Jack Goldberg

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (227)1013.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We estimated the temporal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Vietnam-era veterans using a national sample of male twins with a 20-year follow-up. The complete sample included those twins with a PTSD diagnostic assessment in 1992 and who completed a DSM-IV PTSD diagnostic assessment and a self-report PTSD checklist in 2012 (n = 4,138). Using PTSD diagnostic data, we classified veterans into 5 mutually exclusive groups, including those who never had PTSD, and 4 PTSD trajectory groups: (a) early recovery, (b) late recovery, (c) late onset, and (d) chronic. The majority of veterans remained unaffected by PTSD throughout their lives (79.05% of those with theater service, 90.85% of those with nontheater service); however, an important minority (10.50% of theater veterans, 4.45% of nontheater veterans) in 2012 had current PTSD that was either late onset (6.55% theater, 3.29% nontheater) or chronic (3.95% theater, 1.16% nontheater). The distribution of trajectories was significantly different by theater service (p < .001). PTSD remains a prominent issue for many Vietnam-era veterans, especially for those who served in Vietnam.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Traumatic Stress
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Neural responses to highly energetic food cues are robust and are suppressed by eating. It is not known if neural responsiveness to food cues is an inherited trait and possibly even one that mediates the genetic influences on body weight that have been previously observed. Objective: We investigated the inherited influence on brain responses to high-calorie visual food cues before and after a meal. Design: With the use of a monozygotic twin study design, 21 healthy monozygotic twin pairs consumed a standardized breakfast and, 3.5 h later, underwent the first of 2 functional MRI (fMRI) scans with the use of visual food cues. After the first fMRI session, twins consumed a standardized meal, which was followed by the second fMRI. Serial ratings of appetite and food appeal were obtained. An ad libitum buffet was used to measure total caloric and macronutrient intakes. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were used to test for inherited influences by comparing whether intrapair similarity was greater than interpair similarity. Results: Body mass index was highly correlated within twin pairs (ICC: 0.96; P < 0.0001). ICCs also showed a strong intrapair similarity for the meal-induced change in hunger (ICC: 0.41; P = 0.03), fullness (ICC: 0.39; P = 0.04), and the appeal of fattening food (ICC: 0.57; P < 0.001). Twins ate a similar number of kilocalories at the buffet (ICC: 0.43; P = 0.02). Before the meal, the global brain activation across regions involved in satiety processing was not more similar in twins than in unrelated individuals. However, significant ICCs were present after the meal (ICC: 0.39; P = 0.04) and for the meal-induced change in activation by high-calorie visual food cues (ICC: 0.52; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Inherited factors influence both satiety perception and the effect of a meal to alter regional brain responses to images of highly energetic food. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02483663.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Cancer is among the leading causes of death in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), with rates increasing over the last two decades. Barriers in accessing cancer screening and treatment likely contribute to this situation. Methods. We administered structured clinical interviews and conducted descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses of demographic, health, spiritual, and treatment factors associated with self-reported barriers to cancer care among 143 adult AI/AN oncology patients. Results. High levels of satisfaction with cancer care, older age, positive mental health quality of life, and positive physical health quality of life were all significantly associated with lower scores for cancer care barriers, explaining 27% of the total model variance. Conclusion. Addressing barriers to cancer care might help to reduce health disparities among AI/AN oncology patients. Future research should determine whether reducing barriers improves engagement with cancer treatment and overall health outcomes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Early childhood trauma has been associated with increased risk for subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD), but little is known regarding what role genetic and shared familial factors play in this relationship. Early trauma was measured retrospectively in 562 male middle-aged twins with the Early Trauma Inventory. CHD was assessed by history and by myocardial perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography [(13) N] ammonia. Coronary flow reserve, a measure of coronary microcirculatory function, was defined as the ratio of myocardial blood flow at rest to flow during stress. Early trauma was associated with a higher prevalence of CHD by clinical history, OR = 1.48 per early trauma inventory quartile increase, 95% CI [1.18, 1.86]. When within- and between-pair effects were estimated, only the between-pair association was significant, OR = 1.76, 95% CI [1.30, 2.40], showing that the odds of CHD in the twin pair increased as the average early trauma exposure in the pair increased. A marginal between-pair (but not within-pair) relationship was also found between early trauma and coronary flow reserve (n = 416, unstandardized B = -0.04, SE B = 0.02, p = .036). In conclusion, early trauma was associated with CHD and familial factors played a key role.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Traumatic Stress
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial dysfunction assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a marker of early atherosclerosis. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) regulates many biological processes, including stress response, behavioral, cardiometabolic and immunologic functions. Genetic variants in NR3C1 have been associated with atherosclerosis and related risk factors. This study investigated the association of NR3C1 promoter methylation with FMD, independent of genetic and family-level environmental factors. We studied 84 middle-aged, male-male monozygotic twin pairs recruited from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Brachial artery FMD was measured by ultrasound. DNA methylation levels at 22 CpG residues in the NR3C1 exon 1F promoter region were quantified by bisulfite pyrosequencing in genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. Co-twin control analyses were conducted to examine the association of methylation variation with FMD, adjusting for smoking, physical activity, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and depressive symptoms. Multiple testing was corrected using the false discovery rate. Mean methylation level across the 22 studied CpG sites was 2.02%. Methylation alterations at 12 out of the 22 CpG residues were significantly associated with FMD. On average, a 1% increase in the intra-pair difference in mean DNA methylation was associated with 2.83% increase in the intra-pair difference in FMD (95% CI: 1.46-4.20; P < 0.0001) after adjusting for risk factors and multiple testing. Methylation variation in NR3C1 exon 1F promoter significantly influences subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of genetic, early family environmental and other risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Atherosclerosis
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among aging Vietnam-era veterans is not well characterized. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 5,598 male Vietnam-era veterans and members of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry were assessed for PTSD using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Current symptoms were measured with the PTSD Checklist (PCL). PTSD was estimated according to age (<60 or ≥ 60) and Vietnam theater service. Results: The lifetime prevalence of PTSD in theater veterans aged at least 60 years was 16.9% (95% CI: 13.9%-20.5%) and higher than the 5.5% (95% CI: 4.3%-7.0%) among nontheater veterans. Among veterans younger than 60 years, the comparable prevalence was 22.0% for theater (95% CI: 16.7%-28.4%) and 15.7% for nontheater (95% CI: 13.4%-18.2%) veterans. Similar results were found for theater service and current PTSD prevalence (past 12 months). PCL scores were significantly higher in theater compared with nontheater veterans in both younger and older cohorts. In both the younger and older cohorts significant differences in lifetime and current PTSD prevalence and PCL scores persisted in theater service discordant twin pairs. Conclusion: Vietnam service is related to elevated PTSD prevalence and current symptom burden in aging veterans. More than 30 years after the end of the Vietnam conflict, many veterans continue to suffer from PTSD, which highlights the need for continuing outreach throughout the life course.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Methods: Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Results: Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. Conclusions: This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Nicotine & Tobacco Research
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    ABSTRACT: The American Heart Association (AHA) recently developed the Cardiovascular Health Index (CVHI), a health metric consisting of 7 modifiable risk factors. The relationship of the CVHI with preclinical markers, such as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has not been assessed. We examined 490 male monozygotic and dizygotic twins without overt cardiovascular disease. CIMT was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Each of the 7 CVHI components (blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity, healthy diet, and smoking) was given a point score of 0, 1, or 2 to represent poor, intermediate, or ideal health, respectively. A CVHI summation score was computed (range 0 to 14) and categorized as inadequate (0 to 4), average (5 to 9), or optimum (10 to 14) cardiovascular health. Mixed-model regression was used to examine the association of the CVHI with CIMT. The mean age of the twins was 55.4 years, and 61% were monozygotic. The mean CIMT was 0.75 (±0.11) mm and the mean CVHI score was 7.7 (±2.1). There was an inverse correlation between CVHI and CIMT (Spearman r=-0.22, P<0.01). For every 5-unit increase in overall CVHI score (indicating better cardiovascular health category), CIMT decreased by 0.045 mm (P<0.001) after adjusting for demographic variables and other confounders. Within monozygotic twin pairs, a 5-unit increment in CVHI score was associated with a 0.05 mm lower CIMT (P<0.001). The CVHI is independently associated with CIMT and the association is not confounded by shared genetic and other familial factors.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of the American Heart Association
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    ABSTRACT: The International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) aims to foster scientific collaboration and promote twin research on a global scale by working to expand the resources of twin registries around the world and make them available to researchers who adhere to established guidelines for international collaboration. Our vision is to create an unprecedented scientific network of twin registries that will advance knowledge in ways that are impossible for individual registries, and includes the harmonization of data. INTR will also promote a broad range of activities, including the development of a website, formulation of data harmonization protocols, creation of a library of software tools for twin studies, design of a search engine to identify research partners, establishment of searchable inventories of data and biospecimens, development of templates for informed consent and data sharing, organization of symposia at International Society of Twin Studies conferences, support for scholar exchanges, and writing grant proposals.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Twin Research and Human Genetics
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease, though the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined whether PTSD and combat exposure were associated with CIMT in Vietnam War–era twins after controlling for shared genetic and childhood factors. Between 2002 and 2010, we studied 465 middle-aged twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were free from cardiovascular disease. PTSD was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and CIMT was measured by ultrasound. Mixed-effects regression models were used to examine individual, between-pair, and within-pair associations. Approximately 13% of participants met the criteria for PTSD, and 45% served in the Vietnam Theater. PTSD was associated with 32.7 μm higher CIMT (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 64.5) after adjustment for confounders. The average CIMT for the pair increased by 59.7 μm for each additional twin with PTSD (95% CI: 15.9, 104.2). We found no significant within-pair differences in CIMT when comparing PTSD-discordant co-twins. Results for combat exposure were similar, but its association with CIMT weakened after adjustment for PTSD (95% CI: 7.0, 45.3). Among Vietnam War–era veterans, combat exposure and PTSD are associated with CIMT, though the associations are largely mediated by shared childhood factors.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · American Journal of Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Silent myocardial ischemia is common in asymptomatic subjects without a prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to determine whether endothelial dysfunction is associated with silent myocardial ischemia and whether the association is independent of genetic and familial factors. Material and methods: We examined 416 male monozygotic and dizygotic twins aged 47 to 63 years, free of symptomatic CAD. Subclinical ischemia was diagnosed by [13 N] ammonia positron emission tomography at rest and after adenosine stress. Endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Generalized estimating equations were used for analysis. Results: Fixed perfusion defects were found in 24 (6%) twins and reversible perfusion defects in 90 (22%) twins, indicating subclinical ischemia. There was an inverse correlation between FMD and the reversible perfusion defect score (r = − 0.14, p = 0.01) but not the fixed defect score (r = − 0.017, p = 0.73). From the lowest to the highest quartile of FMD, the prevalence of reversible defects decreased 28% to 14%, p = 0.008. In multivariable analysis, reversible defects were significantly associated with each quartile of decreasing FMD (OR = 1.3; 95% 1.1, 2.5). In 54 twin pairs discordant for endothelial dysfunction (FMD ≤ 7% dilation from baseline), twins with endothelial dysfunction had 9% higher likelihood of having perfusion defects than their co-twins without endothelial dysfunction (p = 0.041). Conclusions: Endothelial dysfunction is independently associated with silent ischemia and this association is not confounded by genetic or other shared familial factors.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · IJC Metabolic and Endocrine
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence has linked posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, but most previous studies were cross-sectional. We examined the association between PTSD and incidence of diabetes in a prospective study of middle-aged male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Lifetime PTSD was diagnosed at baseline with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) according to DSM-III-R criteria. Subthreshold PTSD was defined by meeting some, but not all, criteria for PTSD. A total of 4340 respondents without self-reported diabetes at baseline were included. Of these, 658 reported a new diagnosis of treated diabetes over a median of 19.4 years of follow-up. At baseline, twins with PTSD showed more behavioral and metabolic risk factors such as overweight and hypertension. The age-adjusted cumulative incidence of diabetes was significantly higher in twins with PTSD (18.9%) than those without PTSD (14.4%), [odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.8], and intermediate in those with subthreshold PTSD (16.4%) (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.5, p for trend = 0.03). Adjustment for military, lifestyle and metabolic factors diminished the association. No significant association was found comparing twin pairs discordant for PTSD. In conclusion, PTSD was prospectively associated with a 40% increased risk of new-onset type-2 diabetes which was partially explained by a cluster of metabolic and behavioral risk factors known to influence insulin resistance. Shared biological or behavioral precursors which occur within families may lead to both PTSD and insulin resistance/diabetes. Thus, PTSD could be a marker of neuroendocrine and metabolic dysregulation which may lead to type-2 diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background There are few longitudinal cohort studies examining associations between incident MRI findings and incident spine-related symptom outcomes. Prior studies do not discriminate between the two distinct outcomes of low back pain (LBP) and radicular symptoms. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a secondary analysis of existing data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Imaging and Disability of the Back (LAIDBACK). The purpose of this study was to examine the association of incident lumbar MRI findings with two specific spine-related symptom outcomes: 1) incident chronic bothersome LBP, and 2) incident radicular symptoms such as pain, weakness, or sensation alterations in the lower extremity. Methods The original LAIDBACK study followed 123 participants without current LBP or sciatica, administering standardized MRI assessments of the lumbar spine at baseline and at 3-year follow-up, and collecting information on participant-reported spine-related symptoms and signs every 4 months for 3 years. These analyses examined bivariable and multivariable associations between incident MRI findings and symptom outcomes (LBP and radicular symptoms) using logistic regression. Results Three-year cumulative incidence of new MRI findings ranged between 2 and 8%, depending on the finding. Incident annular fissures were associated with incident chronic LBP, after adjustment for prior back pain and depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-36.9). All participants with incident disc extrusions (OR 5.4) and nerve root impingement (OR 4.1) reported incident radicular symptoms, although associations were not statistically significant. No other incident MRI findings showed large magnitude associations with symptoms. Conclusions Even when applying more specific definitions for spine-related symptom outcomes, few MRI findings showed large magnitude associations with symptom outcomes. Although incident annular fissures, disc extrusions, and nerve root impingement were associated with incident symptom outcomes, the 3-year incidence of these MRI findings was extremely low, and did not explain the vast majority of incident symptom cases.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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    ABSTRACT: Background Genetic, physiological, and psychological factors can affect food intake, but twin studies can distinguish inherited from environmental contributors. We examined the influence of attempted cognitive control of eating (“restrained eating”) on levels of appetite-regulating hormones. Methods Sixteen female, monozygotic twin pairs, discordant for Restraint Scale score (i.e., one twin a restrained eater with score > 15 whereas the co-twin was unrestrained), were selected from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Serial plasma ghrelin concentrations were monitored during meals and a preload study paradigm involving intake of a milkshake followed by an ad libitum ice cream “taste test.” Results Body weight, body mass index, resting energy expenditure, and fasting leptin levels were very similar between restrained and unrestrained twins. In a preload study, twins ate similar amounts of ice cream shortly after drinking identical milkshakes (mean ± SD; restrained 239 ± 158 vs. unrestrained 228 ± 132 kilocalories; P = 0.83). However, ghrelin concentrations during the preload study were significantly higher (P = 0.03) in restrained twins than in their unrestrained co-twins. Regardless of restraint status, ghrelin levels prior to the preload study were prospectively and positively associated with ice cream intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions Compared to their unrestrained co-twins, restrained twins had higher endogenous ghrelin levels during a preload study, but ate similar amounts. This finding is consistent with exertion of cognitive control relative to the state of physiologic appetite stimulation. Moreover, these findings in twins suggest that higher ghrelin levels result from restrained eating behavior and not from genetic predisposition.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Physiology & Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h(2)) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (≥ 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h(2) = 53%; 10 h/night: h(2) = 49%). Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Sleep
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with health functioning and disability in Vietnam-era Veterans. A cross-sectional study of functioning and disability in male Vietnam-era Veteran twins. PTSD was measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; health functioning and disability were assessed using the Veterans RAND 36-Item Health Survey (VR-36) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). All data collection took place between 2010 and 2012. Average age of the 5,574 participating Veterans (2,102 Vietnam theater and 3,472 non-theater) was 61.0 years. Veterans with PTSD had poorer health functioning across all domains of VR-36 and increased disability for all subscales of WHODAS 2.0 (all p < .001) compared with Veterans without PTSD. Veterans with PTSD were in poorer overall health on the VR-36 physical composite summary (PCS) (effect size = 0.31 in theater and 0.47 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both) and mental composite summary (MCS) (effect size = 0.99 in theater and 0.78 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both) and had increased disability on the WHODAS 2.0 summary score (effect size = 1.02 in theater and 0.96 in non-theater Veterans; p < .001 for both). Combat exposure, independent of PTSD status, was associated with lower PCS and MCS scores and increased disability (all p < .05, for trend). Within-pair analyses in twins discordant for PTSD produced consistent findings. Vietnam-era Veterans with PTSD have diminished functioning and increased disability. The poor functional status of aging combat-exposed Veterans is of particular concern.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Quality of Life Research
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    ABSTRACT: Informal caregiving can be deleterious to mental health, but research results are inconsistent and may reflect an interaction between caregiving and vulnerability to stress. We examined psychological distress among 1,228 female caregiving and non-caregiving twins. By examining monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs discordant for caregiving, we assessed the extent to which distress is directly related to caregiving or confounded by common genes and environmental exposures. Caregiving was associated with distress as measured by mental health functioning, anxiety, perceived stress, and depression. The overall association between caregiving and distress was confounded by common genes and environment for mental health functioning, anxiety, and depression. Common environment also confounded the association of caregiving and perceived stress. Vulnerability to distress is a factor in predicting caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Additional research is needed to explicate the mechanisms by which common genes and environment increase the risk of distress among informal caregivers.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Annals of Behavioral Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine the association of perceived discrimination and health-related quality of life using cross- sectional survey. Methods: We measured perceived discrimination using a nine-item discrimination scale and measured health-related quality of life with the mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) scores of the Short Form-12 questionnaire. The sample was drawn from adult members of an East Coast American Indian Tribe. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and smoking status, perceived discrimination scores greater than the sample median were associated with higher odds of poor mental functioning (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.03-4.91) but not with poor physical functioning (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.53-2.63). Conclusions: Our findings support results from previous studies linking perceived discrimination to worse mental health outcomes.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
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    ABSTRACT: Diurnal preference changes across the lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying this age-related shift are poorly understood. The aim of this twin study was to determine the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference are moderated by age. Seven hundred and sixty-eight monozygotic and 674 dizygotic adult twin pairs participating in the University of Washington Twin Registry completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire as a measure of diurnal preference. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 93 years (mean = 36.23, SD = 15.54) and were categorized on the basis of age into three groups: younger adulthood (19-35 years, n = 1715 individuals), middle adulthood (36-64 years, n = 1003 individuals) and older adulthood (65+ years, n = 168 individuals). Increasing age was associated with an increasing tendency towards morningness (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). Structural equation modeling techniques parsed the variance in diurnal preference into genetic and environmental influences for the total sample as well as for each age group separately. Additive genetic influences accounted for 52%[46-57%], and non-shared environmental influences 48%[43-54%], of the total variance in diurnal preference. In comparing univariate genetic models between age groups, the best-fitting model was one in which the parameter estimates for younger adults and older adults were equated, in comparison with middle adulthood. For younger and older adulthood, additive genetic influences accounted for 44%[31-49%] and non-shared environmental influences 56%[49-64%] of variance in diurnal preference, whereas for middle adulthood these estimates were 34%[21-45%] and 66%[55-79%], respectively. Therefore, genetic influences on diurnal preference are attenuated in middle adulthood. Attenuation is likely driven by the increased importance of work and family responsibilities during this life stage, in comparison with younger and older adulthood when these factors may be less influential in determining sleep-wake timing. These findings have implications for studies aimed at identifying specific non-shared environmental influences, as well as molecular genetic studies aimed at identifying specific polymorphisms associated with diurnal preference.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Chronobiology International

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,013.31 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2015
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2010-2011
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2006
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
    • UW Health
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1999-2006
    • Boston University
      • Department of Psychology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2004
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Trinity Washington University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1991-2004
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2002
    • Swedish Medical Center Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Epidemiology
      New York, New York, United States