[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel human leukocyte antigen-A (HLA-A) allele, A*0278, has been identified in a Chinese family using DNA-based typing and molecular cloning methods. The alleles A*0278 differs from its closest matching HLA sequence of A*0256 by a silent substitution at 102 A > C and by two replacement substitutions, 98T > A and 292 C > G in exon 2, resulting in a change of codon 33 from Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) and codon 98 from His (CAC) to Asp (GAC). Serology study revealed that A*0278 is associated with HLA-A2 broad specificity. A polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers-based assay was developed to identify A*0278. Family study indicated that the propositus inhered his father's HLA haplotype A*0278, B*35, DRB1*15. No further individuals of A*0278 were found in 5000 Chinese bone marrow donor volunteers.