Jiwen Li

East China Normal University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (31)231.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Limited core transcription factors and transcriptional cofactors have been shown to govern embryonic stem cell (ESC) transcriptional circuitry and pluripotency, but the molecular interactions between the core transcription factors and cofactors remains ill defined. Here, we analyzed the protein-protein interactions between Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc (abbreviated as OSKM) and a large panel of cofactors. The data reveal both specific and common interactions between OSKM and cofactors. We found that among the SET1/MLL family H3K4 methyltransferases, Set1a specifically interacts with Oct4 and this interaction is independent of Wdr5. Set1a is recruited to and required for H3K4 methylation at the Oct4 target gene promoters and transcriptional activation of Oct4 target genes in ESCs, and consistently Set1a is required for ESC maintenance and induced pluripotent stem cell generation. Gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq analyses demonstrate the broad involvement of Set1a in Oct4 transcription circuitry and strong enrichment at TSS sites. Gene knockout study demonstrates that Set1a is not only required for mouse early embryonic development but also for the generation of Oct4-positive inner cell mass. Together our study provides valuable information on the molecular interactions between OSKM and cofactors and molecular mechanisms for the functional importance of Set1a in ESCs and early development. Stem Cells 2016.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Stem Cells
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    ABSTRACT: The underlying mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of differential DNA methylation in imprinted genes is largely unknown. Previous studies using Dnmt1 knockout ES cells demonstrated that, while re-expression of DNMT1 restored DNA methylation in the non-imprinted regions, the methylation patterns of imprinted genes could only be restored through germ-line passage. Knockout of Uhrf1, an accessory factor essential for DNMT1-mediated DNA methylation, in mouse ES cells also led to impaired global DNA methylation and loss of genomic imprinting. Here we demonstrated that, although re-expression of UHRF1 in Uhrf1-/- ES cells restored DNA methylation for the bulk genome but not for most of the imprinted genes, it did rescue DNA methylation for imprinted H19, Nnat and Dlk1 genes. Analysis of histone modifications at the differential methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinting genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that for the imprinted genes whose DNA methylation could be restored upon re-expression of UHRF1, the active histone marks especially H3K4me3 were maintained at considerably low and maintained the low levels even in the Uhrf1-/- ES cells. In contrast, for the imprinted genes whose DNA methylation could not be restored upon UHRF1 re-expression, the active histone marks especially H3K4me3 were relatively high and became even higher in the Uhrf1-/- ES cells. Our study thus supports a role for histone modifications in determining the establishment of imprinting-related DNA methylation and demonstrates that mouse ES cells can be a valuable model for mechanistic study of establishment and maintenance of differential DNA methylation in imprinted genes. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of rDNA transcription is central to cell growth and proliferation. PHF2 and PHF8 belong to a subfamily of histone demethylases that also possess a PHD domain-dependent di-/trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2/3) binding activity and are known to be enriched in the nucleolus. In this study, we show that, unlike PHF8 that activates rDNA transcription, PHF2 inhibits rDNA transcription. Depletion of PHF2 by RNA interference increases and overexpression of PHF2 decreases rDNA transcription, respectively, whereas simultaneous depletion of PHF8 and PHF2 restores the level of rDNA transcription. The inhibition of rDNA transcription by PHF2 depends on its H3K4me2/3 binding activity that is also required for PHF2 association with the promoter of rDNA genes but not its demethylase activity. We provide evidence that PHF2 is likely to repress rDNA transcription by competing with PHF8 for binding of rDNA promoter and by recruiting H3K9me2/3 methyltransferase SUV39H1. We also provide evidence that, whereas PHF8 promotes, PHF2 represses the transcriptional activity of RARα, Oct4, and KLF4 and a few PHF8 target genes tested. Taken together, our study demonstrates a repressive role for PHF2 in transcription by RNA polymerase I and II.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Sox2 is a key factor for maintaining embryonic stem cell (ESS) pluripotency, but little is known about its posttranslational regulation. Here we present evidence that the precise level of Sox2 proteins in ESCs is regulated by a balanced methylation and phosphorylation switch. Set7 monomethylates Sox2 at K119, which inhibits Sox2 transcriptional activity and induces Sox2 ubiquitination and degradation. The E3 ligase WWP2 specifically interacts with K119-methylated Sox2 through its HECT domain to promote Sox2 ubiquitination. In contrast, AKT1 phosphorylates Sox2 at T118 and stabilizes Sox2 by antagonizing K119me by Set7 and vice versa. In mouse ESCs, AKT1 activity toward Sox2 is greater than that of Set7, leading to Sox2 stabilization and ESC maintenance. In early development, increased Set7 expression correlates with Sox2 downregulation and appropriate differentiation. Our study highlights the importance of a Sox2 methylation-phosphorylation switch in determining ESC fate.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Molecular Cell
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    ABSTRACT: The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of dioxygenases (TET1/2/3) converts 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and provides a vital mechanism for DNA demethylation. However, how TET proteins are regulated is largely unknown. Here we report that the O-linked β-GlcNAc (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is not only a major TET3-interacting protein but also regulates TET3 subcellular localization and enzymatic activity. OGT catalyzes the O-GlcNAcylation of TET3, promotes TET3 nuclear export, and, consequently, inhibits the formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine catalyzed by TET3. Although TET1 and TET2 also interact with and can be O-GlcNAcylated by OGT, neither their subcellular localization nor their enzymatic activity are affected by OGT. Furthermore, we show that the nuclear localization and O-GlcNAcylation of TET3 are regulated by glucose metabolism. Our study reveals the differential regulation of TET family proteins by OGT and a novel link between glucose metabolism and DNA epigenetic modification.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Transcription has been linked to DNA damage. How the most highly transcribed mammalian ribosomal (rDNA) genes maintain genome integrity in the absence of transcription-coupled DNA damage repair is poorly understood. Here, we report that ABH2/ALKBH2, a DNA alkylation repair enzyme, is highly enriched in the nucleolus. ABH2 interacts with DNA repair proteins Ku70 and Ku80 as well as nucleolar proteins nucleolin, nucleophosmin 1, and upstream binding factor (UBF). ABH2 associates with and promotes rDNA transcription through its DNA repair activity. ABH2 knockdown impairs rDNA transcription and leads to increased single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks that are more pronounced in the rDNA genes, whereas ABH2 overexpression protects cells from methyl-methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage and inhibition of rDNA transcription. In response to massive alkylation damage, ABH2 rapidly redistributes from the nucleolus to nucleoplasm. Our study thus reveals a critical role of ABH2 in maintaining rDNA gene integrity and transcription and provides insight into the ABH2 DNA repair function.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cell Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic inheritance of DNA methylation in mammals requires a multifunctional protein UHRF1, which is believed to recruit DNMT1 to DNA replication forks through a unique hemi-methylated CpG-binding activity. Here we demonstrate that the UHRF1 mutants deficient in binding either hemi-methylated CpG or H3K9me2/3, but not both, are able to associate with pericentric heterochromatin, recruit Dnmt1 and partially rescue DNA methylation defects in mouse Uhrf1 null ES cells. Furthermore, we present evidence that the flip out of the methylated cytosine induced by UHRF1 binding is unlikely essential for subsequent DNA methylation by DNMT1. Together, our study demonstrates that UHRF1 can target DNMT1 for DNA maintenance methylation through binding either H3K9me2/3 or hemi-methylated CpG, and that the presence of both binding activities ensures high fidelity DNA maintenance methylation. In addition, our study indicates that UHRF1 mediates cross-talk between H3K9 methylation and DNA methylation at the level of DNA methylation maintenance.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: Background The nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complex (Mi2/NRD/NuRD/NURD) has a broad role in regulation of transcription, DNA repair and cell cycle. Previous studies have revealed a specific interaction between NURD and histone H3N-terminal tail in vitro that is not observed for another HDAC1/2-containing complex, Sin3A. However, the subunit(s) responsible for specific binding of H3 by NURD has not been defined. Results In this study, we show among several class I HDAC-containing corepressor complexes only NURD exhibits a substantial H3 tail-binding activity in vitro. We present the evidence that the MTA family proteins within the NURD complex interact directly with H3 tail. Extensive in vitro binding assays mapped the H3 tail-binding domain to the C-terminal region of MTA1 and MTA2. Significantly, although the MTA1 and MTA2 mutant proteins with deletion of the C-terminal H3 tail binding domain were assembled into the endogenous NURD complex when expressed in mammalian cells, the resulting NURD complexes were deficient in binding H3 tail in vitro, indicating that the MTA family proteins are required for the observed specific binding of H3 tail peptide by NURD in vitro. However, chromatin fractionation experiments show that the NURD complexes with impaired MTA1/2-H3 tail binding activity remained to be associated with chromatin in cells. Conclusions Together our study reveals a novel histone H3-binding activity for the MTA family proteins and provides evidence that the MTA family proteins mediate the in vitro specific binding of H3 tail peptide by NURD complex. However, multiple mechanisms are likely to contribute to the chromatin association of NURD complex in cells. Our finding also raises the possibility that the MTA family proteins may exert their diverse biological functions at least in part through their direct interaction with H3 tail.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Cell and Bioscience
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    ABSTRACT: LSD2/AOF1/KDM1b catalyzes demethylation of mono- and di-methylated H3K4 and plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and genomic imprinting. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structures of apo-LSD2 and LSD2 in complex with a peptide that mimics H3K4me2. Three structural domains of LSD2, namely, the novel N-terminal zinc finger, the centrally located SWIRM domain, and the C-terminal oxidase domain, closely pack together to form a boot-shaped structure. The active site cavity in the oxidase domain is large enough to accommodate several residues of the histone H3 tail and cannot discriminate between the different states of H3K4 methylation. The N-terminal zinc-finger domain, composed of a novel C4H2C2-type zinc finger and a specific CW-type zinc finger, is required for demethylase activity and, surprisingly, the binding of cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). In fact, a relay of extensive interactions through the zinc finger-SWIRM-oxidase domains is required for LSD2 demethylase activity and the binding of FAD. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the zinc finger and SWIRM domains in controlling LSD2 demethylase activity and provide a framework for elucidating the regulation and function of LSD2.Cell Research advance online publication 25 December 2012; doi:10.1038/cr.2012.177.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Arginine methylation broadly occurs in the tails of core histones. However, the mechanisms by which histone arginine methylation regulates transcription remain poorly understood. In this study we attempted to identify nuclear proteins that specifically recognize methylated arginine 3 in the histone H4 (H4R3) tail using an unbiased proteomic approach. No major nuclear protein was observed to specifically bind to methylated H4R3 peptides. However, H4R3 methylation markedly inhibited the binding of two proteins to H4 tail peptide. These proteins were identified as the SRP68 and SRP72 heterodimers (SRP68/72), the components of the signal recognition particle (SRP). Only SRP68/72, but not the SRP complex, bound the H4 tail peptide. SRP68 and SRP72 bound the H4 tail in vitro and associated with chromatin in vivo. The chromatin association of SRP68 and SRP72 was regulated by PRMT5 and PRMT1. Both SRP68 and SRP72 activated transcription when tethered to a reporter via a heterologous DNA binding domain. Analysis of the genome-wide occupancy of SRP68 identified target genes regulated by SRP68. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role of H4R3 methylation in blocking the binding of effectors to chromatin and reveal a novel role for the SRP68/SRP72 heterodimer in the binding of chromatin and transcriptional regulation.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Jing Wu · Nan Cui · Rui Wang · Jiwen Li · Jiemin Wong
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    ABSTRACT: Arginine methylation broadly occurs in histones and has been linked to transcriptional regulation, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair. While numerous proteins (histone code effectors) that specifically recognize or read the methylated lysine residues in core histones have been identified, little is known for effectors specific for methylated arginines in histones. In this study, we attempted to identify effector(s) recognizing asymmetrically methylated R17 and R26 in H3, which are catalyzed by CARM1/PRMT4, through an unbiased biochemical approach. Although we have yet to identify such effector using this approach, we find that these modifications function cooperatively with histone acetylation to inhibit the binding of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex (NuRD) and TIF1 family corepressors to H3 tail in vitro. In support of this finding, we show that overexpression of CARM1 in 293 T cells leads to reduced association of NuRD with chromatin, whereas knockdown of CARM1 in HeLa cells leads to increased association of NuRD with chromatin and decreased level of histone acetylation. Furthermore, in the Carm1-/- MEF cells there is an increased association of NuRD and TIF1β with chromatin and a global decrease in histone acetylation. By chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we show that overexpression of CARM1 results in reduced association of NuRD complex and TIF1β with an episomal reporter and that CARM1 is required in MEF cells for LPS-induced dissociation of NuRD from a NF-κb target gene. Taking together, our study provides evidence for a role of CARM1-mediated arginine methylation in regulation of histone acetylation and transcription: facilitating transcription by discharging corepressors from chromatin.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · PLoS ONE
  • Hui Zhang · Yu Ma · Junjie Gu · Bing Liao · Jiwen Li · Jiemin Wong · Ying Jin
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    ABSTRACT: Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great promise to regenerative medicine. However, before this technology can be applied for clinical purpose, the issues of iPSC efficiency and safety need to be addressed. In this study, we have compared a simple TAT- and 11 arginine (R)-protein transduction domain (PTD) for somatic cell reprogramming and explored the optimal conditions for the PTD to transduce reprogramming factors (RFs). We show that all recombinant TAT- and 11R-fused RFs are transcriptionally active as they activate their corresponding reporter genes in reporter assays. The TAT-RFs are in general transcriptionally more active than the corresponding 11R-RFs, but less active than the corresponding retroviral transduced RFs. Furthermore, each of TAT-RFs can substitute for their corresponding retrovirus in reprogramming. Finally, using five TAT-RFs together with an HDAC inhibitor, we can generate iPSC-like colonies from human fibroblast cells with high efficiency approximately 2 weeks after the first protein transduction. These colonies exhibit unique features of pluripotent stem cells including the morphology and the expression of pluripotency-associated markers. This characterization of recombinant RFs in reprogramming should facilitate the generation of clinically useful and genetic material-free human iPSCs.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Biomaterials
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    ABSTRACT: Histone methylation on lysine residues is believed to function primarily as docking sites to recruit specific proteins termed as histone code “readers” or “effectors.” Each lysine residue can be mono-, di, and tri-methylated and different methylation states can have different effect on chromatin function. While an increasing number of proteins have been identified and characterized as specific effectors for methylated histones, very few of the proteins are known to recognize a particular state of methylation. In this study, we identified nardilysin (NRDc), a member of M16 family metalloendopeptidases, as a novel dimethyl-H3K4 (H3K4me2)-binding protein. Among three methylated states, NRDc binds preferentially H3K4me2 both in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical purification demonstrated that NRDc interacts with the NCoR/SMRT corepressor complex. We identified target genes repressed by NRDc through microarray. We showed that NRDc is physically associated with and recruits the NCoR complex to some of the repressed genes and this association correlates with binding of H3K4me2. Thus, our study has identified a novel H3K4me2-binding protein and revealed a role of NRDc in transcriptional regulation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies demonstrate that UHRF1 is required for DNA methylation maintenance by targeting DNMT1 to DNA replication foci, presumably through its unique hemi-methylated DNA-binding activity and interaction with DNMT1. UHRF2, another member of the UHRF family proteins, is highly similar to UHRF1 in both sequence and structure, raising questions about its role in DNA methylation. In this study, we demonstrate that, like UHRF1, UHRF2 also binds preferentially to methylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) through its conserved tudor domain and hemi-methylated DNA through the SET and Ring associated domain. Like UHRF1, UHRF2 is enriched in pericentric heterochromatin. The heterochromatin localization depends to large extent on its methylated H3K9-binding activity and to less extent on its methylated DNA-binding activity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that both UHRF1 and UHRF2 interact with DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b and G9a. Despite all these conserved functions, we find that UHRF2 is not able to rescue the DNA methylation defect in Uhrf1 null mouse embryonic stem cells. This can be attributed to the inability for UHRF2 to recruit DNMT1 to replication foci during S phase of the cell cycle. Indeed, we find that while UHRF1 interacts with DNMT1 in an S phase-dependent manner in cells, UHRF2 does not. Thus, our study demonstrates that UHRF2 and UHRF1 are not functionally redundant in DNA methylation maintenance and reveals the cell-cycle-dependent interaction between UHRF1 and DNMT1 as a key regulatory mechanism targeting DNMT1 for DNA methylation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have identified mutations in PHF8, an X-linked gene encoding a JmjC domain-containing protein, as a causal factor for X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) and cleft lip/cleft palate. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that PHF8 is a histone demethylase and coactivator for retinoic acid receptor (RAR). Although activities for both H3K4me3/2/1 and H3K9me2/1 demethylation were detected in cellular-based assays, recombinant PHF8 exhibited only H3K9me2/1 demethylase activity in vitro, suggesting that PHF8 is an H3K9me2/1 demethylase whose specificity may be modulated in vivo. Importantly, a mutant PHF8 (phenylalanine at position 279 to serine) identified in the XLMR patients is defective in enzymatic activity, indicating that the loss of histone demethylase activity is causally linked with the onset of disease. In addition, we show that PHF8 binds specifically to H3K4me3/2 peptides via an N-terminal PHD finger domain. Consistent with a role for PHF8 in neuronal differentiation, knockdown of PHF8 in mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells impairs RA-induced neuronal differentiation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type but not the F279S mutant PHF8 drives P19 cells toward neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we show that PHF8 interacts with RARalpha and functions as a coactivator for RARalpha. Taken together, our results suggest that histone methylation modulated by PHF8 plays a critical role in neuronal differentiation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: LSD1 (KDM1 under the new nomenclature) was the first identified lysine-specific histone demethylase belonging to the flavin-dependent amine oxidase family. Here, we report that AOF1 (KDM1B under the new nomenclature), a mammalian protein related to LSD1, also possesses histone demethylase activity with specificity for H3K4me1 and H3K4me2. Like LSD1, the highly conserved SWIRM domain is required for its enzymatic activity. However, AOF1 differs from LSD1 in several aspects. First, AOF1 does not appear to form stable protein complexes containing histone deacetylases. Second, AOF1 is found to localize to chromosomes during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, whereas LSD1 does not. Third, AOF1 represses transcription when tethered to DNA and this repression activity is independent of its demethylase activity. Structural and functional analyses identified its unique N-terminal Zf-CW domain as essential for the demethylase activity-independent repression function. Collectively, our study identifies AOF1 as the second histone demethylase in the family of flavin-dependent amine oxidases and reveals a demethylase-independent repression function of AOF1.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: LSD1 (KDM1 under the new nomenclature) was the first identified lysine-specific histone demethylase belonging to the flavin-dependent amine oxidase family. Here, we report that AOF1 (KDM1B under the new nomenclature), a mammalian protein related to LSD1, also possesses histone demethylase activity with specificity for H3K4me1 and H3K4me2. Like LSD1, the highly conserved SWIRM domain is required for its enzymatic activity. However, AOF1 differs from LSD1 in several aspects. First, AOF1 does not appear to form stable protein complexes containing histone deacetylases. Second, AOF1 is found to localize to chromosomes during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, whereas LSD1 does not. Third, AOF1 represses transcription when tethered to DNA and this repression activity is independent of its demethylase activity. Structural and functional analyses identified its unique N-terminal Zf-CW domain as essential for the demethylase activity-independent repression function. Collectively, our study identifies AOF1 as the second histone demethylase in the family of flavin-dependent amine oxidases and reveals a demethylase-independent repression function of AOF1.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Cell Research
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in development and maintenance of male reproductive functions and the etiology of prostate cancer. As a ligand-regulated transcription factor, identification and characterization of AR coregulators are essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying its diverse biological functions. Here we reported the identification of a novel AR coactivator, deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1), through a biochemical approach. DBC1 interacts with AR in a ligand-stimulated manner and facilitates AR transcriptional activation in transfected cells as well as in Xenopus oocytes. In in vitro gel shift experiments, recombinant DBC1 drastically enhanced AR DNA-binding activity. Expression of DBC1 also enhanced the binding of AR to chromatinized template in vivo, whereas knockdown of DBC1 impaired the binding of AR to endogenous prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Thus, our data identify DBC1 as a novel AR coactivator.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a modular protein comprised of a N-terminal domain (NTD), a central DNA binding domain (DBD) and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Previous structural and functional studies have shown that deletion of the LBD generates an AR molecule with full transcriptional activity in many transient transfection assays. In this study we show that deletion of either the NTD1-478 (ARDeltaN) or LBD680-919 (ARDeltaC) cripples AR transcriptional activity in chromatin. Both ARDeltaN and ARDeltaC mutants are impaired in binding to target genes in chromatin. Overexpression of SRC-1 coactivator partially rescued transcriptional and chromatin-binding defects of ARDeltaN and ARDeltaC mutants. Expression of SRC-1 also enhances the binding of the wild-type AR to chromatin, thus revealing a role of SRC-1 in promoting binding of AR to chromatin. We also demonstrate that expression of the AR NTD1-501 in trans can substantially rescue the chromatin binding, but not the transcriptional defect of ARDeltaN, indicating that binding of AR to chromatin is a step separable from AR induced transcriptional activation. Finally we present evidence that, in contrast to transient transfection, AR NTD alone cannot efficiently activate transcription in chromatin.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Molecular Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Androgen receptor (AR) exerts its diverse biological functions primarily through its ability to regulate gene expression. As a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, AR recruits various coactivators to facilitate its transcriptional activity. The ligand-binding domains (LBD) of AR is believed to play a role in coactivator recruitment through a direct interaction between a hydrophobic coactivator binding groove in the LBD and a FXXLF or LXXLL motif within coactivators. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence showing that the FXXLF motif-containing ARA70 and ARA54 exhibit strong hormone-dependent interaction with the AR LBD but poorly with full-length AR. This drastic difference in interaction with ARA70 and ARA54 between the AR LBD and full-length AR is due to the hormone-dependent N-C interaction of AR. Like the AR LBD, full-length AR mutants defective in the N-C interaction exhibit strong hormone-dependent interaction with ARA70 and ARA54. Thus, our results suggest that in the full-length context the hydrophobic coactivator binding groove in the LBD is normally engaged in the liganded induced AR N-C interaction and thus restricted from interaction with other proteins. This finding raises fundamental question as to how AR recruits coactivators to regulate gene transcription.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Molecular Endocrinology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
231.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009-2016
    • East China Normal University
      • • Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences
      • • School of Life Sciences
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2000-2007
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology
      Houston, TX, United States