carotid and coronary revascularisation) by 30% in women (95% CI 8%, 46%; p = 0.008) and 13% in men (95% CI -1%, 24%; p = 0.07) with no treatment-by-sex interaction (p > 0.1). In patients with high triacylglycerol levels and low HDL-cholesterol, fenofibrate reduced total cardiovascular outcomes by 30% (95% CI -7%, 54%) in women and 24% (95% CI 2%, 42%) in men, with no treatment-by-sex interaction (p > 0.1). Conclusions/interpretation: Fenofibrate improved the lipoprotein profile more in women than men. Cardiovascular event reductions with fenofibrate were consistently similar in women and men, both overall and among those with low HDL-cholesterol and high triacylglycerol levels. These data provide reassurance about fenofibrate efficacy in women and men. Both sexes with type 2 diabetes should be considered for fenofibrate therapy for cardioprotection.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Diabetologia
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Associations of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity with renal and vascular function, oxidative stress, glycaemia and diabetes complications were determined. Methods: Plasma SSAO activity in 94 type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients, including 34 with microvascular complications T1DM CX[+], and in 96 healthy subjects (CON) was measured by production of benzaldehyde using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: SSAO activity (mean ± SD) was greater in T1DM than in CON (1049 ± 294 vs 749 ± 204 mU/L; p < 0.00001) and was higher in T1DM CX[+] vs complication-free DM subjects (1148 ± 313 mU/L vs 982 ± 269 mU/L; p = 0.01). In T1DM, SSAO activity correlated with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): r = -0.44; p = 0.0001; cystatin C: r = 0.47; p = 0.0001] and markers of inflammation [soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1): r = 0.41, p = 0.0001; soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1): r = 0.33, p = 0.002] and was inversely related to small artery elasticity (SAE) (r = -0.23, p = 0.03). In CON, SSAO activity correlated with HbA1c (r = 0.26; p = 0.02). Conclusion: In T1DM, SSAO activity correlates with renal dysfunction, but not with glycaemia, and may promote vascular inflammation and be a therapeutic target.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background Insulin initiation and titration in primary care is necessary to respond to the growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The INITIATION study aims to evaluate the impact of implementing a new model of care with Primary Care Physician and Practice Nurse (PN) teams supported by a Credentialed Diabetes Educator-Registered Nurse (CDE-RN) and endocrinologist in initiating and titrating basal and prandial insulin for T2D patients in the Australian healthcare system over 24 weeks. This study also explores the feasibility and efficacy of retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (r-CGM) in comparison with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among people with T2D in primary care. Methods/Design The study employs a before and after design with a nested exploratory trial of SMBG and r-CGM. A total of 102 insulin naïve T2D patients with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of >7.5% in the previous 6 months while treated with maximal oral therapy will be recruited and screened from 22 primary care practices in Melbourne, Australia. All patients will be commenced on a basal insulin regimen following randomization into one of the two blood glucose monitoring arms, with intensification to a “basal plus” regimen if required. The outcomes of the new model of care will be benchmarked with data collected over the same period from a specialist setting in Melbourne, Australia. Discussion This article describes the study protocol and insulin treatment algorithm employed in the first study to explore r-CGM use among T2D in primary care. Findings from the INITIATION study will inform development of a larger randomized controlled trial. Trial registration ACTRN12610000797077.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Family Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) brings significant human and healthcare costs. Its progressive nature means achieving normoglycaemia is increasingly difficult, yet critical to avoiding long term vascular complications. Nearly one-half of people with T2D have glycaemic levels out of target. Insulin is effective in achieving glycaemic targets, yet initiation of insulin is often delayed, particularly in primary care. Given limited access to specialist resources and the size of the diabetes epidemic, primary care is where insulin initiation must become part of routine practice. This would also support integrated holistic care for people with diabetes. Our Stepping Up Program is based on a general practitioner (GP) and practice nurse (PN) model of care supported appropriately by endocrinologists and credentialed diabetes educator-registered nurses. Pilot work suggests the model facilitates integration of the technical work of insulin initiation within ongoing generalist care. This protocol is for a cluster randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of the Stepping Up Program to enhance the role of the GP-PN team in initiating insulin and improving glycaemic outcomes for people with T2D. 224 patients between the ages of 18 and 80 years with T2D, on two or more oral hypoglycaemic agents and with an HbA1c >=7.5% in the last six months will be recruited from 74 general practices. The unit of randomization is the practice.Primary outcome is change in glycated haemoglobin HbA1c (measured as a continuous variable). We hypothesize that the intervention arm will achieve an absolute HbA1c mean difference of 0.5% lower than control group at 12 months follow up. Secondary outcomes include the number of participants who successfully transfer to insulin and the proportion who achieve HbA1c measurement of <7.0%. We will also collect data on patient psychosocial outcomes and healthcare utilization and costs. The study is a pragmatic translational study with important potential implications for people with T2D, healthcare professionals and funders of healthcare though making better use of scarce healthcare resources, improving timely access to therapy that can improve disease outcomes.Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001028897.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Implementation Science

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: Most people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have glycaemic levels outside of target. Insulin is effective in improving glycaemia and most people with T2D eventually need this. Despite this, transition to insulin therapy is often delayed in primary care. To develop a model of care (Stepping Up) for insulin initiation in routine diabetes care in Australian general practice. To evaluate the model for feasibility of integration within routine general practice care. Drawing on qualitative work and normalisation process theory, we developed a model of care that included clarification of roles, in-practice systems and simple clinical tools. The model was introduced in an educational and practice system change intervention for general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs). Five practices (seven GPs and five PNs) and 18 patients formed the feasibility study. Evaluation at 3 and 12 months explored experiences of GPs, PNs and patients. Fourteen patients commenced insulin, with average HbA1c falling from 8.4% (68.3 mmol/mol) to 7.5% (58.5 mmol/mol) at 3 months. Qualitative evaluation highlighted how the model of care supported integration of the technical work of insulin initiation within ongoing generalist GP care. Ensuring peer support for patients and issues of clinical accountability and flexibility, managing time and resources were highlighted as important. The Stepping Up model allowed technical care to be embedded within generalist whole-person care, supported clinicians and practice system to overcome clinical inertia and supported patients to make the timely transition to insulin. Testing of the model's effectiveness is now underway.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Family Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Clinical inertia, failure to intensify treatment according to evidence-based guidelines, leads to prolonged, avoidable hyperglycemia in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This is a challenge for General Practice and Primary Care, where most people with T2D receive most of their care. Sustained, integrated translational research programs are needed to embed effective treatments in routine practice, yet many challenges exist for developing such programs. Objectives: To explore challenges and facilitators to implementing a translational research program focused on insulin initiation and titration among people with T2D in general practice and to identify key factors important to support and sustain such translation research in primary care. Operationalizing a program of translational work in primary care: We describe a series of studies on insulin initiation and titration in general practice including theory and qualitative work (Phase 1), a small feasibility and acceptability pilot (Phase 2), a large scale pilot (Phase 3), and a pragmatic cluster randomized trial currently under way (Phase 4). We used mixed methods to explore practice level implementation issues, and reflective investigator discussions to explore broader research program sustainability. Challenges for translational research in primary care: Key facilitators and barriers at practice and research program levels, include: Appropriate funding structures to secure long-term capacity building and people support; Building and maintaining linkages between communities of practice, primary and secondary/tertiary care researchers, institutions, and industry partners; Strategies for engagement and support for practitioners and participants. Conclusion: Building effective and sustainable translational research programs are critical for developing evidence-based policy that drives improved outcomes at a population level. Diverse sources of funding that support extensive and sustained trans-mural collaboration as well as engagement with practitioners, patients, and policymakers in the field are crucial.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The Australian lifestyle intervention program Life! is only the second reported, large-scale diabetes prevention program. This paper describes the genesis and the successful establishment of Life! and its key outcomes for participants and implementation.Research Design and Methods Life!, a behavior change intervention, comprises six group sessions over eight months. The Victorian Department of Health funded Diabetes Australia-Victoria to implement the program. Experience of the Greater Green Triangle diabetes prevention implementation trial was used for intervention design, workforce development, training and infrastructure. Clinical and anthropometric data from participants, used for program evaluation, was recorded on a central database.ResultsLife! has a state-wide workforce of 302 trained facilitators within 137 organizations. 29,000 Victorians showed interest in Life! and 15,000 individuals have been referred to the program. In total, 8,412 participants commenced a Life! program between October 2007 and June 2011. 37% of the original participants completed the eight month program. Participants completing sessions one to five lost an average of 1·4 kg weight (p<0·001) and waist circumference of 2·5cm (p<0.001). Those completing six sessions lost an average of 2·4 kg weight (p<0·001) and waist circumference of 3·8 cm (p<0·001). The weight loss of 2.4 kg represents 2.7% of participants' starting body weight.Conclusion The impact of Life! is attributable to applying available evidence for the systems design of the intervention, and collaboration between policy makers, implementers and evaluators using the principles of continuous quality improvement to support successful, large scale recruitment and implementation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with its onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Post-GDM women have a life-time risk exceeding 70% of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Lifestyle modifications reduce the incidence of T2DM by up to 58% for high-risk individuals.Methods/design: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for post-GDM women. This trial has an intervention group participating in a diabetes prevention program (DPP), and a control group receiving usual care from their general practitioners during the same time period. The 12-month intervention comprises an individual session followed by five group sessions at two-week intervals, and two follow-up telephone calls. A total of 574 women will be recruited, with 287 in each arm. The women will undergo blood tests, anthropometric measurements, and self-reported health status, diet, physical activity, quality of life, depression, risk perception and healthcare service usage, at baseline and 12 months. At completion, primary outcome (changes in diabetes risk) and secondary outcome (changes in psychosocial and quality of life measurements and in cardiovascular disease risk factors) will be assessed in both groups. This study aims to show whether MAGDA-DPP leads to a reduction in diabetes risk for post-GDM women. The characteristics that predict intervention completion and improvement in clinical and behavioral measures will be useful for further development of DPPs for this population.Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN 12610000338066.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Trials

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of goal focused telephone coaching by practice nurses in improving glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in Australia. Prospective, cluster randomised controlled trial, with general practices as the unit of randomisation. General practices in Victoria, Australia. 59 of 69 general practices that agreed to participate recruited sufficient patients and were randomised. Of 829 patients with type 2 diabetes (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) >7.5% in the past 12 months) who were assessed for eligibility, 473 (236 from 30 intervention practices and 237 from 29 control practices) agreed to participate. Practice nurses from intervention practices received two days of training in a telephone coaching programme, which aimed to deliver eight telephone and one face to face coaching episodes per patient. The primary end point was mean absolute change in HbA1c between baseline and 18 months in the intervention group compared with the control group. The intervention and control patients were similar at baseline. None of the practices dropped out over the study period; however, patient attrition rates were 5% in each group (11/236 and 11/237 in the intervention and control group, respectively). The median number of coaching sessions received by the 236 intervention patients was 3 (interquartile range 1-5), of which 25% (58/236) did not receive any coaching sessions. At 18 months' follow-up the effect on glycaemic control did not differ significantly (mean difference 0.02, 95% confidence interval -0.20 to 0.24, P=0.84) between the intervention and control groups, adjusted for HbA1c measured at baseline and the clustering. Other biochemical and clinical outcomes were similar in both groups. A practice nurse led telephone coaching intervention implemented in the real world primary care setting produced comparable outcomes to usual primary care in Australia. The addition of a goal focused coaching role onto the ongoing generalist role of a practice nurse without prescribing rights was found to be ineffective. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN50662837.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · BMJ (online)
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated if the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its component risk factors predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) for Aboriginal people from central Australia. WHO (HR 2.83), NCEP (1.80) and IDF (2.47) definitions of the MetS all had positive associations with CVD, however offered little above individual MetS components for hyperglycaemia.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the current treatment gap in management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in general practice as well as the associated financial and therapeutic burden of pharmacological treatment. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Patient Engagement and Coaching for Health trial. This totalled 473 patients from 59 general practices with participants eligible if they had HbA1c > 7.5%. Main outcome measures included proportions of patients not within target risk factor levels and weighted average mean annual cost for cardiometabolic medications and factors associated with costs. Medication costs were derived from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Schedule. Average age was 63 (range 27-89). Average HbA1c was 8.1% and average duration of diabetes was 10 years. 35% of patients had at least one micro or macrovascular complication and patients were taking a mean of 4 cardio-metabolic medications. The majority of participants on treatment for cardiovascular risk factors were not achieving clinical targets, with 74% and 75% of patients out of target range for blood pressure and lipids respectively. A significant proportion of those not meeting clinical targets were not on treatment at all. The weighted mean annual cost for cardiometabolic medications was AUD$1384.20 per patient (2006-07). Independent factors associated with cost included age, duration of diabetes, history of acute myocardial infarction, proteinuria, increased waist circumference and depression. Treatment rates for cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in our participants are higher than those identified in earlier studies. However, rates of achieving target levels remain low despite the large 'pill burden' and substantial associated fiscal costs to individuals and the community. The complexities of balancing the overall benefits of treatment intensification against potential disadvantages for patients and health care systems in primary care warrants further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · BMC Family Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Background To compare and contrast the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors of lower socio-economic status public hospital patients with those of privately insured CHD patients before and after six months of telephone delivered coaching using The COACH Program. Methods A retrospective observational study which contrasts the lifestyle and biomedical coronary risk factor status of 2256 public hospital patients with the same risk factors of 3278 patients who had private health insurance. All patients received an average of 5 coach sessions over 6 months. Results The public hospital patients were four years younger and had multiple measures confirming their lower socio-economic status than their private hospital counterparts. At entry to the program, the public hospital patients had worse risk factor levels than the privately insured patients for total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose, smoking and physical activity levels (P < 0.0001) but better status for systolic and diastolic blood pressures and alcohol intake. At exit from the program, many of these differences had diminished or disappeared. The public hospital patients had greater improvements in their risk factor status for total and LDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, body weight, smoking status and physical activity level than did the privately insured patients (P < 0.05). Conclusions This paper demonstrates that a program of initiating contact with patients with CHD, identifying treatment gaps in their management and coaching to achieve guideline recommended risk factor targets can help reduce health inequalities in such patients and thus benefit all patients in the context of ongoing secondary prevention.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · International journal of cardiology

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Heart, Lung and Circulation
  • James D Best · Geoffrey J McColl

    No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · The Medical journal of Australia

Publication Stats

8k Citations
900.18 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Nanyang Technological University
      Tumasik, Singapore
  • 1988-2015
    • University of Melbourne
      • • Department of Medicine (St Vincent's)
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2000-2012
    • St Vincent's Private Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1987-2008
    • St. Vincent Hospital
      Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2004-2006
    • University of Sydney
      • NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre (CTC)
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1988-2005
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
      • Department of Haematology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2003
    • Menzies School of Health Research
      Palmerston, Northern Territory, Australia
    • Royal Perth Hospital
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2002
    • University of Queensland
      • Institute for Molecular Bioscience
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Canterbury District Health Board
      Christchurch, Canterbury Region, New Zealand
  • 1998
    • University of Malaya
      • Department of Medicine
      Kuala Lumpor, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia