J. -C. Cuillandre

Observatoire de Paris, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (127)219.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We obtained using MegaCam at the CFHT a deep narrow band Halpha+[NII] wide field image of NGC 4569, the brightest late-type galaxy in the Virgo cluster. The image reveals the presence of long tails of diffuse ionised gas without any associated stellar component extending from the disc of the galaxy up to ~ 80 kpc (projected distance) with a typical surface brightness of a few 10^-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. These features provide direct evidence that NGC 4569 is undergoing a ram presure stripping event. The image also shows a prominent 8 kpc spur of ionised gas associated to the nucleus that spectroscopic data identify as an outflow. With some assumptions on the 3D distribution of the gas, we use the Halpha surface brightness of these extended low surface brightness features to derive the density and the mass of the gas stripped during the interaction of the galaxy with the ICM. The comparison with ad-hoc chemo-spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution indicates that the mass of the Halpha emitting gas in the tail is comparable to that of the cold phase stripped from the disc, suggesting that the gas is ionised within the tail during the stripping process. The lack of star forming regions suggests that mechanisms other than photoionisation are responsible for the excitation of the gas (shocks, heat conduction, magneto hydrodynamic waves). This analysis indicates that ram pressure stripping is efficient in massive (M_star ~ 10^10.5 Mo) galaxies located in intermediate mass (~ 10^14 Mo) clusters under formation. It also shows that the mass of gas expelled by the nuclear outflow is ~ 1 % than that removed during the ram pressure stripping event. All together these results indicate that ram pressure stripping, rather than starvation through nuclear feedback, can be the dominant mechanism responsible for the quenching of the star formation activity of galaxies in high density environments.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We use the GALEX data of the GUViCS survey to construct the NUV luminosity function of the Virgo cluster over ~ 300 deg.2, an area covering the cluster and its surrounding regions up to ~ 1.8 virial radii. The NUV luminosity function is also determined for galaxies of different morphological type and NUV-i colour, and for the different substructures within the cluster. These luminosity functions are robust vs. statistical corrections since based on a sample of 833 galaxies mainly identified as cluster members with spectroscopic redshift (808) or high-quality optical scaling relations (10). We fit these luminosity functions with a Schechter function, and compare the fitted parameters with those determined for other nearby clusters and for the field. The faint end slope of the Virgo NUV luminosity function (alpha = -1.19), here sampled down to ~ NUV = -11.5 mag, is significantly flatter than the one measured in other nearby clusters and similar to the field one. Similarly M* = -17.56 is one-to-two magnitudes fainter than measured in Coma, A1367, the Shapley supercluster, and the field. These differences seem due to the quite uncertain statistical corrections and the small range in absolute magnitude sampled in these clusters. We do not observe strong systematic differences in the overall NUV luminosity function of the core of the cluster with respect to that of its periphery. We notice, however, that the relative contribution of red-to-blue galaxies at the faint end is inverted, with red quiescent objects dominating the core of the cluster and star forming galaxies dominating beyond one virial radius. These observational evidences are discussed in the framework of galaxy evolution in dense environments.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ~35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 um using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ~10x~20arcmin area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded SEDs (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10-90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5]>0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1-0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be 'dippers', where texture in the disk occults the central star, and 11 likely to be 'bursters', where accretion instabilities create brightness bursts. There are 39 objects that have significant trends in [3.6]-[4.5] color over the campaign, about evenly divided between redder-when-fainter (consistent with extinction variations) and bluer-when-fainter. About a third of the 17 Class 0 and/or jet-driving sources from the literature are variable over the YSOVAR campaign, and a larger fraction (~half) are variable between the YSOVAR campaign and the cryogenic-era Spitzer observations (6-7 years), perhaps because it takes time for the envelope to respond to changes in the central source. The NGC 1333 brown dwarfs do not stand out from the stellar light curves in any way except there is a much larger fraction of periodic objects (~60% of variable brown dwarfs are periodic, compared to ~30% of the variables overall).
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the design, operation, and first results of a photometric calibration project, called DICE (Direct Illumination Calibration Experiment), aiming at achieving precise instrumental calibration of optical telescopes. The heart of DICE is an illumination device composed of 24 narrow-spectrum, high-intensity, light-emitting diodes (LED) chosen to cover the ultraviolet-to-near-infrared spectral range. It implements a point-like source placed at a finite distance from the telescope entrance pupil, yielding a flat field illumination that covers the entire field of view of the imager. The purpose of this system is to perform a lightweight routine monitoring of the imager passbands with a precision better than 5 per-mil on the relative passband normalisations and about 3{\AA} on the filter cutoff positions. The light source is calibrated on a spectrophotometric bench. As our fundamental metrology standard, we use a photodiode calibrated at NIST. The radiant intensity of each beam is mapped, and spectra are measured for each LED. All measurements are conducted at temperatures ranging from 0{\deg}C to 25{\deg}C in order to study the temperature dependence of the system. The photometric and spectroscopic measurements are combined into a model that predicts the spectral intensity of the source as a function of temperature. We find that the calibration beams are stable at the $10^{-4}$ level -- after taking the slight temperature dependence of the LED emission properties into account. We show that the spectral intensity of the source can be characterised with a precision of 3{\AA} in wavelength. In flux, we reach an accuracy of about 0.2-0.5% depending on how we understand the off-diagonal terms of the error budget affecting the calibration of the NIST photodiode. With a routine 60-mn calibration program, the apparatus is able to constrain the passbands at the targeted precision levels.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A fraction of the early-type galaxy population hosts a prominent dust lane. Methods to quantify the dust content of these systems based on optical imaging data usually yield dust masses which are an order of magnitude lower than dust masses derived from the observed FIR emission. High-quality optical data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) and FIR/submm observations from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) allow us to revisit previous methods to determine the dust content in galaxies and explore new ones. We aim to derive the dust mass in NGC 4370 from both optical and FIR data, and investigate the need to invoke a putative diffuse dust component. We create color and attenuation maps, which are converted to approximate dust mass maps based on simple dust geometries. Dust masses are also derived from SED fits to FIR/submm observations. Finally, inverse radiative transfer fitting is performed to investigate more complex dust geometries. The empirical methods applied to the optical data yield lower limits of 3.4e5 solar masses, an order of magnitude below the total dust masses derived from SED fitting. In contrast, radiative transfer models yield dust masses which are slightly lower, but fully consistent with the FIR-derived mass. Dust is more likely to be distributed in a ring around the centre of NGC 4370 as opposed to an exponential disc or a simple foreground screen. Moreover, using inverse radiative transfer fitting, we are able to constrain most of the parameters describing these geometries. The resulting dust masses are high enough to account for the dust observed at FIR/submm wavelengths, so that no diffuse dust component needs to be invoked. We furthermore caution for the interpretation of dust masses and optical depths based on optical data alone, using overly simplistic star-dust geometries and the neglect of scattering effects. [ABRIDGED]
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: The Virgo direction has been observed at many wavelengths in the recent years, in particular in the ultraviolet with GALEX. The far ultraviolet (FUV) diffuse light detected by GALEX bears interesting information on the large scale distribution of Galactic dust, owing to the GALEX FUV band sensitivity and resolution. AIMS: We aim to characterise the ultraviolet large scale distribution of diffuse emission in the Virgo direction. A map of this emission may become useful for various studies by identifying regions where dust affects observations by either scattering light or absorbing radiation. METHODS: We construct mosaics of the FUV and near ultraviolet diffuse emission over a large sky region (RA 12 to 13 hours, DEC 0 to 20 degrees) surrounding the Virgo cluster, using all the GALEX available data in the area. We test for the first time the utilisation of the FUV diffuse light as a Galactic extinction E(B-V) tracer. RESULTS: The FUV diffuse light scattered on cirrus reveals details in their geometry. Despite a large dispersion, the FUV diffuse light correlates roughly with other Galactic dust tracers (coming from IRAS, Herschel, Planck), offering an opportunity to use the FUV emission to locate them in future studies with a better resolution (about 5 arcsec native resolution, 20 arcsec pixels maps presented in this paper) than several usual tracers. Estimating the Galactic dust extinction on the basis of this emission allows us to find a smaller dispersion in the NUV-i colour of background galaxies at a given E(B-V)than with other tracers. The diffuse light mosaics obtained in this work are made publicly available.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 millions unique sources in a region encompassing $\approx$80deg$^{2}$ centered around the Pleiades cluster. We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades, and measure the mass and luminosity function of the cluster. Using the probabilistic selection method described in Sarro+2014, we identify high probability members in the DANCe ($i\ge$14mag) and Tycho-2 ($V\lesssim$12mag) catalogues, and study the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. We find a total of 2109 high probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to $\approx$0.025M$_{\odot}$. The size, sensitivity and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, both in terms of sensitivity and accuracy.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: Euclid is the next ESA mission devoted to cosmology. It aims at observing most of the extragalactic sky, studying both gravitational lensing and clustering over $\sim$15,000 square degrees. The mission is expected to be launched in year 2020 and to last six years. The sheer amount of data of different kinds, the variety of (un)known systematic effects and the complexity of measures require efforts both in sophisticated simulations and techniques of data analysis. We review the mission main characteristics, some aspects of the the survey and highlight some of the areas of interest to this meeting
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We aim at identifying the cluster's members by deriving membership probabilities for the sources within 1 degree of the cluster's center, going further away than equivalent previous studies. We measure accurate proper motions and multi-wavelength (optical and near-infrared) photometry using ground based archival images of the cluster. We use these measurements to compute membership probabilities. The list of candidate members from Barrado+2001 is used as training set to identify the cluster's locus in a multi-dimensional space made of proper motions, luminosities and colors. The final catalog includes 338892 sources with multi-wavelength photometry. Approximately half (194452) were detected at more than two epochs and we measured their proper motion and used it to derive membership probability. A total of 4349 candidate members with membership probabilities greater than 50% are found in this sample in the luminosity range between 10 and 22mag. The slow proper motion of the cluster and the overlap of its sequence with the field and background sequences in almost all color-magnitude and color-color diagrams complicate the analysis and the contamination level is expected to be significant. Our study nevertheless provides a coherent and quantitative membership analysis of Messier 35 based on a large fraction of the best ground-based data sets obtained over the past 18 years. As such, it represents a valuable input for follow-up studies using in particular the Kepler K2 photometric time series.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We describe our cluster detection algorithm Red-GOLD, based on the search of red-sequence galaxy overdensities. In this work, the algorithm is optimized to search for clusters up to z̃1 using optical data. We applied this algorithm to semi-analytic simulations and we found that for haloes more massive than M≥ 10^{14} M_{☉} the completeness is 80% and the purity is ̃81%, up to redshift z=1.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey is an optical imaging survey covering 104 deg^2 centered on the Virgo cluster. Currently, the complete survey area has been observed in the u*giz-bands and one third in the r-band. We present the photometric redshift estimation for the NGVS background sources. After a dedicated data reduction, we perform accurate photometry, with special attention to precise color measurements through point spread function-homogenization. We then estimate the photometric redshifts with the Le Phare and BPZ codes. We add a new prior which extends to iAB = 12.5 mag. When using the u*griz-bands, our photometric redshifts for 15.5 \le i \lesssim 23 mag or zphot \lesssim 1 galaxies have a bias |\Delta z| < 0.02, less than 5% outliers, and a scatter \sigma_{outl.rej.} and an individual error on zphot that increase with magnitude (from 0.02 to 0.05 and from 0.03 to 0.10, respectively). When using the u*giz-bands over the same magnitude and redshift range, the lack of the r-band increases the uncertainties in the 0.3 \lesssim zphot \lesssim 0.8 range (-0.05 < \Delta z < -0.02, \sigma_{outl.rej} ~ 0.06, 10-15% outliers, and zphot.err. ~ 0.15). We also present a joint analysis of the photometric redshift accuracy as a function of redshift and magnitude. We assess the quality of our photometric redshifts by comparison to spectroscopic samples and by verifying that the angular auto- and cross-correlation function w(\theta) of the entire NGVS photometric redshift sample across redshift bins is in agreement with the expectations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope H i observations and deep Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) MegaCam optical images of the gas-rich interacting galaxy group NGC 871/NGC 876/NGC 877 (hereafter NGC 871/6/7). Our high-resolution data sets provide a census of the H i and stellar properties of the detected gas-rich group members. In addition to a handful of spiral, irregular and dwarf galaxies, this group harbours an intriguing H i feature, AGC 749170, that has a gas mass of ∼109.3 M⊙, a dynamical-to-gas mass ratio of ∼1 (assuming that the cloud is rotating and in dynamical equilibrium) and no optical counterpart in previous imaging. Our observations have revealed a faint feature in the CFHT g′ and r′ bands; if it is physically associated with AGC 749170, the latter has $M/L_{\rm g} >1000 \,\mathrm{M}_{{\odot }}/\mathrm{L}_{{\odot }}$ as well as a higher metallicity (estimated using photometric colours) and a significantly younger stellar population than the other low-mass gas-rich group members. These properties, as well as its spectral and spatial location with respect to its suspected parent galaxies, strongly indicate a tidal origin for AGC 749170. Overall, the H i properties of AGC 749170 resemble those of other optically dark/dim clouds that have been found in groups. These clouds could represent a class of relatively long-lived H i-rich tidal remnants that survive in intermediate-density environments.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Context. With the advent of deep wide surveys, large photometric and astrometric catalogues of literally all nearby clusters and associations have been produced. The unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity of these data sets and their broad spatial, temporal and wavelength coverage make obsolete the classical membership selection methods that were based on a handful of colours and luminosities. We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of such a survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. Methods: We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. Results: We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with ≈1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. Conclusions: Multidimensional data sets require statistically sound multivariate analysis techniques to fully exploit their scientific information content. Proper motions in particular are, as expected, critical for the correct separation of contaminants. The methodology presented here is ready for application in data sets that include more dimensions, such as radial and/or rotational velocities, spectral indices, and variability.Membership probability catalogs for the DANCe Pleiades data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A45
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • L. M. Sarro · H. Bouy · E. Bertin · E. Moraux · J. Bouvier · J. -C. Cuillandre · D. Barrado · E. Solano
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    ABSTRACT: Astrometry and photometry from the DANCe project is used to derive statistical models of the distribution of sources in the Pleiades region of the sky, in the space of proper motions, colours and magnitudes. These models are subsequently used to estimate membership probabilities to the Pleaides cluster. This catalog contains the original data from the DANCe project and the infered membership probabilities obtained in various setups.(1 data file).
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of the DANCe survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with $\approx$ 1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. The methodology presented here is ready for application in data sets that include more dimensions, such as radial and/or rotational velocities, spectral indices and variability.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana
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    ABSTRACT: According to a popular scenario supported by numerical models, the mass assembly and growth of massive galaxies, in particular the Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), is, below a redshift of 1, mainly due to the accretion of multiple gas-poor satellites. In order to get observational evidence of the role played by minor dry mergers, we are obtaining extremely deep optical images of a complete volume limited sample of nearby ETGs. These observations, done with the CFHT as part of the ATLAS3D, NGVS and MATLAS projects, reach a stunning 28.5 - 29 mag.arcsec-2 surface brightness limit in the g' band. They allow us to detect the relics of past collisions such as faint stellar tidal tails as well as the very extended stellar halos which keep the memory of the last episodes of galactic accretion. Images and preliminary results from this on-going survey are presented, in particular a possible correlation between the fine structure index (which parametrizes the amount of tidal perturbation) of the ETGs, their stellar mass, effective radius and gas content.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    H. Bouy · E. Bertin · E. Moraux · J. -C. Cuillandre · J. Bouvier · D. Barrado · E. Solano · A. Bayo
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    ABSTRACT: The kinematic properties of the different classes of objects in a given association hold important clues about its member's history, and offer a unique opportunity to test the predictions of the various models of stellar formation and evolution. DANCe (standing for Dynamical Analysis of Nearby ClustErs) is a survey program aimed at deriving a comprehensive and homogeneous census of the stellar and substellar content of a number of nearby (<1kpc) young (<500Myr) associations. Whenever possible, members will be identified based on their kinematics properties, ensuring little contamination from background and foreground sources. Otherwise, the dynamics of previously confirmed members will be studied using the proper motion measurements. We present here the method used to derive precise proper motion measurements, using the Pleiades cluster as a test bench. Combining deep wide field multi-epoch panchromatic images obtained at various obervatories over up to 14 years, we derive accurate proper motions for the sources present in the field of the survey. The datasets cover ~80 square degrees, centered around the Seven Sisters. Using new tools, we have computed a catalog of 6116907 unique sources, including proper motion measurements for 3577478 of them. The catalogue covers the magnitude range between i=12~24mag, achieving a proper motion accuracy <1mas/yr for sources as faint as i=22.5mag. We estimate that our final accuracy reaches 0.3mas/yr in the best cases, depending on magnitude, observing history, and the presence of reference extragalactic sources for the anchoring onto the ICRS.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: As part of the SPLASH survey of the Andromeda (M31) system, we have obtained Keck/DEIMOS spectra of the compact elliptical (cE) satellite M32. This is the first resolved-star kinematical study of any cE galaxy. In contrast to most previous kinematical studies that extended out to r 30'' ~ 1 r effI ~ 100 pc, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile out to r ~ 250'' and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments out to r ~ 70''. We achieve this by combining integrated-light spectroscopy at small radii (where crowding/blending are severe) with resolved stellar spectroscopy at larger radii, using spatial and kinematical information to account statistically for M31 contamination. The rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile extend well beyond the radius (r ~ 150'') where the isophotes are distorted. Unlike NGC 205, another close dwarf companion of M31, M32's kinematics appear regular and symmetric and do not show obvious sharp gradients across the region of isophotal elongation and twists. We interpret M31's kinematics using three-integral axisymmetric dynamical equilibrium models constructed using Schwarzschild's orbit superposition technique. Models with a constant mass-to-light ratio can fit the data remarkably well. However, since such a model requires an increasing tangential anisotropy with radius, invoking the presence of an extended dark halo may be more plausible. Such an extended dark halo is definitely required to bind a half-dozen fast-moving stars observed at the largest radii, but these stars may not be an equilibrium component of M32.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal