[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th17 cells, a subset of T cells involved in autoimmunity and host defense against extracellular Gram-negative infection, express both IL-17A and IL-17F. Both IL-17A and IL-17F can signal via the IL-17RA; however, IL-17F does so at a 1- to 2-log higher concentration than IL-17A. In this study, we show that the IL-17F homodimer via IL-17RA is a negative regulator of IL-17 production in T cells and suggest a mechanism whereby IL-17RA on T cells serves as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of IL-17 synthesis in T cells.
Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family kinase RIP4 interacts with protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and is implicated in PKC-dependent signaling pathways. RIP4−/− mice die at birth with epidermal differentiation defects, causing fusions of all external orifices and loss of the esophageal lumen. To further understand RIP4 function in the skin, we generated transgenic mice with epidermal-specific expression of RIP4 using the human keratin-14 promoter (K14-RIP4). The K14-RIP4 transgene rescued the epidermal phenotype of RIP4−/− mice, showing that RIP4 acts autonomously in the epidermis to regulate differentiation. Although RIP4−/− mice share many phenotypic similarities with inhibitor κB kinase (IKK)α−/− mice and stratifin repeated epilation (SfnEr/Er) mice, the K14-RIP4 transgene failed to promote epidermal differentiation in these mutant backgrounds. Unexpectedly, topical treatment of K14-RIP4 mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced dramatic, neutrophilic inflammation, an effect that was independent of tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor (TNFR1/p55) function. Despite their enhanced sensitivity to TPA, K14-RIP4 mice did not have an altered frequency of tumor formation in TPA-promoted skin cancer initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). These data suggest that RIP4 functions in the epidermis through PKC-specific signaling pathways to regulate differentiation and inflammation.Abbreviations: DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene; Er, repeated epilation; IKK, inhibitor κB kinase; K14-RIP4, epidermal-specific expression of RIP4 using the human keratin-14 promoter; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; PKC, protein kinase C; RIP, receptor-interacting protein; Sfn, stratifin; TNFR1/p55, tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor; TPA, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interleukin (IL)-1 family members IL-1alpha, -1beta, and -18 are potent inflammatory cytokines whose activities are dependent on heterodimeric receptors of the IL-1R superfamily, and which are regulated by soluble antagonists. Recently, several new IL-1 family members have been identified. To determine the role of one of these family members in the skin, transgenic mice expressing IL1F6 in basal keratinocytes were generated. IL1F6 transgenic mice exhibit skin abnormalities that are dependent on IL-1Rrp2 and IL-1RAcP, which are two members of the IL-1R family. The skin phenotype is characterized by acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, the presence of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, and increased cytokine and chemokine expression. Strikingly, the combination of the IL-1F6 transgene with an IL1F5 deficiency results in exacerbation of the skin phenotype, demonstrating that IL-1F5 has antagonistic activity in vivo. Skin from IL1F6 transgenic, IL1F5(-/-) pups contains intracorneal and intraepithelial pustules, nucleated corneocytes, and dilated superficial dermal blood vessels. Additionally, expression of IL1RL2, -1F5, and -1F6 is increased in human psoriatic skin. In summary, dysregulated expression of novel agonistic and antagonistic IL-1 family member ligands can promote cutaneous inflammation, revealing potential novel targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-17 is an inflammatory cytokine produced primarily by a unique lineage of CD4 T cells that plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases. IL-17RA is a ubiquitously expressed receptor that is essential for IL-17 biologic activity. Despite widespread receptor expression, the activity of IL-17 is most classically defined by its ability to induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators by stromal cells. The lack of IL-17 responsiveness in mouse stromal cells genetically deficient in IL-17RA is poorly complemented by human IL-17RA, suggesting the presence of an obligate ancillary component whose activity is species specific. This component is IL-17RC, a distinct member of the IL-17R family. Thus, the biologic activity of IL-17 is dependent on a complex composed of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, suggesting a new paradigm for understanding the interactions between the expanded family of IL-17 ligands and their receptors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK; DIK/RIP4) is an ankyrin-repeat containing serine/threonine receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-family kinase that can activate NFkappaB, and is required for keratinocyte development. In earlier studies, the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of PKK in the B cell lineage resulted in a marked decrease in peripheral B cells in the spleen and a severe reduction of B-1 B cells. Here we explore the consequences of a null mutation in PKK with respect to the generation of peripheral B cell lineages and the activation of NFkappaB. We show that PKK is not required for the production of B cells in the bone marrow or for the development and maintenance of all mature B lymphocyte populations. We also show that PKK is not required for the activation of NFkappaB downstream of the BCR, CD40, or TLR-4 in B cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the loss of this RIP-family kinase does not compromise B lymphocyte development and maintenance, but leaves open the possibility that PKK may have a redundant role in these processes.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Molecular Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine suspected to be involved in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we report that IL-17R signaling is required in radiation-resistant cells in the joint for full progression of chronic synovitis and bone erosion. Repeated injections of Gram-positive bacterial cell wall fragments (streptococcal cell wall) directly into the knee joint of naive IL-17R-deficient (IL-17R-/-) mice had no effect on the acute phase of arthritis but prevented progression to chronic destructive synovitis as was noted in wild-type (wt) mice. Microarray analysis revealed significant down-regulation of leukocyte-specific chemokines, selectins, cytokines, and collagenase-3 in the synovium of IL-17R-/- mice. Bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice revealed the need for IL-17R expression on radiation-resistant joint cells for destructive inflammation. Chimeric mice of host wt and donor IL-17R-/- BM cells developed destructive synovitis in this chronic reactivated streptococcal cell wall arthritis model similar to wt-->wt chimeras. In contrast, chimeric mice of host IL-17R-/- and donor wt BM cells were protected from chronic destructive arthritis similar as IL-17R-/- -->IL-17R-/- chimeras. These data strongly indicate that IL-17R signaling in radiation-resistant cells in the joint is required for turning an acute macrophage-mediated inflammation into a chronic destructive synovitis.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2005 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which has important roles in development and disease, are released from the membrane by proteases. In several instances, ectodomain release is critical for activation of EGFR ligands, highlighting the importance of identifying EGFR ligand sheddases. Here, we uncovered the sheddases for six EGFR ligands using mouse embryonic cells lacking candidate-releasing enzymes (a disintegrin and metalloprotease [ADAM] 9, 10, 12, 15, 17, and 19). ADAM10 emerged as the main sheddase of EGF and betacellulin, and ADAM17 as the major convertase of epiregulin, transforming growth factor alpha, amphiregulin, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor in these cells. Analysis of adam9/12/15/17-/- knockout mice corroborated the essential role of adam17-/- in activating the EGFR in vivo. This comprehensive evaluation of EGFR ligand shedding in a defined experimental system demonstrates that ADAMs have critical roles in releasing all EGFR ligands tested here. Identification of EGFR ligand sheddases is a crucial step toward understanding the mechanism underlying ectodomain release, and has implications for designing novel inhibitors of EGFR-dependent tumors.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmembrane metalloproteinases of the disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family control cell signaling interactions via hydrolysis of protein extracellular domains. Prior work has shown that the receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Kit (CD117), is essential for mast cell survival and that serum levels of c-Kit increase in proliferative mast cell disorders, suggesting the existence of c-Kit shedding pathways in mast cells. In the present work, we report that tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE; ADAM-17) mediates shedding of c-Kit. Stimulation of transfected cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced metalloproteinase-mediated release of c-Kit ectodomain, which increased further upon TACE overexpression. By contrast, TACE-deficient fibroblasts did not demonstrate inducible release, thus identifying TACE as the metalloproteinase primarily responsible for PMA-induced c-Kit shedding. Surface expression of c-Kit by the human mast cell-1 line decreased upon phorbol-induced shedding, which involved metalloproteinase activity susceptible to inhibition by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3. To further explore the role of TACE in shedding of c-Kit from mast cells, we compared the behavior of mast cells derived from murine embryonic stem cells. In these studies, PMA decreased surface c-Kit levels on mast cells expressing wild-type (+/+) TACE but not on those expressing an inactive mutant (DeltaZn/DeltaZn), confirming the role of TACE in PMA-induced c-Kit shedding. Compared with TACE(+/+) cells, TACE(DeltaZn/DeltaZn) mast cells also demonstrated decreased constitutive shedding and increased basal surface expression of c-Kit, with diminished apoptosis in response to c-Kit ligand deprivation. These data suggest that TACE controls mast cell survival by regulating shedding and surface expression of c-Kit.
Preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extensive studies of mice deficient in one or several cytokine receptors have failed to support an indispensable role of cytokines in development of multiple blood cell lineages. Whereas B1 B cells and Igs are sustained at normal levels throughout life of mice deficient in IL-7, IL-7Ralpha, common cytokine receptor gamma chain, or flt3 ligand (FL), we report here that adult mice double deficient in IL-7Ralpha and FL completely lack visible LNs, conventional IgM+ B cells, IgA+ plasma cells, and B1 cells, and consequently produce no Igs. All stages of committed B cell progenitors are undetectable in FL-/- x IL-7Ralpha-/- BM that also lacks expression of the B cell commitment factor Pax5 and its direct target genes. Furthermore, in contrast to IL-7Ralpha-/- mice, FL-/- x IL-7Ralpha-/- mice also lack mature B cells and detectable committed B cell progenitors during fetal development. Thus, signaling through the cytokine tyrosine kinase receptor flt3 and IL-7Ralpha are indispensable for fetal and adult B cell development.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease domain) are metalloprotease-disintegrin proteins that have been implicated in cell adhesion, protein ectodomain shedding, matrix protein degradation and cell fusion. Since such events are critical for bone resorption and osteoclast recruitment, we investigated whether they require ADAMs. We report here which ADAMs we have identified in bone cells, as well as our analysis of the generation, migration and resorptive activity of osteoclasts in developing metatarsals of mouse embryos lacking catalytically active ADAM 17 [TNFalpha converting enzyme (TACE)]. The absence of TACE activity still allowed the generation of cells showing an osteoclastic phenotype, but prevented their migration into the core of the diaphysis and the subsequent formation of marrow cavity. This suggests a role of TACE in the recruitment of osteoclasts to future resorption sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TRAIL, the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, selectively induces apoptosis of tumor cells, but not most normal cells. Its role in normal, nontransformed tissues is not clear. We report here that mice deficient in TRAIL have a severe defect in thymocyte apoptosis-thus, thymic deletion induced by T cell receptor ligation is severely impaired. TRAIL-deficient mice are also hypersensitive to collagen-induced arthritis and streptozotocin-induced diabetes and develop heightened autoimmune responses. Thus, TRAIL mediates thymocyte apoptosis and is important in the induction of autoimmune diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) offers great promise as a cancer therapeutic. Initially, soluble recombinant versions of the TRAIL molecule have exhibited specific tumoricidal activity against a variety of tumors alone, or in combination with other cancer treatments, and much anticipation awaits the outcomes from early clinical trials. More recently, the natural role of TRAIL has been explored in tumor and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation models in the mouse. Strikingly, the TRAIL effector pathway appears a vital component of immunosurveillance of spontaneous or resident tumor cells by both T cells and NK cells, stimulating more hope that manipulating TRAIL activity is a natural path to improved cancer immunotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM-17, where ADAM stands for a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) releases from the cell surface the extracellular domains of TNF and several other proteins. Previous studies have found that, while purified TACE preferentially cleaves peptides representing the processing sites in TNF and transforming growth factor alpha, the cellular enzyme nonetheless also sheds proteins with divergent cleavage sites very efficiently. More recent work, identifying the cleavage site in the p75 TNF receptor, quantifying the susceptibility of additional peptides to cleavage by TACE and identifying additional protein substrates, underlines the complexity of TACE-substrate interactions. In addition to substrate specificity, the mechanism underlying the increased rate of shedding caused by agents that activate cells remains poorly understood. Recent work in this area, utilizing a peptide substrate as a probe for cellular TACE activity, indicates that the intrinsic activity of the enzyme is somehow increased.
Preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Biochemical Society Symposium
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily that exhibits specific tumoricidal activity against a variety of tumors. It is expressed on different cells of the immune system and plays a role in natural killer cell-mediated tumor surveillance. In allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation, the reactivity of the donor T cell against malignant cells is essential for the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect. Cytolytic activity of T cells is primarily mediated through the Fas-Fas ligand and perforin-granzyme pathways. However, T cells deficient for both Fas ligand and perforin can still exert GVT activity in vivo in mouse models. To uncover a potential role for TRAIL in donor T cell-mediated GVT activity, we compared donor T cells from TRAIL-deficient and wild-type mice in clinically relevant mouse bone-marrow transplantation models. We found that alloreactive T cells can express TRAIL, but the absence of TRAIL had no effect on their proliferative and cytokine response to alloantigens. TRAIL-deficient T cells showed significantly lower GVT activity than did TRAIL-expressing T cells, but no important differences in graft-versus-host disease, a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, were observed. These data suggest that strategies to enhance TRAIL-mediated GVT activity could decrease relapse rates of malignancies after hematopoietic cell transplantation without exacerbation of graft-versus-host disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suppression of bone marrow myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells occurs after infection with a variety of different viruses. In this study, we characterize the alterations in bone marrow (BM) lymphocytes after influenza virus infection in mice. We found a severe loss of BM B cells, particularly CD43(low/-)B220(+) pre-B and immature B cells, in influenza virus-infected mice. Depletion of BM B lineage cells resulted primarily from cell cycle arrest and most likely apoptosis within the BM environment, rather than from increased trafficking of BM emigrants to peripheral lymphoid tissues. Use of gene-knockout mice indicates that depletion of BM B cells is dependent on TNF-alpha, lymphotoxin-alpha, and both TNF receptors, TNFR1-p55 and TNFR2-p75. Thus, TNF-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha are required for loss of BM B lineage cells during respiratory infection with influenza virus.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been recently described that some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are able to induce the shedding of L-selectin in neutrophils, an adhesion molecule that plays an essential role in the inflammatory response. We have found that, according to this capability, NSAIDs could be grouped into three categories. A high releaser group (flufenamic, meclofenamic, and mefenamic acids, diclofenac and aceclofenac), a group of moderate releasers (aspirin, indomethacin, nimesulide, flurbiprofen, and ketoprofen), and a non-releaser group (phenylbutazone and the oxicams, piroxicam and meloxicam). Only NSAIDs from the high releaser group shared diphenylamine in their chemical structure. The amine group of this chemical agent proved to be essential for the anti-L-selectin activity of diphenylamine-based NSAIDs. The presence of a carboxylic acid group in the diphenylamine (N-phenylanthranilic acid) highly increased its ability to reduce the L-selectin surface expression in neutrophils. Diphenylamine and N-phenylanthranilic acid neither affected COX activity in platelets nor modified the activation state of neutrophils. Diphenylamine-related compounds, which include the diphenylamine-based NSAIDs caused a variable reduction in the neutrophil intracellular ATP concentration, which correlated with the differential ability of such compounds to trigger L-selectin shedding (r = 0.97, p < 0.01). Diphenylamine-related compounds failed to down-regulate L-selectin in a tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE)-deficient murine monocytic cell line. Our data indicate that diphenylamine seems to be the structural core of NSAIDs accounting for their down-regulatory activity of L-selectin leukocyte expression. Diphenylamine and its related compounds exert this action on L-selectin through a prostaglandin-independent, TACE-dependent mechanism that seems to be linked to the capability of these agents to uncouple the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidermis is a stratified, continually renewing epithelium dependent on a balance among cell proliferation, differentiation, and death for homeostasis. In normal epidermis, a mitotically active basal layer gives rise to terminally differentiating keratinocytes that migrate outward and are ultimately sloughed from the skin surface as enucleated squames. Although many proteins are known to function in maintaining epidermal homeostasis, the molecular coordination of these events is poorly understood. RIP4 is a novel RIP (receptor-interacting protein) family kinase with ankyrin repeats cloned from a keratinocyte cDNA library. RIP4 deficiency in mice results in perinatal lethality associated with abnormal epidermal differentiation. The phenotype of RIP4(-/-) mice in part resembles that of mice lacking IKKalpha, a component of a complex that regulates NF-kappaB. Despite the similar keratinocyte defects in RIP4- and IKKalpha-deficient mice, these kinases function in distinct pathways. RIP4 functions cell autonomously within the keratinocyte lineage. Unlike IKKalpha, RIP4-deficient skin fails to fully differentiate when grafted onto a normal host. Instead, abnormal hair follicle development and epidermal dysplasia, indicative of progression into a more pathologic state, are observed. Thus, RIP4 is a critical component of a novel pathway that controls keratinocyte differentiation.