[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K+ channels regulate aspects of both stimulus-secretion and excitation-contraction coupling, but assigning specific roles to these channels has proved problematic. Using transgenically derived insulinoma cells (betaTC3-neo) and beta-cells purified from rodent pancreatic islets of Langerhans, we studied the expression and role of delayed rectifiers in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction methods to amplify all known candidate delayed rectifier transcripts, the expression of the K+ channel gene Kv2.1 in betaTC3-neo insulinoma cells and purified rodent pancreatic beta-cells was detected and confirmed by immunoblotting in the insulinoma cells. betaTC3-neo cells were also found to express a related K+ channel, Kv3.2. Whole-cell patch clamp demonstrated the presence of delayed rectifier K+ currents inhibited by tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine, with similar Kd values to that of Kv2.1, correlating delayed rectifier gene expression with the K+ currents. The effect of these blockers on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was studied with fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and imaging techniques. In the absence of glucose, exposure to TEA (1-20 mM) had minimal effects on betaTC3-neo or rodent islet [Ca2+]i, but in the presence of glucose, TEA activated large amplitude [Ca2+]i oscillations. In the insulinoma cells the TEA-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations were driven by synchronous oscillations in membrane potential, resulting in a 4-fold potentiation of insulin secretion. Activation of specific delayed rectifier K+ channels can therefore suppress stimulus-secretion coupling by damping oscillations in membrane potential and [Ca2+]i and thereby regulate secretion. These studies implicate previously uncharacterized beta-cell delayed rectifier K+ channels in the regulation of membrane repolarization, [Ca2+]i, and insulin secretion.
No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The energy requirements of most cells supplied with glucose are fulfilled by glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, yielding ATP. In pancreatic beta-cells, a rise in cytosolic ATP is also a critical signaling event, coupling closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) to insulin secretion via depolarization-driven increases in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). We report that glycolytic but not Krebs cycle metabolism of glucose is critically involved in this signaling process. While inhibitors of glycolysis suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, blockers of pyruvate transport or Krebs cycle enzymes were without effect. While pyruvate was metabolized in islets to the same extent as glucose, it produced no stimulation of insulin secretion and did not block KATP. A membrane-permeant analog, methyl pyruvate, however, produced a block of KATP, a sustained rise in [Ca2+]i, and an increase in insulin secretion 6-fold the magnitude of that induced by glucose. These results indicate that ATP derived from mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism does not substantially contribute to the regulation of KATP responses to a glucose challenge, supporting the notion of subcompartmentation of ATP within the beta-cell. Supranormal stimulation of the Krebs cycle by methyl pyruvate can, however, overwhelm intracellular partitioning of ATP and thereby drive insulin secretion.
No preview · Article · Apr 1996 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is associated with defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We have investigated Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF), an animal model of NIDDM, and found that, compared with control islets, the expression of mRNA encoding C- and D-isoforms of alpha 1-subunits of beta-cell L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) was significantly reduced in islets isolated from ZDF rats. This correlated with a substantial reduction of L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa) in ZDF beta-cells. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses in ZDF islets after glucose, KCI, or BAY K 8644 stimulation were markedly attenuated, whereas responses evoked by carbachol were unimpaired, consistent with a specific decrease in ICa in the diabetic islets. This reduction was accompanied by loss of pulsatile insulin secretion from ZDF islets treated with oscillatory increases of external glucose concentration. Our findings suggest that the attenuation of ICa in diabetic islets may contribute to the abnormal glucose-dependent insulin secretory responses associated with NIDDM and indicate that this defect is caused by decreased expression of genes encoding beta-cell VDCC alpha 1-subunits.
No preview · Article · Feb 1996 · The American journal of physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose stimulation of beta-cell insulin secretion is initiated by membrane depolarization coupled with an elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Both depolarization-dependent Ca2+ entry and intracellular Ca2+ store release contribute to the sugar-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Here we show that maneuvers depleting intracellular Ca2+ stores induce membrane depolarization and a sustained nitrendipine-sensitive Ca2+ influx, whereas interventions promoting Ca2+ store refilling produce a hyperpolarization and inhibit Ca2+ influx. Both intracellular Ca2+ store depletion and maitotoxin activated a depolarizing nonselective cation current carried principally by Na+ in the physiological range of membrane potentials. The activation of such a current may form the paradigm by which excitable cells refill depleted intracellular Ca2+ stores by depolarization-driven opening of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels.
Preview · Article · Jan 1995 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose stimulation of pancreatic beta-cell insulin secretion is closely coupled to alterations in ion channel conductances and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). To further examine this relationship after augmentation of voltage-dependent K+ channel expression, transgenic mice were produced which specifically overexpress a human insulinoma-derived, tetraethylammonium (TEA)-insensitive delayed rectifier K+ channel in their pancreatic beta-cells as shown by immunoblot of isolated islets and immunohistochemical analysis of pancreas sections. Whole-cell current recordings confirmed the presence of high amplitude TEA-resistant K+ currents in transgenic islet cells, whose expression correlated with hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Stable overexpression of the channel in insulinoma cells attenuated glucose-activated increases in [Ca2+]i and prevented the induction of TEA-dependent [Ca2+]i oscillations. These results, employing the first ion channel transgenic mouse, demonstrate the importance of membrane potential regulation in excitation-secretion coupling in the pancreatic beta-cell.
Preview · Article · Dec 1994 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a metabolic disease associated with abnormal insulin secretion, the underlying mechanisms of which are unknown. Glucose-dependent signal transduction pathways were investigated in pancreatic islets derived from the db/db mouse, an animal model of NIDDM. After stimulation with glucose (4-12 mM), the changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were different; unlike control islets, db/db islets lacked an initial reduction of [Ca2+]i and the subsequent [Ca2+]i oscillations following stimulation with 12 mM glucose. The severity of these defects in Ca2+ signaling correlated with the age-dependent development of hyperglycemia. Similarly defective glucose-induced Ca2+ signaling were reproduced in control islets by pre-exposure to thapsigargin, a selective inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+)-ATPase. Estimation of ATPase activities from rates of ATP hydrolysis and by immunoblot hybridization with an antiserum directed against the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase both demonstrated that the ER Ca(2+)-ATPase was almost entirely absent from db/db islets. The effects of inhibition of ER Ca(2+)-ATPase on insulin secretion were also examined; a 4-day exposure of control islets to 1 microM thapsigargin resulted in basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion levels similar to those found in db/db islets. These results suggest that aberrant ER Ca2+ sequestration underlies the impaired glucose responses in the db/db mouse and may play a role in defective insulin secretion associated with NIDDM.
Preview · Article · Aug 1994 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose stimulation of islet beta-cell insulin secretion is initiated by membrane depolarization and an elevation in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) from a combination of influx through depolarization-activated Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ store release. Prevention of Ca2+ store refilling with thapsigargin produced a sustained depolarization, leading to enhanced Ca2+ influx and an elevation in [Ca2+]i in 12 mM glucose. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by external EGTA reduced [Ca2+]i and also caused a long-lasting depolarization. In single beta-cells, external EGTA activated an inward current, the voltage range and kinetic properties of which differed from those of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. A novel pathway thus exists in beta-cells by which depletion of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores results in the activation of an inward current that, by inducing depolarization, facilitates Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The physiological relevance of this pathway in the control of beta-cell function is indicated by the stimulation of insulin secretion by thapsigargin.
Preview · Article · Jun 1994 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increase in cytosolic ATP following glucose metabolism by pancreatic beta-cells is the key signal initiating insulin secretion by causing blockade of ATP-dependent K+ channels (KATP). This induces membrane depolarization, leading to an elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion. In this report we identify the critical metabolic step by which glucose initiates changes in beta-cell KATP channel activity, membrane potential, and [Ca2+]i. The signal stems from the glycolytic production of NADH during the oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which is subsequently processed into ATP by mitochondria via the operation of discrete shuttle systems.
Preview · Article · May 1994 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The release of insulin from the pancreatic beta cell is dependent upon a complex interplay between stimulators and inhibitors. Recently, amylin, a peptide secreted by pancreatic beta cells, has been implicated in the development of type II (noninsulin dependent) diabetes through its modulation of the peripheral effects of insulin. However, the effect of amylin on insulin secretion from the beta cell has remained controversial. It is reported here that in single beta cells exhibiting normal glucose sensing, amylin causes membrane hyperpolarization, increases in net outward current, and reductions in insulin secretion. In contrast, in cells with abnormal glucose sensing (e.g., from db/db diabetic mice), amylin has no effect on electrical activity or secretion. Thus, amylin's effects on excitation-secretion coupling in the beta cell of the pancreas appear to be linked to the cell's capacity for normal glucose sensing.
Preview · Article · Nov 1993 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucose-activated beta-cell insulin secretion depends upon elevation of intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, which is thought to arise from Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels. Using fura-2-loaded mouse islets, we demonstrate, in fact, that the major component of the glucose-activated [Ca2+]i rise represents voltage-dependent intracellular Ca2+ release. Furthermore, the Ca2+ release pool possesses a novel pharmacology in that it is caffeine-sensitive but ryanodine-insensitive. In the absence of external Ca2+, glucose still caused intracellular Ca2+ release, an effect blockable by tetrodotoxin. However, depolarization of the islet with KCl in low Ca(2+)-containing solutions induced intracellular Ca2+ release, which was resistant to tetrodotoxin. We conclude that glucose release of intracellular Ca2+ is dependent upon depolarization alone, possibly through increasing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production.
Preview · Article · Jun 1993 · Journal of Biological Chemistry