John L. Tonry

Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile

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Publications (382)1294.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a recalibration of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) photometry with new flat fields and zero points derived from Pan-STARRS1 (PS1). Using PSF photometry of 60 million stars with $16 < r < 20$, we derive a model of amplifier gain and flat-field corrections with per-run RMS residuals of 3 millimagnitudes (mmag) in $griz$ bands and 15 mmag in $u$ band. The new photometric zero points are adjusted to leave the median in the Galactic North unchanged for compatibility with previous SDSS work. We also identify transient non-photometric periods in SDSS ("contrails") based on photometric deviations co-temporal in SDSS bands. The recalibrated stellar PSF photometry of SDSS and PS1 has an RMS difference of {9,7,7,8} mmag in $griz$, respectively, when averaged over $15'$ regions.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of brown dwarfs from L to T spectral types is one of the least understood aspects of the ultracool population, partly for lack of a large, well-defined, and well-characterized sample in the L/T transition. To improve the existing census, we have searched ≈28,000 deg2 using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer surveys for L/T transition dwarfs within 25 pc. We present 130 ultracool dwarf discoveries with estimated distances ≈9-130 pc, including 21 that were independently discovered by other authors and 3 that were previously identified as photometric candidates. Seventy-nine of our objects have near-IR spectral types of L6-T4.5, the most L/T transition dwarfs from any search to date, and we have increased the census of L9-T1.5 objects within 25 pc by over 50%. The color distribution of our discoveries provides further evidence for the "L/T gap," a deficit of objects with (J - K)MKO ≈ 0.0-0.5 mag in the L/T transition, and thus reinforces the idea that the transition from cloudy to clear photospheres occurs rapidly. Among our discoveries are 31 candidate binaries based on their low-resolution spectral features. Two of these candidates are common proper motion companions to nearby main sequence stars; if confirmed as binaries, these would be rare benchmark systems with the potential to stringently test ultracool evolutionary models. Our search also serendipitously identified 23 late-M and L dwarfs with spectroscopic signs of low gravity implying youth, including 10 with vl-g or int-g gravity classifications and another 13 with indications of low gravity whose spectral types or modest spectral signal-to-noise ratio do not allow us to assign formal classifications. Finally, we identify 10 candidate members of nearby young moving groups (YMG) with spectral types L7-T4.5, including three showing spectroscopic signs of low gravity. If confirmed, any of these would be among the coolest known YMG members and would help to determine the effective temperature at which young brown dwarfs cross the L/T transition. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: [Abbreviated] Upcoming large area sky surveys like EUCLID and eROSITA crucially depend on accurate photometric redshifts (photo-z). The identification of variable sources, such as AGNs, and the achievable redshift accuracy for varying objects are important in view of the science goals of the EUCLID and eROSITA missions. We probe AGN optical variability for a large sample of X-ray-selected AGNs in the XMM-COSMOS field, using the light curves provided by the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3pi and MDF04 surveys. Utilizing two different variability parameters, we defined a sample of varying AGNs for every PS1 band. We investigated the influence of variability on the calculation of photo-z by applying three different input photometry sets for our fitting procedure. For each of the five PS1 bands, we chose either the epochs minimizing the interval in observing time, the median magnitude values, or randomly drawn light curve points to compute the redshift. In addition, we derived photo-z using PS1 photometry extended by GALEX/IRAC bands. We find that the photometry produced by the 3pi survey is sufficient to reliably detect variable sources provided that the fractional variability amplitude is at least 3%. Considering the photo-z of variable AGNs, we observe that minimizing the time spacing of the chosen points yields superior photo-z in terms of the percentage of outliers (33%) and accuracy (0.07), outperforming the other two approaches. Drawing random points from the light curve gives rise to typically 57% of outliers and an accuracy of 0.4. Adding GALEX/IRAC bands for the redshift determination weakens the influence of variability. Although the redshift quality generally improves when adding these bands, we still obtain not less than 26% of outliers and an accuracy of 0.05 at best, therefore variable sources should receive a flag stating that their photo-z may be low quality.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The NASA Kepler mission has revolutionized time-domain astronomy and has massively expanded the number of known extrasolar planets. However, the effect of wide multiplicity on exoplanet occurrence has not been tested with this data set. We present a sample of 401 wide multiple systems containing at least one Kepler target star. Our method uses Pan-STARRS 1 and archival data to produce an accurate proper motion catalogue of the Kepler field. Combined with Pan-STARRS 1 SED fits and archival proper motions for bright stars, we use a newly developed probabilistic algorithm to identify likely wide binary pairs which are not chance associations. As byproducts of this we present stellar SED templates in the Pan-STARRS 1 photometric system and conversions from this system to Kepler magnitudes. We find that Kepler target stars in our binary sample with separations above 6 arcsec are no more or less likely to be identified as confirmed or candidate planet hosts than a weighted comparison sample of Kepler targets of similar brightness and spectral type. Therefore we find no evidence that binaries with projected separations greater than 3000 au affect the occurrence rate of planets with P < 300 d around FGK stars.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of three new Milky Way satellites from our search for compact stellar overdensities in the photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS 1, or PS1) 3pi survey. The first satellite, Laevens 3, is located at a heliocentric distance of d=67+/-3 kpc. With a total magnitude of Mv=-4.4+/-0.3 and a half-light radius rh=7+/-2 pc, its properties resemble those of outer halo globular clusters. The second system, Draco II/Laevens 4 (Dra II), is a closer and fainter satellite (d~20 kpc, Mv =-2.9+/-0.8), whose uncertain size (rh = 19 +8/-6 pc) renders its classification difficult without kinematic information; it could either be a faint and extended globular cluster or a faint and compact dwarf galaxy. The third satellite, Sagittarius II/Laevens 5 (Sgr II), has an ambiguous nature as it is either the most compact dwarf galaxy or the most extended globular cluster in its luminosity range (rh = 37 +9/-8 pc and Mv=-5.2+/-0.4). At a heliocentric distance of 67+/-5 kpc, this satellite lies intriguingly close to the expected location of the trailing arm of the Sagittarius stellar stream behind the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph). If confirmed through spectroscopic follow up, this connection would locate this part of the trailing arm of the Sagittarius stellar stream that has so far gone undetected. It would further suggest that Sgr II was brought into the Milky Way halo as a satellite of the Sgr dSph.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a three-dimensional map of interstellar dust reddening, covering three-quarters of the sky out to a distance of several kiloparsecs, based on Pan-STARRS 1 and 2MASS photometry. The map reveals a wealth of detailed structure, from filaments to large cloud complexes. The map has a hybrid angular resolution, with most of the map at an angular resolution of 3.4' to 13.7', and a maximum distance resolution of ~25%. The three-dimensional distribution of dust is determined in a fully probabilistic framework, yielding the uncertainty in the reddening distribution along each line of sight, as well as stellar distances, reddenings and classifications for 800 million stars detected by Pan-STARRS 1. We demonstrate the consistency of our reddening estimates with those of two-dimensional emission-based maps of dust reddening. In particular, we find agreement with the Planck 353 GHz optical depth-based reddening map to within 0.05 mag in E(B-V) to a depth of 0.5 mag, and explore systematics at reddenings less than E(B-V) ~ 0.08 mag. We validate our per-star reddening estimates by comparison with reddening estimates for stars with both SDSS photometry and SEGUE spectral classifications, finding per-star agreement to within 0.1 mag out to a stellar E(B-V) of 1 mag. We compare our map to two existing three-dimensional dust maps, by Marshall et al. (2006) and Lallement et al. (2013), demonstrating our finer angular resolution, and better distance resolution compared to the former within ~3 kpc. The map can be queried or downloaded at http://argonaut.skymaps.info. We expect the three-dimensional reddening map presented here to find a wide range of uses, among them correcting for reddening and extinction for objects embedded in the plane of the Galaxy, studies of Galactic structure, calibration of future emission-based dust maps and determining distances to objects of known reddening.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In March 2012, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN) PTF12csy was found 0.2∘ away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.54∘. It has a redshift of z=0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2σ within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: It is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a Monte Carlo technique to calculate the absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) of about 240,000 asteroids observed by the Pan-STARRS1 telescope during the first 15 months of its 3-year all-sky survey mission. The system's exquisite photometry with photometric errors < 0.04 mags, and well-defined filter and photometric system, allowed us to derive accurate H and G even with a limited number of observations and restricted range in phase angles. Our Monte Carlo method simulates each asteroid's rotation period, amplitude and color to derive the most-likely H and G, but its major advantage is in estimating realistic statistical+systematic uncertainties and errors on each parameter. The method was confirmed by comparison with the well-established and accurate results for about 500 asteroids provided by Pravec et al. (2012) and then applied to determining H and G for the Pan-STARRS1 asteroids using both the Muinonen et al. (2010) and Bowell et al. (1989) phase functions.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Icarus
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    ABSTRACT: We present data for LSQ14bdq, a hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the La Silla QUEST survey and classified by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. The spectrum and light curve are very similar to slow-declining SLSNe such as PTF12dam. However, detections within $\sim1$ day after explosion show a bright and relatively fast initial peak, lasting for $\sim15$ days, prior to the usual slow rise to maximum light. The broader, main peak can be fit with either central engine or circumstellar interaction models. We discuss the implications of the precursor peak in the context of these models. It is too bright and narrow to be explained as a normal \Ni-powered SN, and we suggest that interaction models may struggle to fit the precursor and main peak simultaneously. We propose that the initial peak is from the post-shock cooling of an extended stellar envelope, and reheating by a central engine drives the second peak. In this picture, we show that an explosion energy of $\sim2\times10^{52}$\,erg and a progenitor radius of a few hundred solar radii are required to power the early emission. The two competing engine models involve rapidly spinning magnetars (neutron stars) or fall-back accretion onto a central black hole. The prompt energy required may favour the black hole scenario. The remarkably bright initial peak effectively rules out a compact Wolf-Rayet star as a progenitor, since the inferred energies and ejected masses become unphysical.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient identification and follow-up of astronomical transients is hindered by the need for humans to manually select promising candidates from data streams that contain many false positives. These artefacts arise in the difference images that are produced by most major ground-based time-domain surveys with large format CCD cameras. This dependence on humans to reject bogus detections is unsustainable for next generation all-sky surveys and significant effort is now being invested to solve the problem computationally. In this paper, we explore a simple machine learning approach to real-bogus classification by constructing a training set from the image data of ̃32 000 real astrophysical transients and bogus detections from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. We derive our feature representation from the pixel intensity values of a 20 × 20 pixel stamp around the centre of the candidates. This differs from previous work in that it works directly on the pixels rather than catalogued domain knowledge for feature design or selection. Three machine learning algorithms are trained (artificial neural networks, support vector machines and random forests) and their performances are tested on a held-out subset of 25 per cent of the training data. We find the best results from the random forest classifier and demonstrate that by accepting a false positive rate of 1 per cent, the classifier initially suggests a missed detection rate of around 10 per cent. However, we also find that a combination of bright star variability, nuclear transients and uncertainty in human labelling means that our best estimate of the missed detection rate is approximately 6 per cent.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a faint Milky Way satellite, Laevens 2/Triangulum II, found in the Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS 1) 3 pi imaging data and confirmed with follow-up wide-field photometry from the Large Binocular Cameras. The stellar system, with an absolute magnitude of M_V=-1.8 +/-0.5, a heliocentric distance of 30 +2/-2 kpc, and a half-mass radius of 34 +9/-8 pc, shows remarkable similarity to faint, nearby, small satellites such as Willman 1, Segue 1, Segue 2, and Bo\"otes II. The discovery of Laevens 2/Triangulum II further populates the region of parameter space for which the boundary between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters becomes tenuous. Follow-up spectroscopy will ultimately determine the nature of this new satellite, whose spatial location hints at a possible connection with the complex Triangulum-Andromeda stellar structures.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei at z~2-4 are typically located in dense environments and their host galaxies are among the most massive systems at those redshifts, providing key insights for galaxy evolution. Finding radio-loud quasars at the highest accessible redshifts (z~6) is important to study their properties and environments at even earlier cosmic time. They would also serve as background sources for radio surveys intended to study the intergalactic medium beyond the epoch of reionization in HI 21 cm absorption. Currently, only five radio-loud ($R=f_{\nu,5{\rm GHz}}/f_{\nu,4400\AA}>10$) quasars are known at z~6. In this paper we search for 5.5 < z < 7.2 quasars by cross-matching the optical Pan-STARRS1 and radio FIRST surveys. The radio information allows identification of quasars missed by typical color-based selections. While we find no good 6.4 < z <7.2 quasar candidates at the sensitivities of these surveys, we discover two new radio-loud quasars at z~6. Furthermore, we identify two additional z~6 radio-loud quasars which were not previously known to be radio-loud, nearly doubling the current z~6 sample. We show the importance of having infrared photometry for z>5.5 quasars to robustly classify them as radio-quiet or radio-loud. Based on this, we reclassify the quasar J0203+0012 (z=5.72), previously considered radio-loud, to be radio-quiet. Using the available data in the literature, we constrain the radio-loud fraction of quasars at z~6, using the Kaplan--Meier estimator, to be $8.1^{+5.0}_{-3.2}\%$. This result is consistent with there being no evolution of the radio-loud fraction with redshift, in contrast to what has been suggested by some studies at lower redshifts.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers, and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. And yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of a SMBHB in the time domain: periodic variability caused by a mass accretion rate that is modulated by the binary's orbital motion. We report our first significant periodically varying quasar detection from the systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey. Our SMBHB candidate, PSO J334.2028+01.4075, is a luminous radio-loud quasar at $z=2.060$, with extended baseline photometry from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, as well as archival spectroscopy from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. The observed period ($542 \pm 15$ days) and estimated black hole mass ($\log (M_{\rm BH}/M_\odot) = 9.97 \pm 0.50$), correspond to an orbital separation of $7^{+8}_{-4}$ Schwarzschild radii ($\sim 0.006^{+0.007}_{-0.003}$ pc), assuming the rest-frame period of the quasar variability traces the orbital period of the binary. This SMBHB candidate, discovered at the peak redshift for SMBH mergers, is in a physically stable configuration for a circumbinary accretion disk, and within the regime of GW-driven orbital decay. Our search with PS1 is a benchmark study for the exciting capabilities of LSST, which will have orders of magnitude larger survey power, and will potentially pinpoint the locations of thousands of SMBHBs in the variable night sky.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the GALEX detection of a UV burst at the time of explosion of an optically normal Type II-P supernova (PS1-13arp) from the Pan-STARRS1 survey at z=0.1665. The temperature and luminosity of the UV burst match the theoretical predictions for shock breakout in a red supergiant, but with a duration a factor of ~50 longer than expected. We compare the $NUV$ light curve of PS1-13arp to previous GALEX detections of Type IIP SNe, and find clear distinctions that indicate that the UV emission is powered by shock breakout, and not by the subsequent cooling envelope emission previously detected in these systems. We interpret the ~ 1 d duration of the UV signal with a shock breakout in the wind of a red supergiant with a pre-explosion mass-loss rate of ~ 10^-3 Msun yr^-1. This mass-loss rate is enough to prolong the duration of the shock breakout signal, but not enough to produce an excess in the optical plateau light curve or narrow emission lines powered by circumstellar interaction. This detection of non-standard, potentially episodic high mass-loss in a RSG SN progenitor has favorable consequences for the prospects of future wide-field UV surveys to detect shock breakout directly in these systems, and provide a sensitive probe of the pre-explosion conditions of SN progenitors.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Luminous distant quasars are unique probes of the high redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) and of the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in the early universe. Absorption due to neutral Hydrogen in the IGM makes quasars beyond a redshift of z~6.5 very faint in the optical $z$-band, thus locating quasars at higher redshifts require large surveys that are sensitive above 1 micron. We report the discovery of three new z>6.5 quasars, corresponding to an age of the universe of <850 Myr, selected as z-band dropouts in the Pan-STARRS1 survey. This increases the number of known z>6.5 quasars from 4 to 7. The quasars have redshifts of z=6.50, 6.52, and 6.66, and include the brightest z-dropout quasar reported to date, PSO J036.5078+03.0498 with M_1450=-27.4. We obtained near-infrared spectroscopy for the quasars and from the MgII line we estimate that the central black holes have masses between 5x10^8 and 4x10^9 M_sun, and are accreting close to the Eddington limit (L_Bol/L_Edd=0.13-1.2). We investigate the ionized regions around the quasars and find near zone radii of R_NZ=1.5-5.2 proper Mpc, confirming the trend of decreasing near zone sizes with increasing redshift found for quasars at 5.7<z<6.4. By combining R_NZ of the PS1 quasars with those of 5.7<z<7.1 quasars in the literature, we derive a luminosity corrected redshift evolution of R_NZ,corrected=(7.2+/-0.2)-(6.1+/-0.7)x(z-6) Mpc. However, the large spread in R_NZ in the new quasars implies a wide range in quasar ages and/or a large variation in the neutral Hydrogen fraction along different lines of sight.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient identification and follow-up of astronomical transients is hindered by the need for humans to manually select promising candidates from data streams that contain many false positives. These artefacts arise in the difference images that are produced by most major ground-based time domain surveys with large format CCD cameras. This dependence on humans to reject bogus detections is unsustainable for next generation all-sky surveys and significant effort is now being invested to solve the problem computationally. In this paper we explore a simple machine learning approach to real-bogus classification by constructing a training set from the image data of ~32000 real astrophysical transients and bogus detections from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. We derive our feature representation from the pixel intensity values of a 20x20 pixel stamp around the centre of the candidates. This differs from previous work in that it works directly on the pixels rather than catalogued domain knowledge for feature design or selection. Three machine learning algorithms are trained (artificial neural networks, support vector machines and random forests) and their performances are tested on a held-out subset of 25% of the training data. We find the best results from the random forest classifier and demonstrate that by accepting a false positive rate of 1%, the classifier initially suggests a missed detection rate of around 10%. However we also find that a combination of bright star variability, nuclear transients and uncertainty in human labelling means that our best estimate of the missed detection rate is approximately 6%.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SV) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g,r,i, and z. We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit burst-like transients and one stochastic light curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources in the first 2.5 years of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGN, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host galaxy offsets, to define a robust photometric sample of 1233 active galactic nuclei and 812 supernovae. We use these samples to identify simple photometric priors that would enable their real-time identification in future wide-field synoptic surveys.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Ophiuchus stream is the most recently discovered stellar tidal stream in the Milky Way (Bernard et al. 2014). We present high-quality spectroscopic data for 14 stream member stars obtained using the Keck and MMT telescopes. We confirm the stream as a fast moving ($v_{los}\sim290$ km s$^{-1}$), kinematically-cold group ($\sigma_{v_{los}}\lesssim1$ km s$^{-1}$) of $\alpha-$enhanced and metal-poor stars (${\rm [\alpha/Fe]\sim0.4}$ dex, ${\rm [Fe/H]\sim-2.0}$ dex). Using a probabilistic technique, we model the stream simultaneously in line-of-sight velocity, color-magnitude, coordinate, and proper motion space, and so determine its distribution in 6D phase-space. We find that that the stream extends in distance from 8 to 9.5 kpc from the Sun; it is 50 times longer than wide, merely appearing highly foreshortened in projection. The analysis of the stellar population contained in the stream suggests that it is $\sim13$ Gyr old, and that its initial stellar mass was $\sim2\times10^4$ $M_\sun$ (or at least $\ga4\times10^3$ $M_\sun$). Assuming a fiducial Milky Way potential, we fit an orbit to the stream which matches the observed phase-space distribution, except for some tension in the proper motions: the stream has an orbital period of $\sim360$ Myr, and is on a fairly eccentric orbit ($e\sim0.68$) with a pericenter of $\sim3.5$ kpc and an apocenter of $\sim17.5$ kpc. The phase-space structure and stellar population of the stream show that its progenitor must have been a globular cluster that was disrupted only $\sim250$ Myr ago. We do not detect any significant overdensity of stars along the stream that would indicate the presence of a progenitor, and conclude that the stream is all that is left of the progenitor.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an analysis of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey multi-band (g,r,i,z,y) images of a sample of 698 low-redshift disk galaxies that span broad ranges in stellar mass, star-formation rate, and bulge/disk ratio. We use population synthesis SED fitting techniques to explore the radial distribution of the light, color, surface mass density, mass/light ratio, and age of the stellar populations. We characterize the structure and stellar content of the galaxy disks out to radii of about twice Petrosian r90, beyond which the halo light becomes significant. We measure normalized radial profiles for sub-samples of galaxies in three bins each of stellar mass and concentration. We also fit radial profiles to each galaxy. The majority of galaxies have down-bending radial surface brightness profiles in the bluer bands with a break radius at roughly r90. However, they typically show single unbroken exponentials in the reddest bands and in the stellar surface mass density. We find that the mass/light ratio and stellar age radial profiles have a characteristic "U-shape". There is a good correlation between the amplitude of the down-bend in the surface brightness profile and the rate of the increase in the M/L ratio in the outer disk. As we move from late- to early-type galaxies, the amplitude of the down-bend and the radial gradient in M/L both decrease. Our results imply a combination of stellar radial migration and suppression of recent star formation can account for the stellar populations of the outer disk.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Orion Molecular Complex is the nearest site of ongoing high-mass star formation, making it one of the most extensively studied molecular complexes in the Galaxy. We have developed a new technique for mapping the 3D distribution of dust in the Galaxy using Pan-STARRS1 photometry. We isolate the dust at the distance to Orion using this technique, revealing a large (100 pc, 14 degree diameter), previously unrecognized ring of dust, which we term the "Orion dust ring." The ring includes Orion A and B, and is not coincident with current H-alpha features. The circular morphology suggests formation as an ancient bubble in the interstellar medium, though we have not been able to conclusively identify the source of the bubble. This hint at the history of Orion may have important consequences for models of high-mass star formation and triggered star formation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

17k Citations
1,294.60 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
      • Instituto de Astrofísica
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 1997-2015
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • University of Warsaw
      • Astronomical Observatory
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2014
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012-2014
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2002-2014
    • University of Hawai'i System
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1998-2014
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2013
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2012-2013
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2004-2013
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1997-2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992-2013
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003-2012
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 1987-2009
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2008
    • Washington State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Pullman, WA, United States
    • Rochester Institute of Technology
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 1999-2007
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States