- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle is a major site of expression of the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1). To investigate its role in muscle proliferation and/or differentiation we studied the effect of a variety of growth factors on cultured mouse muscle Sol8 cells. Three groups of responses could be distinguished: 1. AII, endothelin, phenylephrine, and PMA induced Egr-1 mRNA accumulation, but the message remained untranslated. These factors induced neither differentiation nor proliferation. 2. Insulin induced differentiation. It stimulated Egr-1 mRNA accumulation, but no translation into the Egr-1 protein was seen. 3. bFGF, PDGF BB, and FCS strongly induced DNA- and protein synthesis (i.e. proliferation) and Egr-1 mRNA accumulation. Only under these conditions was the message translated into protein. We conclude: 1. AII, endothelin, phenylephrine, and PMA elicit a nuclear response in Sol8 muscle cells which may lead to reprogramming of genes unrelated to differentiation or proliferation. 2. Differentiation induces a translational block of the Egr-1 mRNA which is only relieved by mitotic stimuli. 3. These results strongly suggest a pivotal role of Egr-1 in muscle proliferation and define translational control as a new mechanism of Egr-1 regulation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The functional significance of the isoform diversity of the calmodulin-dependent plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) is largely unknown. To determine whether the mRNA synthesis of different isoforms of the enzyme is regulated in a differentiation-specific manner, we investigated the expression of isoform-specific mRNAs in muscle and neuronal cells during differentiation by reverse transcription PCR. In the rat, the ubiquitous PMCA splicing variants 1b and 4b formed the typical PMCA isoform pattern of L6 myoblasts, the heart-derived cell line H9c2(2-1), two different fibroblast cell lines (FR and NRK-49F), smooth muscle, and endothelial cells. In addition to these two enzymes, novel expression of the splicing variants 1c, 1d, and 4a was induced during myogenic differentiation of L6 and H9c2(2-1) cells. A similar isoform subtype switch could be detected during differentiation of the neuronal PC-12 cells induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). The isoform-specific mRNAs 1c, 1d, and 4a were not expressed in cells other than myocytes and neurons, and therefore may be specific for excitable cells. The mRNA for isoform 1d was heart- and skeletal muscle-specific. To determine whether expression of a differentiation-specific PMCA mRNA pattern is under control of a myogenic determination factor, myogenin was constitutively expressed in rat fibroblasts. These cells converted to multinucleated myotubes, which displayed the PMCA isoform-specific mRNAs 1c, 1d, and 4a, typical of differentiated muscle cells. We conclude that: 1) the distribution of the various PMCA isoform-specific mRNAs and their splicing variants is cell type- and development-specific; 2) expression of the myogenic determination factor myogenin is sufficient to direct alternative splicing generating muscle-specific PMCA mRNA species; and 3) PMCA isoforms and/or splicing variants may play a role in determining functions of terminally differentiated muscle and neuronal cells and possibly during the differentiation process itself.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few molecular signals for induction of myocardial hypertrophy have been identified. This study was carried out to investigate the action of angiotensin II and endothelin on the growth- and differentiation-related genes Egr-1 (early growth response gene 1) and c-fos in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiac myocytes from male Wistar-Kyoto rats were isolated and incubated with angiotensin II and endothelin-1 in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. RNA was isolated and blotted, and densitometric analysis was performed. All experiments were repeated at least three times. Endothelin-1 (10(-7) mmol/l) induced a 20-25-fold rise in Egr-1 messenger RNA within 15 min. This effect was dose-dependent. c-fos was induced 10-20-fold within 15 min with similar dose-response characteristics. Angiotensin II also induced Egr-1 and c-fos with kinetics similar to endothelin but a cofactor from fetal calf serum was needed for full c-fos expression. The protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also induced Egr-1. The results identify Egr-1 and c-fos as target genes for the action of endothelin and angiotensin II in the adult myocardium suggesting that induction of the genes may be part of the signal transduction pathway for angiotensin II and endothelin in the myocardium.