[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Prostacyclin (PGI2) and its analogues may be useful in peripheral vascular disease. However, most have to be given intravenously due to their metabolic instability. 2. We have investigated the pharmacological effects of cicaprost, a synthetic PGI2 analogue which is metabolically stable and bioavailable after oral administration, in eight healthy male volunteers. 3. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. The volunteers were given either placebo, 5 micrograms, 7.5 micrograms or 10 micrograms cicaprost (at 09.00 h, 14.00 h, 19.00 h and again at 09.00 h the following day) on four separate occasions each 14 days apart. 4. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood were measured prior to and 1 h after the trial medication. Laser Doppler flowmetry measured skin blood flow on the face before and after medication. 5. There was a statistically significant dose relationship in the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by 2 microM ADP and 0.4 microgram ml-1 collagen in PRP and 2 microM ADP and 0.6 microgram ml-1 collagen in whole blood by cicaprost (P = 0.008, P = 0.34, P = 0.011 and P = 0.036, respectively). The threshold dose was 7.5 micrograms. Attenuation of anti-platelet effects was seen with the 14.00 h and 19.00 h doses. This may be due to a decrease in absorption after meals or to the development of tachyphylaxis. 6. Similar dose dependent effects of cicaprost on skin blood flow were also found (P = 0.01 and P = 0.006 for maximum output signal and red blood cell flux, respectively). The threshold dose was 7.5 micrograms. 7. In conclusion, cicaprost has significant anti-platelet and vasodilatory effects when given in doses of 7.5 micrograms and 10 micrograms three times a day in healthy male volunteers.
Full-text · Article · Jul 1993 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C1q receptor (C1qR) expression was determined by immunofluorescence flow cytometry on neutrophils from paired peripheral blood and synovial fluid samples from 21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 13 patients with other articular diseases (OAD). In both patient groups the levels of C1qR on circulating neutrophils were similar to that observed for normal control subjects, whereas on synovial fluid neutrophils significantly higher levels of receptor expression were observed. The mean percentage increases observed were: RA patients 47%, OAD patients 72%. C1q-bearing immune complexes were most prevalent in patients with RA, with the highest concentrations being found in synovial fluid samples. No correlation between immune complex levels and neutrophil C1qR expression was noted. Upregulation of C1qR expression is a feature of activated neutrophils from inflammatory joint fluids.
No preview · Article · Jun 1993 · Immunology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cicaprost is a new synthetic prostacylin analogue which is metabolically stable and bioavailable after oral administration; in previous studies it has been shown to have vasodilator antiplatelet effects. In this pilot study, we investigated the clinical efficacy of and patient tolerance to two dosage levels of cicaprost (2.5 micrograms tds and 5 micrograms tds) in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis (SSc). This was a three centre, double-blind, placebo controlled study of 49 patients carried out over four winter months. For a period of 10 days, 16 patients were given a placebo, 16 received cicaprost 2.5 micrograms tds and 17 received cicaprost 5 micrograms tds. Response was assessed based on the total number and duration of Raynaud's attacks, the average severity of the attacks, the number of painful attacks as a proportion of all attacks, a digital ulcer count, and the patients' opinion of the treatment. Although the clinical and laboratory parameters of digital vasospasm did not show statistically significant improvement in those who received cicaprost compared with those on the placebo, the severity of attacks lessened in the patients who received cicaprost 5 micrograms tds, and a statistically significant difference was seen in the average severity at week 2 post-treatment (p = 0.02). The apparent lack of overall significance was probably related to the short treatment period and relatively low doses of cicaprost used in this exploratory study. Longer studies with dose titration are probably needed to demonstrate the beneficial effects, if any, of cicaprost in patients with Raynaud's secondary to SSc, and these are being planned.
No preview · Article · Jan 1993 · Clinical and experimental rheumatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the C3 receptors CR1 and CR3 was investigated on neutrophils from paired peripheral blood and synovial fluid samples from 34 patients with inflammatory joint disease (21 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 13 patients with other articular diseases (OAD)). Using monoclonal antibodies (anti-CD35, anti-CD11b) and immunofluorescence flow cytometric analyses the percentages of positively labeled cells and the relative fluorescence intensities (as a measure of receptor number) were determined. CR1 and CR3 were found to be present on the majority (> 85%) of circulating neutrophils from normal subjects, RA and OAD patients, and on synovial fluid neutrophils from both patient groups. A strong correlation between neutrophil CR1 and CR3 expression was observed in peripheral blood samples from normal subjects (r = 0.81; P = 0.001), RA (r = 0.79; P = 0.001), and OAD patients (r = 0.83; P = 0.001); in each case the levels of CR3 expression were approximately twice those recorded for CR1. Both CR1 and CR3 expression was upregulated on synovial fluid neutrophils compared with that observed on the corresponding peripheral blood cells. Mean percentage increases observed were: RA patients: CR1, 16.5% (P < 0.001) and CR3, 28.7% (P < 0.001); and OAD patients: CR1, 4.1% and CR3, 26.9% (P = 0.001). Correlation of serum and synovial fluid IL-6, IL-8, and immune complex levels with neutrophil CR1 and CR3 expression failed to demonstrate any significant relationship between the concentrations of these soluble factors and receptor expression. Upregulation of CR1 and CR3 receptors, reflecting neutrophil activation within the inflamed joint, is a consistent finding in patients with inflammatory arthropathies.
No preview · Article · Nov 1992 · Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain isotype composition of intra-articular and circulating immune complexes (ICs) were determined by a Raji cell flow cytometric assay in paired serum and synovial fluid samples from 15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 15 patients with other articular diseases (osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, psoriatic arthritis, Reiter's disease). ICs were most prevalent in synovial fluid samples of patients with RA but were infrequently detected in serum and synovial fluid samples from the non-RA patients. ICs in patients with RA were heterogeneous both in the prevalence of Ig subclasses identified and in the distribution of the respective Ig isotypes within the complexes. Furthermore, differences were observed in the Ig isotype composition of ICs in paired serum and synovial fluid samples indicating that circulating ICs may not always arise simply by spill-over from articular sites. The possible mechanisms for IC formation in RA are discussed with reference to four patients who displayed features of extra-articular disease.
No preview · Article · Feb 1991 · Rheumatology International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunoglobulin (Ig) class of the antibody component of circulating immune complexes (IC) may be an important determinant of their pathogenicity. This study reports the development of a fluorometric immunoassay, using Raji cells as solid phase component and detection by flow cytometry, for the measurement of IC containing IgG, IgM, IgA and IgE. Analytic specificity of the method was established and diagnostic sensitivity determined in groups of patients with various disorders. In a detailed study of 44 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), elevated levels of IC were observed in the majority of patients, the prevalence of the respective Ig subclasses within the patient group being IgG-IC (93%); IgM-IC (77%); IgA-IC (59%); IgE-IC (52%). Raised levels of IC (of all classes) correlated with disease activity. Longitudinal study of a patient with acute cerebral SLE revealed elevated IC levels of all four Ig classes at presentation which fell during treatment, coincident with normalization of complement values. The biological consequences of IC of various Ig subclasses is discussed with particular reference to a possible mechanism of IgE-IC mediated tissue damage.
No preview · Article · Oct 1989 · Journal of clinical & laboratory immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.
No preview · Article · Feb 1988 · Diagnostic and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The joint fluids of 37 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, eight patients with traumatic injuries to their joints, two patients with Reiter's syndrome and three patients with psoriatic arthritis were tested for the presence of B cell colony stimulating activity (B cell CSA). B cell CSA was found in all of the joint fluids from the patients with rheumatoid arthritis but in none of the joint fluids from patients with traumatic injuries to their joints or in the joint fluids from the patients with Reiter's syndrome. A trace of B cell CSA was found in the joint fluid of one of the three patients with psoriatic arthritis. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.796) between the amount of rheumatoid factor present in the joint fluids and the titre of B cell CSA. This correlation was highly significant (P less than 0.001). The B cell CSA was localized to component(s) with molecular weight ranges 115-129 kD and 64-72 kD and an isoelectric point of 6.8. Its activity was sensitive to reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol and to the oxidising action of potassium periodate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a simple one-step technique for the growth of human B cell colonies in semi-solid agar in vitro. This method used conditioned medium from the human plasmacytoma cell line LICR-LON-H My 2 as a source of stimulating activity. A linear relationship exists between the number of B cells seeded and the number of colonies formed (r = 0.95). Most colony forming cells, approximately 1 in 500 of B cells seeded, lack surface immunoglobulin, possess Fc receptors and mark with the Leu 12 monoclonal antibody. Cells within developing colonies are found to have cytoplasmic IgM, IgA and IgG depending on the length of time in culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have characterized the pre-B cell colony stimulating activity (pre-B cell CSA) from LICR LON HMY2 conditioned medium (CM) by a variety of biochemical techniques. Pre-B cell CSA was found to be associated with a heat stable glycoprotein which has an isoelectric point of 8.3 and a mol. wt, as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, of 28-32 kD. The relationship of this activity to previously described factors acting on cells of the B cell lineage is discussed.